In 1903, William Harley-Davidson, Arthur Davidson, Williams Davidson, and Walter Davidson started Harley-Davidson in a 10×15 shed in their backyard in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Production started with three motorcycles in 1903….
The Indian History Essay Paper
OB Notes Paper Pattern: 100 Marks: Q1. Compulsory. Based on “Ek ruka hua faisla” (Answer any 4 out of 7 options). Example question: Personality & Leadership Traits of Character No. 7 in the movie… Q2 – Q7. Answer any 4 (20 marks each) Q2. would be Short Notes Q3. – Q7. – Each question would be of two parts (A&B). Part A – Theory & Part B – Caselets in DPA format Tip: Please answer in Bullet points only. Topics: 1. Basic of Behaviour 2. Organisation – context of opp and Interdependence 3. Personality 4. Beliefs & Paradigms 5. Groups & Teams – Composition, Advantages, Disadvantages, formal, informal, How best teams come into existence. . Core Values & Adaptive Values 7. Five levels of change 8. Adaptation & Leadership Theory 9. Learning 10. Conflict 11. Basic of Motivation – stress management & Time management, Traits from 6 Personality Traits for Transformational & Transactional, Motivation & Morale Theories: 1. Blate & Motoun Managerail Grid. 2. Ringlemen Effect 3. Bruce & Tactman Model of Team formation 4. Malow’s Pyramid 5. The Medici Effect – franz Johamsson 6. The fifith Discipline – Peter Senge 7. Classic Conditional Theory of Learning 8. Stimulus Response Learning 9. REBT – Rational Emotive Behaviour Theory 10. The Ice berg model 1. The Big 5 model 12. Cattell’s 16 Personality Factor 13. Thomas Profiling 14. FIROB 15. MBTI 16. Johari Windows 17. Transactional Analysis 18. DISC # Genesis of OB: -Psycology -Sociology -Social Psycology -Anthropology -Political Science •Behaviour is an Action •Communication leads to behaviour •We communicate at all times •Types of Communication -Verbal -Non-Verbal -Written # Unsound Behaviour & Sound Behaviour # Sound Behaviour is Type B Behaviour -Communication is Basic -You communicate all the time -“B” is a form of communication, it is external. -Value at bottom “B” is adapted value Core values are common to all of us # Value: (Ringleman Effect) – Core Values & Adapted Values: Sound Behaviour is outcome of sound values – Value is a 3 leg Tool: Comfort Zone, Meaningfullness, Identity #Structural Conflicts of Values: Value Level Person APerson B HighHonesty Money ————– ————– – ————- LowMoneyHonesty -Nature of Human is “Dynamic”, not static -Self Deception # How to resolve conflict in such situation? Approach – Diagnosis, Prescription & Action 1. Individual Discussion (with person A & person B separately) 2. Value check of each individual 3. Identify individual goals . Common Goal (Creation of super ordinate goals so that values of both the person are not diluted) Topic 2: Team & Group #Team: -Team is like entity -It does not form by itself. It is created outside -Taken as human being, it has its own value -Team is considered as organic body & has emotion & cohesiveness -Team has to be flexible to achieve the super-ordinate goals (common goal/combined goal of different persons) -Team is only when it is comprised of experts -Every member of team has to be an expert in a particular field -Success or failure of the team is because of the leader •Stages in Formal to Informal: 1.
Forming: Introduction, bringing team together, bringing about unification 2. Storming: Conflict management & leadership, ego clashing, most important parts are resolved, it is always never ending. 3. Norming: Settle down. 4. Performing •Steps a Leader has to take: 1. Cohesiveness 2. Team building (strengthening the team together towards an activity) 3. Differences have to be brought down to convergence of difference 4. develop dependence between team members to have convergence of difference # Group: -It is collection of resources (money, men, material, machine) – denominated by man power -Can be formed externally or internally
Formal GroupsInformal Groups 1. Goal forms outside1. Stated bonding 2. It is governed by certain rules2. Discipline is lacking 3. Restricted3. Impenetrable 4. Goal oriented4. They make or break the organisation 5. Communication & bonding not very strong5. Communication and bonding is very strong 6. Conditional behaviour towards goal achievement 7. Values may or may not exist6. Values do exist 8. Motivation driven by goal # Merits of Formal Groups: -Structured -Rule oriented -Disciplined -Goal oriented -Goal focused -KRAs, Duties are very clear -Stakes are very high, hence behaviour based on stakes # Demerits of Formal Groups: Restricted Behaviour -No transparency, not genuine -No natural bonding -No values & conflicts are always hidden # Informal Groups: -Within every formal structures group, we always have informal groups -In an organization each one is at a level & has got: i. Power ii. Authority iii. Accountability iv. Responsibilities -Energy of informal groups should be used towards productivity -They can make or break an organization -They would not allow or permit a member from another informal group with value or value system different from his group as the values and the comfort zones & identities are different. 2 Laws of Communication: 1. Law of Entertainment: When 2 bodies are in proximate they eventually entertain – get affected by each other. 2. Law of Synchronicity: When 2 bodies entertain over a period of time they eventually synchronize – characteristics of one tends to rub of into the other & viz (emotional exchange). “Reprimand in private and praise in public” # 4 Zones in Life: 1. Internal Zone: Where you operate from your home. It is suppose to have nurturing, advice, criticism, corrections. 2. Spiritual Zone: Individual Commitment with spirit 3. Work Zone: 4.
Social: Outside the work place & home. All the people you meet outside the work & home. # Organisation Structure # HR Audit # Upward Spiral # Learning Curve # Attitude: -Congruent (Behaviour in line with thoughts) -Dissonant (difference in behaviour and thoughts) # Stagnation Stage # Learning: Knowledge + Actions (repeated actions) = Skills “A learning is a learning when certain body of knowledge is effectively transferred into actionable skills” -Skill development: Intensifying existing & enhancing new skills -Phase of Learning of an employee in an organization: 1st Phase: Technical Skills nd Phase: Behavorial Skills 3rd Phase: Conceptual Skills -Two types of Learning: a)Active: Self-driven desire to learn. When an individual experiences the need to change, the learning becomes active. b)Passive: Forced by situations & circumstances -It is upto the individual driven by his values & perceptions to choose to actively learn or reject the learning till it reaches its higher stake -When an individual a change about to happen in future & that to with meaningfulness, he/she is on critical path of learning -Awareness of change normally initiates active learning Learning is the courage of acquiring knowledge & putting into action -Learning has ethical & moral needs # Why do we learn? -Need to Change -Situations -High Stakes # Learning Block -Unawareness -Attitude (Is the knowledge really required by me?…. ) # Change # Types of Change: -Percieved & Non- Percieved -Fast Change & Slow Change •Those changes which are perceivable by our sensory experiences are perceivable changes, whereas those which do not fall under perceivable changes are termed as non-percievable changes. # 5 Levels of Change: 1. Cosmic Change (Changes in Galaxy) 2. Environmental (Global Warming) . Social Changes (Society) 4. Organic Changes (Body) 5. Cellular •The whole universe is in the process of eternal change. Change is required for evolution. •The purpose of change is to adapt & evolve •Adaption mean acceptance of change by addressing values & perception & thereby behaviour •Adjustment is painful, adaption is powerful •Adaption occurs when an individual develops self awareness of change, continuously learns & develop lateral skill # 4 Stages of Learning: 1. Unaware of incompetency (Ignorance) 2. Aware of the incompetancy (Knowledge) – Stage where you stay or quit 3.
Aware of competency (Skills) 4. Unaware of competency (Competance) •Competancy is a process centric and not content centric # Learning Theories: 1. Classical Conditional Theory of Learning/Stimulus Response Learning 2. Response Stimulus Learning 3. Cognitive Learning 4. Social Learning 1. Classical Conditional Theory of Learning/Stimulus Response Learning: Russian Psychologist Evan Paulov conducted an experiment: Dog-Meat & Bell Meat called as the unconditional stimulus, unconditional stimulus creates unconditional response along with the meat he rings the bell. The bell called as neutral stimulus. . Response Stimulus Learning: – Trial & Error Learning – ABC Learning: A-Antecedent, B-Behaviour, C-Consequence – For every behaviour ‘B’, there is an antecedent ‘A’ to consequence ‘C’ any trial & error is accidental. 3. Cognitive Learning: – Meaningful mental map, which we create of a reality, which varies from person to person – Recognise repeated cognize 4. Social Learning: – Learning from society (e. g. peers, friends) – This is the highest form of learning followed by cognitive learning and then Stimulus response and there on •Dominant vs. Back-up style of learning •Trusteeship & ownership Leadership •Learning Style -Ignorance -Knowledge -Skills -Competency # Emotional Intelligence: -Empathetic Listening -Focus to the issue and not on person -Empowerment -Who is learning & what type -EI is experiential learning # Leadership: -Leadership is a “Style” -A good leader has a good ET – Emotional Intelligence # Steps to be a Good Leader: 1. To be an empathetic listener 2. Tries to focus on the issues & solution path & not on the person 3. He empowers the followers 4. Brings in confidence building 5. To understand the learnig curve of the follower 6. He recognizes his own skills as well as others . He develops trusteeship (detachment) and not ownership (attachment) 8. He is known by his absence and not by his presence 9. He is a risk taker as he has a focus on locus of control 10. Leader is not a position, it is a process # Types of Leadership: 1. Autocratic 2. Democratic 3. Laissez Faire 4. Situational Leadership “Personality + People + Effectiveness = Leadership” “Situational Leaders has two styles – Dominant (own skill) & Back-up (learned skill)” -During critical situations, dominant style comes in place #Categories of Leadership: 1. Trasactional Leadership: Creates followers 2.
Transformational Leadership: -24×7 approach, creates leaders, creates vision -Communicate it very clearly to everybody -They act on the vision himself first. This develops inspiration among others and creates followers -People on their own join the leader -He creates future leaders -To develop EQ : – He has to take risk (emotional) which comes only through experience – He needs to be aggressive, go getter, pushes others & himself in achieveing goals •Emotional Intelligence is the separator between Manager & Leader # 6 Personality Traits: 1. Locus of Control: strong internals, control over situations 2.
Machawallism: -High Mach (highly manipulative) -Low Mach (Less Mach) 3. Type ‘A’ & Type ‘B’: -A = Aggressive, go getter -B = Laid Back 4. Self Motivating: pause —? Listen –? Reflect –? Respond. -It starts with self-awareness of one’s thoughts, words & action. It converts a reaction to a response. A good leader will have a moderate level of self-monitoring 5. Risk Taking 6. Self-Esteem # Blate & Motoum Managerial Grid (Training model) (1, 1) – Impoverished leader – least concern for result & people (9, 1) – High concern for results & least for people – Autocratic (1, 9) – Termed as ‘Country Club Manager’.
High concern for people but less for result (9, 9) – Ideal, Proactive Manager – The leader. Equal concern for both. It’s not a destination but a journey which a leader constantly tries to achieve. He is a situational leader. He uses the people’s competencies toward’s achieving goals. He is always ‘Ethical’. Requires tremendous self-discipline. Role Personality is a connectivity between the Role & the Goal. They have personal sense of humility (5, 5) – ‘Middle of the Road Manager’. It is a process. Tries to rise from the strategic level to visionary level. # Personality: 1.
Definition 2. Traits 3. MBTI/Thomas Profiling 4. 16 PF/FIROB/DISC 1. Definition: “It is a sum total of inner & outer attributes”, where – Inner Factors: Values, attitudes, perception, belief, paradigms Outer Factors: Physical disposition, mannerism, habits, behaviour. All the factors put together comprises of personality -Role Clarity is subjective whereas Goal Clarity is objective -Inner factor drives the outer factor -When meaningfulness of the goal is aligned with values, perception of role, the individual develops the role personality in line with the goal. In most cases he is effective in achieving goal. For e. g. : Student has a goal of learning a subject: i. He must have a clarity what he is learning ii. Learning, as we know is absorption of knowledge into doable action called skills. iii. This is of the purpose of acquiring knowledge is to transform an adopted behaviour then the learning is effective iv. The individual needs to focus this aspect of learning & align these aspects with consistently, he tends to play the Role Personality effectively v. Although all goals are measurable, the measurable may not indicate his learning (at times he may get higher %age, at times lower) vi.
All in all his focus should be to absorb knowledge & change his behaviour. So long as this focus is maintained, we can see him maintain Role Personality quite effectively. This is seen through his behaviour of active participation in all situation to acquire and assimilate indulging & convert them into skill & behaviour changes •Scenario: A, B, C, D are team members in a certain vertical. – ‘A’ is hardworking but, stickler to time – he works strictly 9. 00am – 5. 00pm. His output is remarkable – ‘B’ – Intelligent, genius, erratic, maverick – available only when a crisis occurs.
Arrogant & individualistic – ‘C’ – Quiet, laid-back, seemingly unintelligent, very obedient, slow worker, everyone likes him – ‘D’ – Into mood swings, creates goals, disappear for days & returns & works for long hours to complete his tasks, rarely talks, very helpful though, does not like to be asked questions The above 4 team members are assigned a project for SMG (self-managed groups) The time frame is 1 month. All 4 team members need to be optimally used. Design a goal & perform a DPA by mapping characteristics, personality Create roles & goals to attain effectiveness Strengths & weakness of each team member:
Team Member ‘A’: S: Time management, hardworking, goal oriented, focused, commitment, disciplined, organized W: Rigid Team Member ‘B’: S: Crisis management, confident, go-getter attitude, individualistic W: Arrogant, selfish, individualistic (low people skills) Team Member ‘C’: S: Strong values, obedient, strong interpersonal skills, approachable, quiet, laid-back, good follower W: laid-back, slow coach, quiet Team Member ‘D’: S: Goal setter, Innovator, compassionate, helpful W: Disappearing act, moody, does not like to be asked questions # Need Drive theory of Motivation: -All needs are basic requirements for organization When a need arises, it indicates a deficit -This deficit leads to a disturbance in comfort zone -There arises instantly within the organism, a type of drive that propels the organism to fulfill this deficit, thereby restoring comfort zone -When this fulfillment is complete, the organism is set to achieve total satisfaction -This drive is called motivation -This drive is automatic, instant, since it has its origins on survival of species, inshort it is instinct driven -Hence motivation is a term given to instinct driven that almost instantaneously develops the need deficit into need fulfillment -This is the animal side of the human
In day-to-day scenarios, we need to identify the diference between needs & wants. Needs are basic, wants are desired NEED(instinct) + DESIRE = Want (Rational) Need when fulfilled gives 100% satisfaction (does not leave any memory). A need is always an instant gratification # Frustration Model: It is derived from need-drive theory of motivation. If a need deficit arises in an individual, it creates a drive almost instantly to fulfill this need. While in process of fulfilling the need, if there arises an obstruction or barrier, the organism will anyway be fulfilling it through alternate means.
This altered behaviour is always unsound behaviour This behaviour is a repetitive behaviour. “Without action there is no motivation” # Fundamental Theories of Motivation: 1. Reinforcement Theory of Motivation 2. Goal Path Theory of Motivation The individual’s motivation is a result of 2 influences – Internal & external # What motivates you? -Content theories of Motivation: i. Maslow’s Theory of needs ii. Fedrick Hersberg’s – Two factor theory of needs iii. ERG Theory of Needs – albert iv. David Mc Cleeland’s Theory of Needs # Why and how are people motivated? – Process Theories of Motivation i. Stacey Adam’s Equity Theory i. Victor Vroom’s Theory of Expectancy iii. Poter Roller’s Theory of Intrinsic rewards 1. Reinforcement Theory of Motivation: It has 2 parts: a. Positive Reinforcement b. Negative Reinforcement Encouraging behaviour that are desired by an organization constitutes the frameqork of +ve reinforcement. The employees are encouraged to regret & certain behaviour that are desirable for the end customer of goal This is usually done by rewards, hence also termed as motivation by Rewards On the other hand there are certain behaviours which are not in line with organizational needs. These behaviours need to be discouraged.
Instead of allowing these behaviours to repeat, organization resort to collapsing these behaviours. This is brought about through the process of punishment termed as motivation by punishment or –ve reinforcement. Historically such reinforcement is resorted to at the functional level of organization, where rewards & punishment form the value criteria of employees’s behaviour As 1st time learners, all of us resort to stimulus response learning, our behaviour are also stimulus response based. Hence, it is natural for us to respond to the reinforcement method of motivation 2. Goal – Path theory of motivation: