short essay

Short Essay 3 is a literature review. In order to write this paper you need to have done research on your research topic. The FIVE sources you need for that paper are the five that you will discuss in this essay. Instructions on how to write a literature review are included.  Remember it is a minimum of 500 words.
Literature review: refers to any collection of materials on a topic. A review does not necessarily mean that your reader wants you to give your personal opinion on whether or not you liked these sources. 
A literature review discusses published information on a particular subject area, and sometimes, within a certain time period. The focus of a literature review will summarize and synthesize the arguments and ideas of others without adding new contributions. 
Literature reviews can give you an overview and act as a stepping stone. The review provides a solid background for a research paper’s investigation. Comprehensive knowledge of the literature of the field is essential to most research papers. 
You will need to know: 
•           How many sources should you include? (5 for this class)
•           What types of sources (books, journal articles, websites)?
•           Should you summarize, synthesize, or critique your sources by discussing a common theme or issue? (up to you)
•           Should you evaluate your sources? (You should!)
•           Should you provide subheadings and other background information, such as definitions and/or a history? (no need for this course) 
The narrower your topic, the easier it will be to limit the number of sources you need to read in order to get a good survey of the material. 
In the sciences information even two years old could be obsolete. However, if you are writing a review in the humanities, history, or social sciences, a survey of the history of the literature may be what is needed, because what is important is how perspectives have changed through the years. 
It does have a pattern! 
Do not just list your sources and go into detail about each one of them one at a time. Instead consider what themes or issues connect your sources together.Do they present one or different solutions? Is there an aspect of the field that is missing? How well do they present the material and do they portray it according to an appropriate theory? Do they reveal a trend in the field? A raging debate?  Pick one of these themes to focus the organization of your review. 
You still need an introduction, a body and a conclusion to the review. 
You do not need a thesis, but do start with a simple introduction that explains how you decided to organize your review. Example: 
The current trend in treatment for congestive heart failure combines surgery and medicine.
More and more cultural studies scholars are accepting popular media as a subject worthy of academic consideration.
You can organize your research in different ways:

Chronological: obvious
By publication: where you got them
By trend: how have ideas changed or stayed the same?
Thematic: may still also be chronological but also may have different points
Methodological: not so much content of papers but what methods did the researchers use, what did they focus on? 

Other things you may need to include in your review:

Current situation
History
Methods and standards: what is the criteria you used to select your sources. 

Select only the most important points in each source to highlight. The information should relate directly to the review’s focus, whether it is thematic, methodological, or chronological. 
Remember to summarize and synthesize your sources within each paragraph as well as throughout the review. 
Use your own voice by starting and ending the paragraph with your own ideas and words. Do not use any direct quotes because the survey nature of the literature review does not allow for in-depth discussion. Some short quotes here and there are okay, though, if you want to emphasize a point. When paraphrasing a source be sure to represent the author’s information or opinions accurately and in your own words. 
Before you hand it in make sure to review your paper!

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