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Uncertainty Reduction Theory Annotated Bibliography
Theory & Rhetoric Annotated Bibliography Uncertainty Reduction Theory 1). Witt, P. , & Behnke, R. (2006). Anticipatory Speech Anxiety as a Function of Public Speaking Assignment Type. Communication Education, 55(2), 167-177. doi:10. 1080/03634520600566074. * Research Questions: -Why does public speaking generate anticipatory anxiety? -Is public speaking anxiety dependent on assignment type? -How can anticipatory public speaking anxiety be controlled? Key Terms: Public Speaking, Speech Anxiety, State Anxiety, Trait Anxiety, Assignment Type * Thesis: Most individuals who enroll in communication courses do so in order to improve their presentational skills and to increase the enjoyment that they derive from their communication performances. * Theoretical Perspective: -Uncertainty Reduction Theory -Interpretive * Case Studies: -185 undergrads in entry level communication performance course -171 undergrads in entry level communication performance course * Implications: Therapeutic Intervention, Pedagogical Application * Future Research Questions: Can anticipatory public speaking anxiety not only be controlled but eliminated? -Is there any method that can help change trait anxiety as easily as state anxiety? -How can a better understanding of trait anxiety help ease anticipatory anxiety? 2). Pratt, L. , & Wiseman, R. (1999). Interrogative strategies and information exchange in computer-mediated communication.
Communication Quarterly, 47(1), 46-66. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. * Research Questions: -Is there a difference between face-to-face communication and computer mediated communication? How does age coincide with computer mediated communication? -Are different styles of computer mediated communication dependent on geographical location? * Key Terms: Uncertainty Reduction, Asynchronous Communication, Interrogative Strategies, Question Typologies, Content Analysis * Thesis: Results suggest that the interrogative strategies we engage in to achieve interpersonal connectedness are sometimes different in computer-mediated communication (CMC) and a new standard for transacting relational message exchange may be emerging. * Theoretical Perspective: -Interpretive -Social Exchange Theory
* Case Studies: 200 “epals” selected for content analysis of their emails to each other -316 messages analyzed between 10 pairs of “epals” * Implications: -People react differently to emails because they lack the requirement for an immediate response. -The shorter the time between a sent and read email will increase the chance of response. * Future Research Questions: -Why do “epals” want to know about others attitudes and opinions? -Is the medium redefining the type of message we send? – Is the quality of selective message construction found in asynchronous e-mail (Walther, 1996a) producing a new standard for interpersonal connectedness? ). Goldsmith, D. (2001). A Normative Approach to the Study of Uncertainty and Communication. Journal of Communication, 51(3), 514. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. * Research Questions: -How can uncertainty reduction theory be applied outside of stranger to stranger interactions? -How do different communities treat uncertainty in communication? -What are the different levels of uncertainty in communication?
* Key Terms: Frequency of Communication Behaviors, Level of Uncertainty, Level of Relational Qualities * Thesis: A normative pproach entails a shift in focus from measuring level of uncertainty to examining multiple and potentially conflicting meanings of uncertainty, a shift from measuring communication behaviors to evaluating communication practices, and a shift from predicting what people will do to predicting and explaining the effectiveness and appropriateness of what they do in response of uncertainty. * Theoretical Perspective: -Interpretive -Critical * Case Studies: -Puerto Rican Community -Western Apache Community -Malagasy Community -White, College Educated North Americans
* Implications: Uncertainty is a fundamental human experience. -Different communities react to communication uncertainty differently. -Uncertainty is not static there are many forms of uncertainty that need to be taken into consideration differently. * Future Research Questions: -What can uncertainty in other cultures teach us about our own uncertainty? -How has uncertainty in communication changed over time? -How does the frequency of behaviors affect the overall uncertainty of a relationship? 4). Maguire, K. (2007). “Will It Ever End? “: A (Re)examination of Uncertainty in College Student Long-Distance Dating Relationships.
Communication Quarterly, 55(4), 415-432. doi:10. 1080/01463370701658002. * Research Questions: -How does a long distance relationship affect a person’s daily life? -What kinds of uncertainty do long distance relationships lead to? -How does an individual in a long distance relationship cope with stress compared to someone in a close relationship? * Key Terms: Coping, Distress, Long-Distance Relationships, Relationship Satisfaction, Uncertainty * Thesis: Research in the area of stress and coping suggests that a close relationship with a romantic partner helps individuals cope with stress * Theoretical Perspective: Uncertainty Reduction Theory -Uncertainty Management Theory -Interpretive
* Case Studies: -Undergrads from a South-Central college -Norton’s Quality Marriage Index * Implications: -Any relationship where the partner is too far to visit every day is considered a long distance relationship. – Close relationships are more successful than long distance relationships. -Uncertainty is not inherently problematic in long distance relationships * Future Research Questions: -What can be done to ensure success in a long distance relationship in terms of uncertainty? Why is the visual/physical aspect of a relationship over power the uncertainty found in long distance relationships? -How is relational uncertainty not inherently an unwanted state? 5). Brumfield, E. (2008). Using Online Tutorials to Reduce Uncertainty in Information Seeking Behavior. Journal of Library Administration, 48(3/4), 365-377. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. * Research Questions: -How does asynchronous delivery differ from synchronous delivery? -How does the length of the tutorial affect its overall effectiveness?
How does the design of the tutorial affect its quantity of use? Key Terms: Distance Learners, Distance Education, Information Seeking Behavior, Online Tutorials * Thesis: Information seeking behavior results from a determination of an information need and the realization that there is insufficient knowledge to address that need.. * Theoretical Perspective: -Uncertainty Reduction Theory -Interpretive * Case Studies: -Wilson, Ford Research -A&M University -Stephen F. Austin University * Implications: -The overall effectiveness of tutorials is dependent on a large number of variables such as visual appeal. –
The students skill and attitude play a big role it a tutorials effectiveness. Future Research Questions: -What can be done to help improve student’s attitudes towards tutorials? -How has the introduction of these tutorials help reduce uncertainty in personal relationships? -Can these findings be applied to cultures other than our own? 6). Rubin, R. , & McHugh, M. (1987). Development of Parasocial Interaction Relationships. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 31(3), 279-292. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. * Research Questions: -How do viewers become attached to specific television characters? Are there any universal qualities that attract viewers to characters? -How can uncertainty reduction and uses and gratification theory help explain these character to viewer relations?
* Key Terms: Social Interaction, Uncertainty, Interpersonal Communication, Television Characters * Thesis: This investigation explored the possibility of a parallel pattern of relationship development with media characters, applying principles from both uses and gratifications and uncertainty reduction theories to understand further the development of parasocial interaction relationships. Theoretical Perspective: -Interpretive -Critical -Uses and Gratification Theory * Case Studies: – Parasocial Interaction Scale Survey Study -The 15 Item Scale Study * Implications: -Social attraction is key in developing parasocial interaction relationships. -Attraction occurs through a great level of exposure to a character. -Relationship importance is a construct that differs from attraction. * Future Research Questions: –
How can the findings of these studies be applied to network television? How does the uncertainty reduction theory apply to non face-to-face relationships such as in a television character? – How can the results of these studies relate to the concept of market research? 7). Theiss, J. , & Solomon, D. (2008). Parsing the Mechanisms that Increase Relational Intimacy: The Effects of Uncertainty Amount, Open Communication About Uncertainty, and the Reduction of Uncertainty. Human Communication Research, 34(4), 625-654. doi:10. 1111/j. 1468-2958. 2008. 00335. x. * Research Questions: Why are there 3 competing mechanisms that affect the amount of intimacy in romantic relationships? -Which of the 3 mechanisms is the most effective in romantic relationships? -Are there any variables that interrupt the effectiveness of the 3 mechanisms? * Key Terms: Uncertainty, Intimacy, Interpersonal Relations,
* Thesis: Uncertainty and its management hold a prominent place in the study of interpersonal communication. * Theoretical Perspective: -Interpretive -Critical -Uncertainty Reduction Theory * Case Studies: -Longitudinal Study Distinguishing Uncertainty Implications: -There is something inherently rewarding about the process in reducing uncertainty. -Openness of communication about uncertainty has a positive impact on perceptions of intimacy. -The uncertainty reduction process is perceived as rewarding in close relationships. * Future Research Questions: -How can the findings of this study help intimate relationships in turmoil? -Are there any other factors that affect intimate relationships outside of the 3 mechanisms discussed in this study? -Are there any instances contrary to this study?