Sustainable development is about human development where the use of natural resources aim to meet the needs of human beings while simultaneously ensuring that the environment is maintained. These needs….
Safety Program Development
Effective evaluation of the safety program. Increase employers and employees’ involvement in worksheet hazard assessment and control by 25%. Reduce accident rate by 25% Pages Appendix 01 “Safety & health program responsibilities” Appendix 02 “Job Safety Analysis OSHA)” 12 Appendix 03 “Sample form for correction tracking” 15 Appendix 04 “Rout cause analysis” 18 I. Chapter 01 : Management & Employee involvement The overall safety in a workplace is a responsibility of both the employers and employees. The employers need to work together with their employees toward safety improvements.
Management must encourage employees’ involvement in improving safety. Employees need to inform and communicate with management to what is needed to be done to improve safety. L. A. Being a visible management and taking charge Management must prove their commitment and detection toward achieving a safer environment for their workers. Management musts make themselves visible by being out there in the working area inspecting how to improve safety. Getting where you can be seen: Be visible when taking parts in any operation in order to be more aware of the working environment and the employees.
This way the workers feel appreciated and aware of management good intentions for improving safety. This method can be done formally or informally depending on management participation levels. 0 Being Accessible: Employees need to have chances to communicate to management when necessary without going through complicated procedures. The employers must give the employees an easy two way communication process for reporting situations, comments or any work related issue regarding safety. Sacrificing or cutting authority to obtain accessibility between management and workers is not necessary.
Adequate accessibility is as simple as having an open door policy or skipping large formal meeting. Being an example: When rules and regulation are issue management should be the first to follow it showing the workers their participation and dedication. Rules must apply to everyone in the workplace with no exception. Following rules can be as simple as wearing safety equipment, such as, safety glasses. Taking charge: Management must be clear on what is required by their workers. Rules, regulations and polices must be officially stated and written in a clear easy to understand language.
In addition, rules and regulation must be enforced with no exception. Management must follow on safety processes and make sure that individuals are performing their responsibilities. Management must not neglect employee involvement regarding safety issues. Workers are the first to be exposed to potential hazards. Workers are the ones who understand what must be done to reduce hazards associate with working procedures. Management need to encourage and increase worker precipitations, making them more aware of their safety roles and expectations.
Employees can help management in safety issues by: Participating in Joint labor-management committees and other advisory or specific purpose committees. Conducting site inspections. Analyzing routine hazards in each step of a Job and/or a process and preparing safe work practices or controls or eliminate or reduce exposure. Developing and revising the site safety and health rules. Providing program and presentations at safety and health meetings. Training of both current and newly haired employees. Conducting accident or incident investigations.
Management can increase employees’ precipitation in safety by: Showing workers management’s detection to make the workplace safer and healthier. Adequate leadership from management that leads to employees’ commitment. Management must not refuse any worker involvement; get as many help as you can. Reward and recognize workers for their efforts and accomplishments in achieving safety or following rules. Be clear on want you need workers to do (good communication). Give workers the resources necessary to perform the Job with the adequate training. Show your seriousness in their work toward safety.
II. Chapter 02: Supervision and responsibility to the safety program All personal and acknowledge and understand their responsibilities toward safety. The employer has a responsibility to his/her workers, making sure that they are not exposed to any potential hazards and work in a safe environment. In addition, employers must clearly communicate with workers about their responsibilities toward safety, making ere that no confusion occurs. II. A. Reviewing existing organization Management must understand and be well inform of each individual safety roles in the workplace.
Employees’ roles in any safety and health program can be identified by using a specific worksheet (Appendix OLL- Page 04). Organizational structure and Job titles vary from one company to the next, but they include general assignments of health responsibilities. Some examples Job titles and job decryption include: President/owner/site manager: Establish policies – provide leadership & resources – set objectives – assign susceptibilities – hold people accountable – interact with employees – set a good example – review accident reports – provide medical programs – establish safety training programs.
Safety and health director/coordinator: Maintain safety & health – familiar with safety laws – aware of all presented hazards and their preventions – evaluation of the workplace’ safety – design control & preventive procedures – assist & support supervisors & employees regarding safety – communicate safety rules – review hazard reports – evaluate emergency drills. Plant superintendents/division managers/directors:
Provide leadership – maintain accountability – follow up on employees’ suggestions analyze the facility for potential hazards – follow up on periodic hazards analysis encourage reporting hazards by employees – provide the necessary PEP (Personal Protective Equipment) – maintain safety meetings – help develop emergency procedures. Supervisors: Evaluate worker’s performances – encourage precipitation in safety and health programs follow up on preventive maintenance – investigate accidents – discourage short cuts follow safety rules – familiarize everyone with emergency procedures. Employees’ responsibilities:
Understand all safety rules – responsible for your safety and the safety of other employees – offer safety and health suggestions – get involve in safety – be aware of your responsibilities in an emergency – know where the first aid kit is – report all accidents. II. B. Assigning & determining responsibilities Corporate management roles in safety: Management is responsible to their employees for providing a working area free of any recognized hazards that can causes injury or death. Managements must establish specific goals and objectives that aim to reduce injuries caused by specific unsafe behaviors.
Any safety and health program will not be able to go very far without management support. Management must hold employees accountable for their actions. This can be done by rewarding workers for following safety and taking the necessary disciplinary action when they fail to follow safety rules. Management need to obtain constant feedback for determining the effectiveness of the safety program. In addition, management must get involve in the safety program, through attention to workers, precipitation in investigations and following safety rules. The facility manager roles in safety:
The facility manager must acknowledge his or her responsibilities to maintain adequate house keeping, establishing safe working procedures and making sure that employees follow them. The shape and physical condition of the facility also plays an important role in achieving safety. The facility manager must make sure that everything is in good condition, taking employees suggestions into active consideration. Workers must obtain adequate training in using PEP and machines operations. Also, the facility manger must educate the employees about the areas’ safety rules and polices, making sure that they are followed correctly.
The facility manager is accountable to both upper management and his or her employees. The facility mangers must also have significant involvement in communications, obtaining feedback and performing tours around the working area (formal & informal) making any necessary corrections. First line supervisor roles in safety and health: The first line supervisor has more specific goals and objectives compare to other managers. The first line supervisor has various roles regarding safety, since he or she is in first contact with the employees.
He or she need to set the necessary standard or achieving safety through good housekeeping and desired safety conditions. The first line supervisor must determine the employees understanding and practice of safety rules and regulation in the work area. Effective safety training of employees and continuous observation from the first line supervisor is essential. Employees’ level of safety awareness can be increased by: Setting specific working standards and following them through. Employees’ precipitation in safety meeting with their superiors. Following up on safety inspection and making all the necessary corrections.
Management recognizes employees’ outstanding achievements toward safety. Supervisors must sincerely listen to employees’ complaints and suggestions. The employer must provide an adequate Hazard (Hazard Communication Standers) to his or her employees. Information on all the chemicals in the workplace must be easily accessible to workers in case of an emergency. In addition, proper training for chemical handling, storage and transportation is necessary as part of an ongoing process. Ill. A. Chemical overview, communication standards & hazards Chemical overview: Chemicals can be either in a solid, liquid or gaseous state.
Chemicals can be found in drums, tanks, pressure vessels and process systems. Responses to spills or exposure depend on the chemical properties. Material Safety Data Sheets (MASS) and labels on the chemical containers are essential for determining how workers must respond. Hazard communication standards: Chemical handling requires adequate training before any initiations are taken. The training and education must include the following: Knowledge about Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) standards. Knowledge on all chemicals in the workplace and hazards associate with them.
Informing workers of the facility written plan to deal with chemical hazards. How to use MASS and labels. How can workers protect themselves and others. Hazards: Physical Hazards: Physical hazards includes, a sudden violent reaction involving flammable, explosive or reactive materials. Proper handling is the key to deal with physical hazards. Information from MASS can be obtained about storing, mixing or moving chemicals. Physical hazards can be identified as: Oxidized Water reactive Organic peroxide Combustible Health Hazards: Chemicals can cause adverse health effects if workers became over exposed.
There are two types of health effects: Acute health effects: occurs over short periods of time due to immediate exposure, they can be minor or serious. Some examples include burning or irritation. Chronic health effects: occurs over long periods of time due to prolong exposure in small amounts. Some examples include cancer, liver disease or lead poisoning. Ill. B. Exposure limits, controlling exposure & Safety on the Job Exposure limits: Exposure limits are governmental standards indicating when overexposure occurs. PEEL – Permissible Exposure Limit: Must not be exceeded, over an our average rookery.
TTL – Threshold Limit Value: Must not be exceeded, over an our average workday. STEEL – Short-Term Exposure Limit: can be safety exposed to over 1 5-minute period. IDLE – Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: very hazardous, must not be exposed to. Controlling exposures: There are several methods used to control exposures to chemicals. Engineering controls can be use to keep exposures below PEEL and TTL levels. Also, maintaining adequate ventilation system can reduce exposure to hazardous chemicals. When exposure can not be avoided, using proper PEP depending on the chemical is essential.
PEP are used to prevent exposure through skin absorption, inhalation, ingestion and injection. Chemical safety on the Job: Identify all chemical hazards in the workplace. Know how to deal with chemical in both regular and emergency operations. Treat unknown chemical as hazardous ones. Make sure to use the appropriate PEP by looking at MASS. Inspect your PEP before and after use. Know the workplace emergency procedures. Know location of emergency showers, first aid kits, fire extinguishers and eyewash. Always secure the exposed area and ask for help. Maintain good hygiene to prevent outside exposures. IV. Chapter 04: Lockout / Dugout
There are energies in the workplace that might be accidentally released and cause serious injuries or death. The employers, with the proper training of workers, must prevent the accidental release of these hazardous energies. This can be achieved through using lockout/dugouts. ‘V. A. What is lockout/dugout & when they must be perform What is lockout/dugout? Lockouts: The employer places a lock on any energy isolating device, making sure it cannot be removed from the closed position. Such devices include circuit breaker or valve handle. Dugout: The employer attaches a written note (warring tag) on the equipment or device that