The Systematic Study of Organizational Behavior

A country’s culture is the conventional behavior of a society that constitutes beliefs, customs, knowledge, and practices. Evidently, it influences human behavior, even though it is rare that it enters into their conscious thought. People depend on culture as it gives them stability, security, understanding, and the ability to respond to a given situation. Culture complements their well-being. This is why people fear change. They fear the system will become unstable, their security will be lost, they will not understand the new process, and they will not know how to respond to the new situations (Knoster, Villa ; Thousand, 2000).
The organization’s base depends on a company’ philosophy, values, vision and goals. A company’s mission and vision are its very core. This, in turn, drives the organizational culture, which is composed of the formal organization, informal organization, and the social environment. A country’s culture determines the type of leadership, communication, and group dynamics within the organization. The workers perceive this as the quality of work life, which directs their degree of motivation. The final outcomes are performance, individual satisfaction, and personal growth and development. All these elements combine to build the archetype or framework that the organization operates from.
A social system is a complex set of human relationships interacting in many ways. Within an organization, the social system includes all the people in it and their relationships to each other and to the outside world. The behaviors that come about within organizations are of utmost concern and importance. Studying these behaviors may help the consumers to comprehend why some sales agents or employees are able to introduce and sell their products and services with efficiency and effectiveness (cited in Johns, 1988). Also, the social system does not have boundaries. It exchanges goods, ideas, culture, etc. with the environment around it (cited in Knoster, Villa ; Thousand, 2000).

A matter like this could become quite a balancing act. Individualism favors individual rights, loosely knit social networks, self-respect, and personal rewards and careers. One aspect begets another aspect, which is why it is integrated in nature.  Socialization or collectivism favors the group, harmony, and asks “What is best for the organization?” Organizations need people to challenge, question, and experiment while still maintaining the culture that binds them into a social system (Knoster, Villa ; Thousand, 2000).
Autocratic – The basis of this model is power with a managerial orientation of authority. The employees in turn are oriented towards obedience and dependence on the boss. The employee need that is met is subsistence. The performance result is minimal.
Custodial – The basis of this model is economic resources with a managerial orientation of money. The employees in turn are oriented towards security and benefits and dependence on the organization. The employee need that is met is security. The performance result is passive cooperation.
Supportive – The basis of this model is leadership with a managerial orientation of support. The employees in turn are oriented towards job performance and participation. The employee need that is met is status and recognition. The performance result is awakened drives.
Collegial – The basis of this model is partnership with a managerial orientation of teamwork. The employees in turn are oriented towards responsible behavior and self-discipline. The employee need that is met is self-actualization. The performance result is moderate enthusiasm.
Individualization is when employees successfully exert influence on the social system by challenging the culture:
Less socialization and too little individualization create isolation.
More socialization and too little individualization create conformity.
Less socialization and too high individualization creates rebellion.
While the match that organizations want to create is high socialization and high individualization for a creative environment. This is what it takes to survive in a very competitive environment having people grow with the organization, but doing the right thing when others want to follow the easy path (Knoster, Villa ; Thousand, 2000).
Compensation as a motivational factor
Many companies mistakenly assume that what works for one organization will work well for all organizations. Companies often attempt to create incentive programs without thinking in detail about how each program feature will best suit their targeted audience. Providing pie and ice-cream when employees desire flexible work hours, paid time off, training, or the ability to work from home is an example of a negative incentive. To facilitate the creation of a profitable program, every feature must be tailored to the participants’ interests.
A successful incentive program requires clearly defined rules, suitable rewards, efficient communication strategies, and measurable success metrics. By adapting each element of the program to fit the target audience, companies are better able to engage program participants and enhance the overall program effectiveness (“Incentive”).
An incentive program represents a substantial investment to most organizations. Receiving a sufficient return on that investment requires the full participation of the program participants. Incentive programs are based upon the concept that effort increases as people perceive themselves progressing towards their goal. In “The Art of Motivation: An Incentive Industry Primer,” the Incentive Marketing Association ties incentive programs to the psychological equation: Ability x Motivation = Performance.
In order to properly motivate, programs must be designed to offer a variation of products and services to program participants based on their unique interests and diverse needs. Successful programs need to carefully develop their reward methods to keep participants eager to approach a new goal once they have achieved a reward (“Incentive”).
In order to create an effective program, organizations must keep the overall objective in mind when considering program design and implementation. Objectives should be formed based on the organizations overall goals and should be straightforward and specific so participants clearly understand the expectations. Program objectives can vary depending on the needs of each individual organization. They must be challenging, yet achievable. If objectives are viewed as unattainable, the program will be destined for failure. Management By Objectives is crucial for a company to achieve progress and success in order to manage the company in an objective manner. With this in mind, Companies have set various standard order procedures for employees.
Managers are always at the forefront of this matter. Objectives may include motivating employees, recognizing performance, persuading customers to make a purchase, or even reinforcing a marketing message. Once the program’s goals have been determined, every aspect of the program must be measured against this goal in order to ensure the programs success in goal achievement. Whenever successful, objectives should provide measurable results allowing the organization to monitor performance and measure the overall success of the program.
References
Borne, P.A. (February 21, 2007). Organizational Behavior. Retrieved December 12, 2007 from http://www.wincustomize.com/articles.aspx?aid=144899&c=1.
Incentive Marketing Association. The Art of Motivation: An Incentive Industry Primer. Retrieved December 12, 2007, from  http://incentivemarketing.org/displaycommon.cfm?an=1&subarticlenbr=51.
Knoster, T., Villa, K.T., & Thousand, J. (2000). Restructuring for Caring and Effective Education: Piecing the Puzzle Together. A Framework For Thinking About Systems Change. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
Johns, G. (2004). Organizational Behavior: Understanding and Managing Life at Work 6th Edition. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
 

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