Styles and Themes of Samuel Richardson Samuel Richardson wrote his novels using the epistolary novel style, in which all the books are made up of letters. These letters are meant….
The reigns of Justinian as the emperor of Byzantium during
The reigns of Justinian as the emperor of Byzantium during 527 to 565 BC and Romanus IV in 1068 to 1071 AD were two most important events in Byzantine. The former marked the stability and economic growth of the land and the former was known to start the end of the empire. Byzantine (Istanbul today), which was called as an extension of Roman Empire in eastern part, after it was captured and made it a province. Justinian known as ‘Justinian the Great’ according to Alexander A.
Vasiliev “is the central figure of this entire period” (1954, 132) for invading Italy, pacifying Africa and controlling Persia from invading the land through his faithful and able generals named Belisarius and Mundo (Treadgold, 1997, 207). Romanus IV on the other hand had a strategy that did not work for him. Romanus IV gathered large army in troops enough to defeat the enemy, yet he lost the battle for he lost control of them due to disloyalty of his men.
Justinian seldom joined the army, while Romanus was at the center of the battle. Justinian delivered direction and instruction to his trusted men, and Romanus IV if not misunderstood, was left alone by his warriors to seek refuge (Bradbury, 2004, 176). The challenges in the reign of Justinian were the uprising of the people and uncontrollable circumstances that weakened his control – the plagues and earthquakes that befell the land.
Romanus IV’s challenges were much severe since he reigned at the time when Byzantine never had any recur but to drive away the Seljuk Turks to contain the territory at the midst of unfaithful generals and warriors. Justinian was just fortunate to have a wife and Belisarius who advised and obeyed his command. Romanus IV had a different case instead because he was caught unprepared despite a well-organized plan he made to win the battle.
His greatest challenge was not the number of enemy but the sphere of his influence as a leader to execute commands. Romanus had no lawful men and he was unaware of that; besides, the empire was surrounded by men with greedy ambition. Bibliography Bradbury, J. 2004. The Routledge Companion to Medieval Warfare. USA: Routledge. Treadgold, W. 1997. A History of the Byzantine State and Society. USA: Stanford University Press. Vasiliev, A. 1954. History of the Byzantine Empire, 324-1453. USA: University of Wisconsin Press.