reasons for antibiotic resistance and society impact

reasons for antibiotic resistance. Explain 2-3 societal reasons for antibiotic resistance.Reasons should relate to practices in our society which lead to antibiotic resistance. Explain 2-3 molecular reason for antibiotic resistance. (Molecular reasons should explain mechanisms in the cell which create the resistance). Please describe the growing problem of antibiotic resistant gonorrhea (CDC video)? Check out the antibiotic fact sheet and take the antibiotic resistance online quiz (WHO websites). Did you learn anything new after receiving your score? Please Explain. 

Innate Immune System

  • State the difference between the innate and adaptive immune system.
  • Compare and contrast the function of skin and mucous membranes as first line defense mechanisms for the innate immune system. List 3 similarities and 3 differences.
  • Use your textbook chapter and video resources, describe 3 chemical defenses which contribute to the 1st line of defense.
  • Your description should include the chemical defense, location in the body and a brief 1 sentence description of the chemical defense.
  • Explain 2 reasons why the microbiome is considered part of the innate immune defenses.
  • Using the following table compare the functions of the following leukocytes.
Leukocytes
Basophils or more specifically Mast Cells
Neutrophils
Macrophages
B lymphocytes

Immune System

Recognizing “Self from non-self” is an important component of the immune system.  Please describe the meaning of the statement.  How do phagocytes recognize pathogens? (check out the phagocytosis animation and my panopto video)  

 Describe how the bacterial species Listeria is able to survive phagocytosis (fairly detailed animation, do not worry about the actin tails).

  A bacterial species which is an intracellular pathogen (survives inside the cell) is able to produce a protein which inhibits the fusion of the lysosome with the phagosome.  Explain why the production of this protein is beneficial for survival of the bacterial species within the host organism.

  Histamine is a proinflammatory signal within the inflammation pahway. Please explain when or how histamine is released and 2 examples of consequences of histamine signaling.List the signs and symptoms of inflammation. Can you explain the cellular basis of the signs and symptoms based on your knowledge of the inflammation?

Interferons are another component of the innate defenses. What type of infection triggers the synthesis of interferons? How do interferons work as part of the immune system?

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