Adcock, F. & Birth, I. Trivitt, (1988) identify that ‘Performance Management absorbs the previous concept of ‘appraisal’ within a structured, active, on-going process that ensures each individual works to a….
Understanding the realm of Performance Management
The police force contributes and participates and plays a preeminent role in the development of the entire economy. It requires appropriate appraisal system. Key performance indicators must be established and employee’s performance must be well integrated with the overall organizational goals. Understanding the realm of Performance Management: Key functions of Performance Management System: According to OPM (2010) performance management is an orderly and efficient process which involves diverse employees, individual, associates of groups and teams in order to advance efficacy and attain organizational goals and objectives.
It focused on government and federal employees and presented employee performance management process as follows: • Planning: In world class businesses long-term plans are formulated in advance where employees put efforts in order attain organizational goals. It requires employee’s involvement and participation and clarifies key purpose and end results. Planning necessitates key elements of performance appraisal. Specific elements must be quantifiable, comprehensible, certifiable, impartial and reachable. Individuals are made accountable for their responsibilities.
Moreover these plans are prone towards flexibility and changing business processes. Rather than considering it just paperwork, it calls for regular rating. • Monitoring: In valuable organizations performance of individuals and team members is continuously monitored and reviewed and feedback is provided on their progress. It involves comparing performance with predetermined standards and elements. It also enables management to realign unattainable standards and identify unacceptable performance and provide assistance during the same period rather than waiting for the end of the period. • Developing:
Management evaluates employee’s developmental needs and addresses them with the help of training, skill development courses, giving them more responsibilities, humanizing processes and many more. It results into good performance, enhances competencies and skills and employees positively accept changes specifically technological advancements. • Rating: Individual and group performance must be summarized. It is compared overtime and even with the performance of other employees and in this way management identifies champion followers. Employees are rated in accordance with the performance appraisal standards and records are summarized.
Rating is only given to individuals however it has major impact on the overall group performance. Further key decisions are made on the basis of rating and summary records like promotions, retention or reduction in workforce. • Rewarding: In successful organizations individuals and team members are recognized and acknowledged for their contribution towards to the company. More importantly consequences play an important role in effective management and behavioral aspects. There exist awards regulations which involves both formal and informal rewards which are given and employees are recognized on enduring basis.
In thriving organizations both management and employees believe in good performance and perform key components in an outclass manner. Key factors involved in setting up stages for performance management are as follows: • Performance Management System: The government wide performance appraisal system was based on centralized approach with five scale rating and generally cash awards were given. However the approach lost its credibility. • Earlier studies: The entire federal performance appraisal system was reviewed and private sector system was also examined and it was concluded that government must opt for decentralization and flexibility.
It requires improving organizational culture and introducing technological adjustments while involving employees in designing appraisal system. • Stakeholder’s significance: Many key stakeholders like employees, unions, tax payers, federal managers, congress and many more expressed the demand for major changes in the system. • Conflicting issues: It was found that both performance and rewards are not aligned systematically and appropriately. It required strong commitment from diverse partners. • Improved measurement: For the credible performance management system, management must focus on improving performance measures.
Prior to these standards were formulated on the basis of individual accountability however it was not effective for group based performance management. • Government Initiatives: Government went into intensive strategic planning and programs so that employees efforts could be aligned with that of organizational goals. The objectives were quantifiable and measurable. Moreover customer service standards were formulated and agencies were complied to follow the given of instructions. Smither and London (2009) acknowledged that performance management proffered expanded view of conventional appraisal systems.
It involves the concept of context and time in performance measurement. It further introduces performance management implications in diverse domains of industries and organizations. The term facilitates in evaluating individual, organizational and team performance resulting into a more comprehensive yield. The notion further challenges conventional wisdom and craft strategic rapport between administrative decisions and assessment of individual and group performance. Furthermore it is formulated on the basis of diverse research based approaches.
It was found that there exists a wide gap between academics and practical insinuations of HRM. Several experts are focusing on key issues pertaining to performance management and are putting insight in leadership development, talent management, change management and intensification of work. Implications for a new Police force: Dent, Chandler and Barry (2004) examined the impact of HRM strategies specifically performance management on Police Force. For about two and a half years intensive research was conducted to understand the attitude of individuals and information was gathered related to ethnographic data.
It was found that the police force is diversified and widened across ten different geographical locations and include around 3,828 numbers of employees. Several key finding were gathered pertaining to relationship between supervisor and line managers, employee’s attitude towards the implication of performance management system and employees understanding of the overall police force strategic direction. Interviews were conducted from Union leaders and seniors to surface key issues. One key fact revealed that all the senior positions were dominated by men.
The new police force has its own vision statement, assessment was done related to competencies and skills and employees were graded on 5 factor rating scale. Management believed that performance management culture must be established therefore hard policing discourse was established. Due to which individuals were evaluated, inspected and audited. Furthermore complaints were recorded and individuals were made accountable for their practices. Microsoft (2009) stated that the communication pattern needs to be streamlined between home office and police force.
Microsoft developed policing performance management system. The data management system stored imperative information, crime rates and figures. It assisted both home office and police force to communicate in an effective manner and information can easily be directed to those areas where problems occurred and appropriate can be taken. It has resulted into decrease in crime rates, quality service to general public and effectual solutions for community issues. Microsoft formulated an effective corporate management solution for Israeli police.
There were around 27,000 police officers performing in 6 diversified districts and 16 sub districts and there were around 70 police stations. Israeli police faced difficulties in minimizing crimes and further strengthening traffic laws. In 2005 the top management consulted Microsoft Corporation for the solution of corporate performance management. It assisted in analyzing crime trends in different districts, identifying key problems and formulating solutions with the help of gathered information resulting into effective decision making. Today it has formulated 115 performance indicator programs.
The solution has provided them flexibility and can easily adapt to future changes. The performance management solution has resulted into improving quality of police service in every single location of the entire country. It has revolutionized the internal culture of the dynamic organization. According to PSNI (2008) APR (annual performance review) has provided Northern Ireland a new dimension to police service. The continuous improvement has enabled the organization to economically and effectively utilize HRM functional unit. The entire training and support is provided with the help of e-learning technology.
This is further provided promotional instinct and reduction in unsatisfactory performance in the entire police force. Performance management has reduced administrative workload on individual police departments. More importantly, it has been so much decentralized and employees are empowered that they can certainly take strategic decisions and can consult to key stakeholders for a more productive result. APR has provide a framework for improving individual and group performance, job satisfaction and engagement and focusing on service delivery and enhancing core competencies.
Figure 1: Performance Management and Development System Mounting Performance Management System for Police Force: Shane (2008) stated the every aspect of policing needs to be measured. During the beginning of 20th century several reformers got emerged such as Mr. Wilson and Mr. Parker and experiment the implications of performance measurement across diverse FBI programs. Unfortunately in early days measurement was not interrelated with organizational goals. It was in 1970s when several police leaders represented the realm and tried to understand accountability issues across different departments of police force.
Meanwhile a major paradigm was seen and police focused on community areas to reduce crime reports and community response was considered as a measurement criteria. It was also found that law enforcement agencies are accompanied with pile of data and the information can be used to improve the situation. Today, crime rates are not the only performance measurement criteria. There exist limited resources while demand for security is continuously increasing, countries are facing difficulties in averting terrorist attacks and meanwhile serving communities and reducing crime rates.
Today, management is focusing on clarifying employee’s expectations and aligning their efforts with overall organizational goals and emphasizing on proper communication medium. They are using advance statistical tools to analyze and evaluate the overall performance measures. The judgment is made on the basis of achievements otherwise it remains difficult to identify whether the entire program work properly and has attained desired results. One of the facts reveals that improvement in employee’s performance requires strong commitment from the top management and this develops a framework of learning organization.
The administration must be sincere and understand key factors to be measured. The entire performance measurement model is based on six steps: • Preparing police business plan: It caters for diverse units and must be considered as the end result of outclass performance measurement. It includes key values, chief priorities and anticipations and expectations of communities and employees. It portrays present situation and anticipate future strategies and provides direction for improvement. It requires in-depth SWOT analysis and environmental analysis.
The future interpretations must be attainable. It also requires formulating organizational chart and key connections between different programs and appropriate budget is allocated for effective service delivery. It assists in understanding different phases of business and developing alternative solutions to overcome obstacles. • Constitution of performance management: Rather than just focusing on crime rates, police force must look for a multidimensional approach. Other factors include reliability, responsiveness, predictability, transparency, courtesy and competency.
Many of the law enforcement scholars have formulated multidimensional models which requires satisfying diverse group of stakeholders. Performance management involves a logical structure which focuses on measuring criteria, different programs and outcomes. It requires focusing on six important factors: o Identify the core purpose and desired outcomes o Develop appropriate measure to attain corporate goals o Formulate minimum tolerable outcome like 80% customer satisfaction or reduction in crime rate by 25% o Allocate resources and formulate qualitative outcomes
o Assign key responsibilities to individuals and team members based on job description o Formulate progress reports and circulate them both internally and externally to key stakeholders • Data collection and analysis: The management must identify whether existing data is appropriate to meet the current requirements or new information must be collected for analysis, which must be utilized, which sort of constraints can be faced by the organization and how often and who should be authorized to collect appropriate data. It requires both descriptive and inferential analysis.
Police force uses descriptive statistics, visual models and cross-reference formats and finally it is summarized in a concise format. Moreover organizations measure overall outcomes in a periodic manner. • Construct Performance measures: It requires clarifying expectations, examining performance and comparing it with predetermined standards, opting for improvement and communicating the outcomes. Employees develop clear objectives and focus on shared values and work for achieving overall corporate goals. They will put more effort and it will also reduce cost while conferring both monetary and non-monetary rewards.
Furthermore the top management must look for highly ethical conducts, best practices and involve various layers during the development phase. It results into minimizing resistance towards implementation. There exist two types of performance measures i. e. hard and soft measures. Hard measures are quantifiable whereas soft measures are qualitative and more often complement hard measures. Soft measures are intangibles and are based on performance indicators. These performance indicators must be translated into a performance measurement statement which can clearly delineate expectations.
• Highlighting important measures: There exists a mere consensus between different functional units. Moreover citizen should perform their responsibility so that important measures can be successfully achieved. Furthermore it requires involvement of lower level employees in strategic decision making process. • Common terminologies across different departments: It involves uniformity so that actions can be easily justified. There must be a written policy for the interpretation of specific terms in order to reduce ambiguity.