Chromatography was used because of its powerful technique in separating mixtures. In this experiment the Chili pepper pigments was extracted using DCM, the extract was then introduced into the column….
Types of Abuse and Protection From It
Unit 4 assignment LO1. 1, 1. 2, 1. 3 PHYSICAL ABUSE Physical abuse is where a person sets out to deliberately hurt another causing actual bodily harm. Forms of abuse could be any or all of the following: •Hitting •Pinching •Slapping •Kicking •Pulling hair •Biting •Pushing •Tripping someone up/over •Strangling •Hitting with an object •Cutting •burning Someone who is being physically abused may show signs of it but could be hiding it so as not to draw attention to themselves.
The abuser/s may have told the victim things to ensure the abusers name isn’t divulged to anyone. Signs and symptoms associated with physical abuse could be: •Black eyes •Bite marks •Bald patches on the scalp •Bruises •Burns •Unexplained marks Sometimes, the signs are not so easy to pick up on. The individual maybe scared for what seems to be an unknown reason, may gradually withdraw from activities that they had previously enjoyed participating in and also may begin to suffer with depression and anxiety. SEXUAL ABUSE Sexual abuse is forcing someone, without their consent, to take part in a exual act. There are numerous forms of sexual abuse. Listed below are some forms of it. •Sexual touching on any body part, clothed or unclothed •Sexually suggestive statements •Non-consensual, forced physical sexual behaviour •Sexual kissing, fondling •Indecent exposure •Involving a vulnerable adult in pornography •Penetration or attempted penetration of intimate areas •Masturbation •Rape •Participating in sexual acts to which a vulnerable adult has not consented, or could not consent, or was pressured into consenting Some physical signs of sexual abuse are: Bruises/scratches/burns/bite marks to the body •Scratches/abrasions or persistent infections in the anal/genital regions •Pregnancy •Recurrent urinary/genital infections •Blood or marks on underwear •Abdominal pain with no diagnosable cause Some behavioural signs of sexual abuse are: •Provocative sexual behaviour/promiscuity •Prostitution •Sexual abuse of others •Aggression/anxiety/tearfulness •Frequent masturbation •Refusal to undress for activities such as swimming/bathing •Behaviour that invites exploitation and further physical/sexual abuse
PSYCHOLOGICAL ABUSE All forms of abuse also have an element of psychological abuse. Any situation which means that someone becomes the victim of abuse at the hands of someone they trust is, inevitably, going to cause emotional distress. However, some abuse is purely psychological-there are no physical, sexual or financial elements involved. Some signs of psychological abuse are: •Emotional abuse •Bullying •Controlling •Blaming •Verbal abuse e. g. shouting/swearing •Harassment •Intimidation •Humiliation •Deprivation of contact with others Ignoring Some signs or indicators of psychological abuse are: •Fearfulness •Self-blaming •Heightened defence of others •Avoiding eye contact •Anxiety •Depression •Telling lies SELF NEGLECT Self-neglect is a behavioural condition where an individual fails to attend to their basic needs. People neglect their own care for a range of reasons; the most common are: •Physical illness or disability •Mentally ill/mental health problems •Sensory loss or difficulty •Learning difficulties/disabilities •Alcohol and drug misuse problems A different set of priorities/perspectives This could in turn lead to them jeopardizing their wellbeing leading them to have poor personal hygiene, going without food & tending to any medical condition they have which would lead them to eventually fall ill. Signs and symptoms of self-neglect are: •Hazardous/unsafe living conditions •Inappropriate/inadequate clothing •Lack of necessary medical aids •Dehydration/ malnutrition •Inadequate medical care/not taking prescribed medication properly •Unsanitary/unclean living conditions i. e. nsect/animal infestation, no functioning toilet with clean running water leading to faecal borne disease. INSTITUTIONAL ABUSE Institutional abuse arises from poor standards of care, inadequate staffing levels, lack of response to people’s complex needs, staff with inadequate knowledge, skills, understanding & expertise. Institutional abuse has been known to occur in nursing homes, residential homes, in-patient hospital wards and care homes. Institutional abuse can be any or all of the following: •Neglect •Verbal abuse •Sexual abuse Physical abuse •Financial abuse •Discrimination •Emotional abuse The signs/symptoms can again, be any or all of the following: •Anxiety •Avoiding eye contact •Depression •Fearfulness •Unexplainable bruises •Not trusting of others •Telling lies/lying for others •Self-blaming/self-harm •Low self esteem FINANCIAL ABUSE Financial abuse is when a person forcibly controls another person’s financial decisions. Financial abuse, like all other forms of abuse, can be inflicted by family members & even friends as well as care workers or informal carers.
It can take a range of forms that include: •Theft •Fraud •Withholding money for ANY reason •Exploiting/manipulating someone for financial gain •Pressure in connection with wills, property, inheritance or financial transactions •Controlling bank accounts The warning signs/symptoms of someone being financially abused could be any of the following: •Very few or no personal possessions •Sudden changing of a will •Unpaid bills •Someone not being allowed to manage their own financial affairs •Not knowing where your money has gone •Unexplained disappearance of valuables Other people moving into a person’s property •Unexplained lack of money despite a regular income NEGLECT BY OTHERS ABUSE Neglect by others occurs when either a support worker or a family or friend carer fails to meet someone’s support needs. Neglect can happen because those responsible for providing the support do not realise its importance, or because they cannot be bothered. Failing to provide any of the following are all examples of neglect. •Food •Water •Medicine •Health care •A safe & clean place to live Signs/symptoms of neglect by others could be: Medical condition deteriorating unexpectedly or not improving as expected •Supported person is hungry •Living environment is dirty & unhygienic •Unexplained weight loss •Supported person files a report of being mistreated •Hazardous living conditions such as no heating/running water •Clothes/body dirty and smelly 1. 3 Describe factors that may contribute to an individual being more vulnerable to abuse. Someone who has been abused in the past, people who are mentally or physically disabled as they may not be aware of what is happening or have the ability to stop whatever is happening at the time.
Individuals with low confidence, people with sensory impairments. E. g. Mrs Smith lives on her own, she has 1 carer who visits her twice daily. Mrs Smith also has dementia which puts her in a very vulnerable position to abuse as she is very forgetful. Mrs Smith only has one visitor who happens to be her carer. 2. 1 What actions should you take when abuse is suspected? If abuse is being suspected, I’d inform my senior in charge or manager immediately. I’d also document my findings by writing it down, dating the document and I’d sign it.
I’d then monitor the situation and inform my senior of any changes. Protect, Report, Preserve, Record & Refer. 2. 2 What actions should you take if an individual alleges that they are being abused? If an individual came to me with allegations of abuse, I’d first and foremost tell them that I believe them and listen to them. I’d encourage them to tell me what happened in their own words. I’d document what they had told me in a report. I’d tell the individual that I must report the allegation whilst ensuring we were both safe. I’d then report it to my manager, confidentially.
After reporting such an allegation, I’d ensure that I didn’t discuss the situation (allegation or suspicion) with anyone else. 2. 3 How to ensure evidence of abuse is preserved. If the abuse is financial or physical: •Written documents (witness statements) should be securely stored •Photos and recordings should be securely stored If the abuse is sexual: •Do not wash or clean any part of the room/area where the alleged abuse took place •Do not remove bedding •Do not allow the individual to wash, shower, brush their hair or teeth •Keep the room closed simply by shutting the door to preserve evidence
PROTECTION FROM ABUSE 3. 1 National policies and local systems that relate to safeguarding & protection from abuse are: •CQC •ISA (independent safeguarding authorities) •Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act The CQC are independent regulators who inspect all care providers to ensure they are meeting government standards. During their inspections, they ask people about their experience in receiving care, talk to support workers, check the right systems and processes are in place and are working well & look for evidence that care isn’t meeting government standards.
The ISA are responsible for making decisions about who should be barred from working with small children and vulnerable adults. ISA publish research to help employers recognise and prevent abuse in the workplace. Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act is an important part of a bigger programme of work. This program of work extends across government departments and is designed to solve the failures identified by the 2004 Bichard Inquiry arising from the Soham murders. The Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006 provides a legislative framework for the new vetting and barring scheme, now known as the CRB.
Policies and procedures at work will include these laws. 3. 2 Roles of different agencies in safeguarding and protection. •Medical professionals such as GP, A&E staff, nurses, doctors: they can examine, diagnose & treat, they can record: this can include photographic evidence •An Expert Witness: this is a specialist within a subject such as paediatrics, geriatrics & psychiatrics. •The local authority Social Services department would carry out an assessment of needs. This would include any unpaid carer of individual. Safeguarding Team, within Social Services department: investigates & ensures safety, work with other agencies such as police. A Safeguarding & Protection Officer would lead the Adult Protection Alert. •Police: to investigate/prosecute, to work with other agencies, to provide support to victims, to raise awareness of crimes, crime prevention. •Care Quality Commission to regulate & inspect care providers. •Independent Safeguarding Authority, this includes Vetting & Barring Scheme, to safeguard & protect vulnerable people before employment commences, including CRB. 3. Identify reports into serious failures to protect individuals from abuse. Winterbourne View-see assignment 1 ERR Michael Payne- 24yr old care worker found guilty of abusing an adult with learning disabilities. Sentenced to 16 months in prison. Jenny Glanister-found guilty of stealing ? 330,000 from Oakfield Home for adults with learning difficulties. Sentenced to 2yrs & 8months in prison. The death of Peter Connelly aka Baby P, Child A & Baby Peter. 3. 4 Identify sources of information and advice about own role in safeguarding & protecting individuals from abuse.
Workplace policies and procedures, CQC reports, care plans, work colleagues, training courses that I’ve attended, the internet, my seniors and managers. 4. 1 Explain how the likelihood of abuse may be reduced by: •Working with person-centred values •Encouraging active participation •Promoting choice and rights You’re working to the needs of the individual; working with them ensures their choices & rights as individuals are respected and acted upon. This allows individuals to maintain control, instead of them feeling like they are being controlled. This in turn allows the individual to express opinions, feeling and wishes.
It also makes them feel that they have a choice and are not being forced into doing something they don’t want to do; also giving all individuals equal opportunities. All of this makes the individual feel empowered and involved & will be able to speak up if they don’t like something which will minimise the risk of abuse. 4. 2 Explain the importance of an accessible complaints procedure for reducing the likelihood of abuse. This will allow staff, service users, family members & anyone else with a complaint to know how to go about getting it dealt with.
Abusers may be less likely to abuse knowing that policies &procedures are in place for reporting incidents/allegations and it will be taken very seriously. 5. 1 Describe unsafe practices that may affect the wellbeing of individuals. Anything that would threaten the personal safety of another person, that is physical, emotional or psychological. Things like poor manual handling, not keeping track if a service user has taken their medication, not disposing of waste properly, basically every time a short cut is taken on a procedure. 5. Explain the actions to take if unsafe practices have been identified. Report to senior on duty or the manager. Do not get involved in the unsafe practice and ensure you continue to work to safe practice/best practice. 5. 3 Describe the action to take if suspected abuse or unsafe practices have been reported but nothing has been done in response. Id report it to my manager firstly, if nothing appeared to be done I’d then report it to their manager. Only then if nothing was done at all, I’d go ahead with utilising the Whistleblowing policy and informing the CQC.