Abstractions:Wind is a really powerful and unpredictable force impacting tall edifices worldwide. Its burden additions with tallness and is more frequently sudden and in altering waies. Additionally it creates immense….
Water temperature was measured using a thermometer. The pH was determined using a pH meter, and salinity was measured using the handheld TOGA refractors. Mangrove Damage and Recovery Assessment The methods employed In this study were based from Roth (1992) and Taylor et al. (2013) with some modifications. In the island of Butting, seven 100 mm plots were established. The plots established were based on the vegetation types present. L. Species Composition All mangroves rooted within the plots were recorded and Identified In slut. The Handbook of Mangroves in the Philippines – Panky by Primeval et al. 004) and Field Guide to Philippine Mangroves also by Primeval (2009) were used as principal resources in identifying the species. Mangroves were categorized into three: trees, saplings, and seedlings. For Individuals having greater than or equal to 2. 5 CM DAB (girth at breast height, or 1. 3 m above ground level), they were categorized as trees. GHB (CM) of each tree was measured using a measuring tape. For forking or branching stems, measurement was done separately. For the seedlings and saplings, they were only identified and counted.
Other observations, such as debris and abstract type, were also noted. II. Recovery Typhoon Impacts on the areas were recorded. Trees wealth the plots were Judged as dead or alive, and assigned to one of three structural impact categories: standing, fallen, or snapped. The approximate height of breakage for snapped trees was also whether well reformatted, poorly reformatted, or dead were recorded. Ill. Regenerative Capacity In assessing the regenerative capacity, the number of seedlings and saplings were monitored every month from February until April 2014. Live and dead plants were noted. Data Analyses
The forest vegetation was evaluated using the following formula described by Croûton teal in 1984. Density was measured species wise and total in each plot as follows: Total density of all species = sum of all species densities (2) Basal area was measured species wise and total in each plot as follows: Basal area (mm) of each species = 0. 005 x DAB (7) Importance value of a species = relative density + relative dominance + relative frequency Species diversity was described according to the Shannon index (H) based on importance value of a species (N’) and sum of importance value for all the species (N). H = NUN log NUN (10)