Reducing and Analyzing Crime Through the Compstat Process

Reducing and Analyzing Crime Through the Compstat Process Prepared for Professor Suresh Radhakrishnan SPHR, MBA BUS 346 Business Communication San Fernando Valley Campus, Burbank, CA Prepared by Isaac Lowe 03-13-13 Table of Contents 1. Executive Summary ………………………………………………………………………ii 2. Overview of Compstat ……………………………………………………………………1 3. Four Compstat Principles …………………………………………………………………1 4. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has established a uniform Crime Reporting …….. 2 5. Computing Year to Date (YTD) Weekly Averages ………………………………………2 6.
Creating the Crime Summary Report ……………………………………………………. 3 7. Analysis of Crime Data and Strategies ……… ……………………………………………3 8. Crime Summary Report …………………………………………………………………4 9. Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………8 10. References ………………………………………………………………………………. 9 List of Illustrations Figure 1 Crime Data Chart ………………………………………………………… 4 Figure 2 Year to Date Crime Data Chart …………………………………………. 4 i Reducing and Analyzing Crime Through the Compstat Process Executive Summary Law enforcement has developed strategies to reduce crime by analyzing crime data.
Law enforcement has named this crime reduction strategy as the Compstat process. The Compstat concept analyzes the number and location of crimes and arrests as well as an analysis of suspects, victims, days and times to identify crime patterns, clusters, suspects and hot spots. There are four Compstat principles that are in place to effectively reduce crime. To reduce crime by analyzing the crime data, a Crime Summary Report and Crime Maps need to be produced so law enforcement can analyze the crime data. When creating the Crime Summary Report, you will need to compute Year to Date (YTD) Weekly Averages.

Once you have the YTD weekly average, you can examine your current crime data to see if crime is increasing or decreasing. By comparing the current crime to the previous amount of crime you can see if crime is up or down and determine if the crime reduction strategies in place are working or if adjustments need to be made. The Compstat process and the Crime Summary Report are tools used for crime reduction. ii Reducing and Analyzing Crime Through the Compstat Process1 Overview of Compstat Law enforcement has developed strategies to reduce crime by analyzing crime data.
Law enforcement has named this crime reduction strategy as the Compstat process. The Compstat process was developed by former New York Police Department (NYPD) Commissioner William J. Bratton in the 1990’s. Compstat, stands for “Computer comparison statistics,” and is a system for managing police operations. The Compstat concept has been used widely in the law enforcement community in many different forms. The Compstat concept analyzes the number and location of crimes and arrests as well as an analysis of suspects, victims, days and times to identify crime patterns, lusters, suspects and hot spots. Law enforcement will create strategies to address the crime and implement it as quickly as possible. Law enforcement will consistently review, analyze the results and then repeat the process. This Compstat process can lead to the reduction of crime. Four Compstat Principles There are four Compstat principles that are in place to effectively reduce crime. The first principle is “Timely and Accurate Intelligence” which is knowing what crime is happening in your area. The Second principle is “Effective Tactics” which is having a game plan.
The third principle is “Rapid Deployment” which is reacting quickly to where the crime is happening. The final principle is “Relentless Follow-up and Assessment” which is analyzing the results and making changes if needed. The first Compstat principle of “Accurate and Timely Intelligence” is to collect crime data in real time. Analysis the crime data and take action on identified crime trends. The crime data needs to be as accurate as possible. Without accurate and real time crime data, law enforcement will not be as effective in combating crime and implementing crime reduction strategies.
Reducing and Analyzing Crime Through the Compstat Process2 The second Compstat principle of “Effective Tactics” is the development and implementation of crime reduction strategies based on the real time accurate intelligence that was gathered. Law enforcement needs to deploy specific resources and proactive strategies to target the crime problem. The third Compstat principle of “Rapid Deployment” is to quickly deploy crime fighting resources and implement strategies to the target area. Law enforcement needs to deploy its resources to where the crime is occurring now.
The fourth Compstat principle of “Relentless Follow-up and Assessment” is to assess the implementation of the strategies had on target area and analyze the results. By analyzing the strategies and reviewing the results, law enforcement can see if the strategies are working. This review process will help law enforcement improve and make real time adjustments to the strategies in place. FBI Established Uniform Crime Reporting To reduce crime by analyzing the crime data, a Crime Summary Report and Crime Maps need to be produced so law enforcement can analyze the crime data.
The Crime Summary Report is divided into a summary for each individual crime. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has established a uniform Crime Reporting Program which are Criminal Homicide, Forcible Rape, Robbery, Assault, Burglary, Larceny-Theft, Motor Vehicle Theft and Arson. These crimes are also known as “Part One” crimes. Computing Year to Date Weekly Averages When creating the Crime Summary Report, you will need to compute Year to Date (YTD) Weekly Averages. To do this, you will examine the collected crime data and see what the total number was for the specific crime that you are going to examine.
Take that YTD total number for that specific crime and divide it by the total week’s crime data of that specific crime. The outcome will be the YTD weekly average. Once you have the YTD weekly average, you can examine your current crime data to Reducing and Analyzing Crime Through the Compstat Process3 see if crime is increasing or decreasing. Here is an example of the weekly average formula that you will use when computing the crime data for each specific crime: YTD Crime Total (137) / Crime Total for the week (7) = YTD Weekly Average (19. ). This formula will be used throughout the Crime Summary Report to obtain the YTD Weekly Averages for each crime summary. Creating the Crime Summary Report To start creating the Crime Summary Report, first, impute the 2012 and 2013 YTD Part One Averages on the top of the report so you can see the overall crime trend. Second, create a Crime Data Charts from the collected Crime Data. Next, provide an overall summary of all Part One Crime Data. Then give a summary of the Part One Violent Crime summary and Part One Property Crime Summary.
Next, provide a brief summary of the each individual crime within Part One Violent and Part One Property Crimes. This brief summary will include an Analysis of the crime data and a Strategy of how to target the current crime problem. Analysis of Crime Data and Strategies The Analysis section of the Crime Summary Report is where you will be analyzing the crime data. By examining the Crime Maps of where the crime occurred and the Crime Data you will be able to provide a written summary of the crime trend. In Analysis section you will also be using the weekly average formula to help you examine the Crime Data.
The Strategies section of the Crime Summary Report is where you will be explaining your strategies to combat the current crime trends. The following is a Crime Summary Report that I have completed for the 9th week of 2013, ending 03/02/13,that can be referred to for an example. Reducing and Analyzing Crime Through the Compstat Process4 Crime Summary Report 9th week of 2013 ending: 03/02/2013 20132012 Average Year to Date (YTD) Weekly Part 1 Crime Totals:65. 576. 0 [pic] Figure 1: Crime Data Chart [pic] Figure 2: Year to Date Crime Chart Part One Crime Summary
Part-One Crimes (61) were above the week prior and are below the 2013 Year To Date (YTD) Weekly Average and below the 2012 YTD Weekly Average. There were (3) gang related Robberies and there Reducing and Analyzing Crime Through the Compstat Process5 was (2) gang related Aggravated Assaults this week. The central portions of the Division continues to account for the majority of the part one crime. Part One Violent Crimes (27) were above the week prior and are above the 2013 YTD Weekly Average of (21. 1) and above the 2012 YTD Weekly Average of (22. 2). Robberies increased this week and were mainly in central portion of the Division.
Aggravated Assaults increased this week and were mostly spread out through the central portion of the Division. There were no Rapes and Homicides this week. Part One Property Crimes (34) were below the week prior and are below the 2013 YTD weekly average of (44. 6) and below the 2012 YTD Weekly Average of (53. 7). This week BTFV’s decreased with no major clusters. GTA increased slightly this week and were mainly spread out through the western portion of the Division. Burglaries decreased this week with no major clusters. Thefts increased this week and there was a small cluster in the central portion of the Division.
Part One Violent Crime Summary HOMICIDE: 0 Analysis:None. Strategies:None. RAPE: 0 Analysis:None. Strategies:None. ASSAULTS: 11 Analysis: Aggravated Assaults are above the 2013 weekly average of (7. 1). Aggravated Assaults increased this week and were mainly in the central portion of the Division. Reducing and Analyzing Crime Through the Compstat Process6 Strategies: Request patrol & specialized units to continue drinking in public enforcement in directed areas. Officers will be directed to specific areas as needed to suppress the Aggravated Assault problem. ROBBERY: 16 Analysis:
Robberies are above the 2013 Weekly Average of (13). Robberies increased this week and were mainly in the central portion of the Division. Strategies: Officer will be directed to specific areas as needed to suppress the Robbery problem. Request Gang Unit to enforce on all gang related crime. Narcotic Unit will conduct undercover operations to specific areas where the Robberies are occurring. Part One Property Crime Summary GRAND THEFT AUTO: 8 Analysis: Grand Theft Auto (GTA) are above the 2013 Weekly Average of (7. 6) and were mainly spread out through the western portion of the Division. Strategies:
Officers will be directed to specific areas as needed to suppress the GTA problem. Officers will continue to receive updated GTA stolen vehicle list. The License Plate Recognition Vehicles will continue to be deployed in designated areas. Rampart Special Problems Unit (SPU) and Auto Detectives will also arrange a Bait Car Operation when the bait car is available. BURGLARY THEFT FROM VEHICLE: 4 Analysis: Burglary Theft From Vehicle (BTFV) are below the 2013 Weekly Average of (15. 0). This week BTFV’s decreased with no major clusters. Reducing and Analyzing Crime Through the Compstat Process7 Strategies:
Officers will be directed through the daily mission to suppress the BTFV problem. Senior Lead Officers will continue the “Lock it, Hide it, Keep it” flyer campaign. Detectives will utilize Social Media to reach and educate as many community members as possible. Auto Detectives will arrange a Bait Car Operation when the bait car is available. BURGLARY: 2 Analysis: Burglaries are below the 2013 Weekly Average of (4. 6) with no major clusters. Strategies: Officers will be directed through the daily mission as needed to suppress the Burglary problem.
Senior Lead Officers (SLO) will continue the “Lock it, Hide it, Keep it” flyer campaign. Detectives will utilize Social Media to reach and educate as many community members as possible. THEFTS: 20 Analysis: Thefts are above the 2013 Weekly Average of (17. 3) and were mainly spread out through the Division with a small cluster in the central portion of the Division. Strategies: Officers will be directed through the Daily Mission as needed. The decoy car will continue to be deployed in the major shopping centers. Officers will continue to drive through major parking lots of the shopping centers.
SLO will continue to walk through businesses on a daily bases and continue to meet with the personnel. The Bike Unit will provide high visibility patrol in the parking lots of the shopping centers. -End of Crime Summary Report- Reducing and Analyzing Crime Through the Compstat Process8 After reading the Crime Summary Report we can see how through analyzing the Crime Data and Crime Maps we are able to effectively write a written summary of the crime trends. Furthermore, we are able to analyze our strategies to see if they are effective. The Crime Summary Report gives us a comprehensive account of the current crime trends.
Conclusion In conclusion, to successfully reduce the incidence of crime, it is done through comparing the numbers of the current crime to the previous amount of crime. Whether crime is up or down, will help determine if the crime reduction strategies are working or if adjustments need to be made so a different approach can be implemented. The Compstat process and the Crime Summary Report are tools used for crime reduction by counting, comparing and mapping crime data for law enforcement to analyze. Reducing and Analyzing Crime Through the Compstat Process9 References Los Angeles Police Department’s Compstat Unit. 2010, March 09). The Compstat Process – Managing Crime Reduction on the LAPD. George Gascon. (2006, January 25). Compstat Plus. David Weisburd, Stephen D. Mastrofski, Rosann Greenp, and James J. Willis. (2004, April). The Growth of Compstat in American Policing. LAPD Website. Compstat process information Retrieved March, 08, 2013, from http://www. lapdonline. org William J. Bratton and Sean W. Malinowski. Police Performance Management in Practice: Taking COMPSTAT to the Next Level Vincent E. Henry. (2002) A comprehensive study of Compstat in police history and reform