Michael Kevin Edgar B. Mangao 1POL3 A Review Journal on Karunungan for Logic Alfredo P. Co Doing Philosophy in the Philippines: Fifty Years Ago and Fifty Years from Now A….
The Difference Between Analytic and Speculative Philosophy
Philosophy is an Academic discipline that exercises reason and logic in an attempt to understand reality and answer fundamental questions about knowledge, life, morality and human nature. Philosophy is the root of all knowledge. It is considered as mother of all sciences. Philosophy helps to coordinate the various activities of individual and the society. It helps to understand the significance of all human experiences. Philosophy develops a comprehensive system of thoughts about the universe and life as whole. Etymologically philosophy comes from Greek word called “FILOSOFIA” FILO means love, SOFIA means knowledge/wisdom.
Therefore philosophy means love of knowledge/wisdom. Philosophy is just like a tree because it has different branches. For instance main areas of the study in philosophy include metaphysics it is the study of general features reality such as existence, time and relationship between mind and body, EPISTEMOLOGY concerned with the nature and extent of knowledge, LOGIC is the study of principles of correct reasoning, ETHICS is dealing with moral conduct, and AETHETICS dealing with beauty. There is also philosophy of mind, philosophy of law, social philosophy and philosophy of science.
A person who studies philosophy is called PHILOSOPHER like SOCRATES, PLATO, and ARISTOTLE. Through the ages, philosophers have sought to answer such questions as, “What is meaning and purpose of life? ”, “Does God exist? ”, What does it mean to possess consciousness? ”, and “What is the value of morals? ”,. Philosophers attempt to answer such questions through the philosophical method. The methods usually begins when a philosopher examines his own beliefs and begins to doubt their validity. From his doubt, question emerge before answering a questions, the philophers thoroughly analyzes it to ensure it is clearly and properly defined.
This helps to narrow the path to the most precise answer. Nexit, the philosopher propose reasoned arguments to support each one. Philosophy itself is generally considered a type of social science, like sociology or psychology. That’s because early philosophy was primarily concerned with describing the best way to live and organize society. From that spawned many other disciplines: Economics, Political science, Law linguistics, Literary and Art criticism, and Theology along with Theology and Psychology. Though many of philosophy’s original topics have evolved into other fields of study over time the discipline remains rich and varied.
Modern philosophy contain six main branches of each with their own unique focus; Metaphysics is the study of nature of reality and universe. Epistemology the study knowledge and how it is acquired. Ethics the study of rights and wrong and how should people should live. Politics the study of government, citizen rights and political. Aesthetics the study of beauty, art and autistics perception. 1. Carefully examine the critical task of philosophy. Philosophy in short refers to the man’s quest of the unity of knowledge, a perpetual struggle to create the concepts that allow the universe to be seen as unified rather than as fragmented.
Philosophy involves two separate but complimentary tasks: critical and constructive. The characteristics described below fall almost entirely within the critical task of philosophy, which involves posing difficult and probing questions about truth claims. The critical task of philosophy involves posing difficult questions about truth claims whenever they are put forth that is to ask or to speak what right is this or that believe to be accorded. The purpose of such questioning is not of course to destroy or tear down the truth but rather to purge it for error.
The constructive task of philosophy aims at developing the whole of reality in which every aspect of human knowledge and every aspect of human experience will find its proper place The critical and constructive aspects of philosophy are thus not independent, but interdependent. There is little point in critiquing the ideas and proposals of others without having something substantive to offer instead, just as there is little point in offering ideas without being willing to both critique them yourself and having others provide critiques.
Irreligious atheists may be justified in critiquing religion and theism, but they shouldn’t do so without being able to offer something in their place. It is assumed that truth is stronger than error and that under the critical questioning of philosophy truth will survive and hopefully error will not. Hence to the extent that philosophy performs this task effectively. Philosophy contributes to the advancement of human knowledge by locating errors that might otherwise retard its progress.
A good example is shown by Socrates by his unique task of interrogating his fellow citizens to show whether or not there opinions could stand up under close scrutiny. Whenever Socrates found people holding opinions or making truth claims he went to work . for instance “meno” claims to know whether or not virtue can be taught. Socrates would ask, “meno” what is virtue? , how can you know whether or not it can be taught? And for instance “Euthypro” claims to know that his father is guilty of impiety, Socrates would say “Euthyphro” I do not even know for sure what piety and impiety are.
Could you instruct me in this? Therefore a situation of going about questioning people to test about the soundness of their opinions refers to what called the critical task of philosophy. Conclusively we all take many things for granted and everything we do is either determined by or affected by our assumptions, most of the time we are scarcely aware of them and it is through this assumptions that underlie our supposed knowledge that the philosopher is chiefly interested in them. The philosopher wants to know whose assumptions are reasonable and whose assumptions are unreasonable.
Intoday’s world the critical task of philosophy is conducted formally, and for that reason the questions that philosophersraise are not directed so much at individuals but are directed to fields of learning. The philosophers don’t question the scientists but question the assumptions and truth claims of science, the philosophers don’t question the religious person but question the truth claims of religion. Unlike in the 5th century where Socrates conducted the critical task of philosophy informallyand went around questioningindividuals. 2.
With relevant examples examine the difference between analytic and speculative philosophy Analytic philosophy is the type of philosophy in which we analyze all fundamental assumptions (claims) for all the sciences. The claim of social sciences, religious, ethics. There is no area left unchecked. Analysis is the breaking down of words into small parts. For example, a husband is a married man therefore husband is an analyzed concept while a married man is the analysis of the concept. In analytic philosophy we analyze the concept and check its validity by testing the analysis.
For instance, a sister is a young female sibling we have to ask ourselves different questions from this concept, first question is that, are all sisters young female siblings? The answer is no. The second question is, all young sisters are siblings? The answer is yes. Due to this we have two different answers, therefore the analysis is incorrect. For the analysis to be incorrect it requires that all the sentences are true, that is to say all things that fall under the analyzed concept must fall under its analysis and also all the things that fall under the analysis of a concept must also fall under the analyzed concept.
Speculative philosophy is the type of philosophy which tries to bring together all the sciences that as biological, physical and social sciences. Originally it starts to inquire about the nature of different phenomena. To speculate is to go beyond the experience it is guessing in other words. For example, is there an immortal soul? Is there life after death? Speculative concept is something that cannot be examined scientifically. It contains things that no one can see.
It is generally unscientific philosophy. Analytic philosophy and Speculative philosophy tends to differ in certain things. The following are the differences between analytic philosophy and speculative philosophy. Analytic philosophy emphasizes on logic, language and aligns itself with the empirical sciences. In analytic philosophy, it inquiries into the meaning of the concept we use and try to avoid to use vague terms that do not fit into their logical, linguistic and empirical methods. For example square is a figure in equal sides. The language which used is clear and gives us clear meaning of the concept.
But in speculative philosophy, philosophers tends to use terms that do not fit with our simple experience of the world in other words, they use abstract words. For example, Is there an immortal soul? The concept is an abstract one, as it requires one to go beyond experience in order to find the truth of the concept. Another difference is that, analytic philosophy, it concepts can be examined scientifically that is through checking its validity. There are several stages in order to give an analysis . You first start with a candidate analysis for example; a square is a figure in equal sides.
Then you test the analysis, if it still gives wrong answer you must improve that analysis like a square is a figure in four equal sides. From there you test the improved analysis if it still has some ambiguity you test it again in order to give a clear meaning of a concept, so the correct concept will be a figure in four equal sides and only right angles. But in Speculative philosophy, its concept cannot be scientifically examined. , because it contains things that cannot be seen by anyone it is unscientific philosophy for example, is there an immortal soul?
This concept is abstractive one because no one can see a soul, and so scientific method cannot be applicable. Then in speculative philosophy seeking for new observation in the fact that through observing things not that deeply but only observing since there is no why questions in speculative philosophy but in analytic philosophy it analyses statements to break down the philosophical concepts to make clear understanding of the concepts for example husband is a married man, therefore a husband is analyzed concept while a married man is the analysis of the concept.
This has why and who questions. Furthermore, speculative philosophy seeks to establish new understanding of different concepts as long as it is seeking for new observation therefore it establishes the new understandings for example dealing with the disasters like diseases existing that never existed before but on the side of Analytic philosophy is just prescribing the existing concepts but does not entail new understanding of the concepts in the fact that it deals with and analyzing the existing concepts not establishing new understanding.
Therefore even though the speculative and analytic philosophy they differ but both speculative philosophy and analytic philosophy they assemble on helping in bringing together the science subjects like physics, biology as well as chemistry and social sciences, also enables mind to have a critical reflection before it makes a judgement. it also enables man to make clarification of what is right and what is wrong as well as making minds in quick understanding of issues. 3. With concrete examples examine the role and function of analytic philosophy.
Analytic philosophy is the type of philosophy which examines the bases claims of religion science and ethics. It is also called linguistic philosophy. It is relating as the approach to philosophical problems, dominant in Anglo-American philosophy from the early 20th century. The following are the roles and functions of analytic philosophy; It emphasis on the study of language and logical analysis of concepts, although most work of analytic philosophy has been done in great Britain and the united states and significant contributions have also been done to other countries.
Analytical philosophy analyses the fundamental assumption of all science. The claim of physical science, social science or religion For instance “All bachelors are unmarried’ there is no need to know anything about the world to conclude that this proposition is true because the terms “bachelors” means someone who is Unmarried. Analytic philosophy is always an attempt of clarification, one of its problems we have such as we have as the people is to clarify the issues in our lives, clarify the ideas concepts and an assumption.
In its primary sense analytic philosophy is used to describe philosophy that proceeds via analysis by seeking to understand the composition of its subject matter out of simple components. Analytic philosophy provides the statements (analytic statement) that are true merely by virtue of definitions of their terms. Examples of analytic statements are “Frozen ice is water”, Bachelors are unmarried men”, No addition meaning or knowledge is contained in predicate that is not already given in the subject. Analytic statements are redundant statements whose clarification relies entirely on definition.
Analytic sentences tell us about logic and about language use. Therefore, sometimes the best way to understand an aspect of philosophy is to look at a selection of the important thinkers therein, since a consideration of the questions they concerned themselves with can help us appreciate the overall areas within which they worked, as it were. This is especially so here because it’s difficult to say exactly what analytic philosophy is. Although there is only space to touch on a selection of ideas and problems, they should make clearer the range and scope of what goes by that name.