Leone P. Aboard, DVD, which basically aims for appropriate alignment of descriptive titles of seventeen (17) positions to be reconciled to actual nature of work rendered by the respective incumbents….
Reaction Paper: Overview
————————————————- Sarimanok The Sarimanok is a legendary bird of the Maranao people who originate from Mindanao, a major island in the Philippines. It comes from the words “sari” and “manok. ” “Sari” means cloth or garment, which is generally of assorted colors.  Manok, which makes up part of its name, is a Philippine word for chicken. Description It is the legeNdary bird that has become a ubiquitous symbol of Maranao art. It is depicted as a fowl with colorful wings and feathered tail, holding a fish on its beak or talons.
The head is profusely decorated with scroll, leaf, and spiral motifs. It is said to be a symbol of good fortune.  ————————————————- Origin The Sarimanok is derived from a totem bird of the Maranao people, called Itotoro. According to the Maranao people, the Itotoro is a medium to the spirit world via its unseen twin spirit bird called Inikadowa. The Sarimanok is also believed to have originated from an Islamic legend. According to the legend,Muhammad found a rooster in the first of the seven heavens. The bird was so large its crest touched the second heaven.
Its crow roused every living creature except man. Judgement day would come once this celestial rooster ceased to crow.  A Maranao legend also says of a Sultan’s daughter being swept by a colorful rooster that became a handsome young man and they were never seen ever again. The Sultan then created replicas of the bird to remember his daughter by.  ————————————————- Cultural Significance According to the tradition, the sarimanok is never displayed by itself. It must be displayed with the set of flags, standards and vexilloids.
At present, this is not totally true; sarimanok may be placed on the top of the umbrella of a Sultan or dignitary, and also, the Mindanao State University has adopted it for the graduation exercises following a non-traditional use.  The Far Eastern University seal bears the FEU Coat of Arms and the sarimanok motif. The FEU Coat of arms consists of eight-pointed golden star that represents the first eight main disciplines of FEU. The sarimanok is a legendary bird in full color that project the nationalistic spirit upon which the university is founded.
The university wanted to have a Filipino touch in everything because they were one of the first universities in the Philippines to be founded by a pure-blooded Filipino, Dr. Nicanor Reyes, Sr..  The Sarimanok My first encounter with this legendary bird wasn’t very overwhelming. The Sarimanok appears on the station ID of a local TV station in the Philippines back in the late 90’s which one can probably see at least twice a day. It became just a nice bird with lots of colors. It doesn’t seem very special, and it looks like a rooster. But then again, the bird is very symbolical. It means wealth and prosperity to the Maranaos.
Tracing its roots to Islam due to the involvement of Muhammad in this, it is of no surprise that its popularity is widely accepted in the southern parts of the country. The Maranao legend says of a sultan’s daughter being swept by a colorful rooster that turned to a dashing, handsome young man and the two was never seen ever again. The sultan then created visual replicas of the bird so that she can remember her daughter through it. Maybe he finds it easier to remember the chicken, rather than her daughter. It is surprising that we Filipinos have a legendary bird too, just like the Phoenix.
It is through the nature of its appearance that it probably got its name. Sarimeans cloth or garment, which is generally full of colors and Manok (you should go back to being a baby if you’re Filipino and don’t know what manok is). The Sarimanok is a colorful chicken indeed. Kulintang ensemble Group: Maranao The complete ensemble Two gongs on the stand The head representing the mythical bird Sarimanok Photographs copyright: F. de Jager Classification Idiophones: gong chime and large gong Membranophones: conical drum and cylindrical drum Local names Set of eight gongs: Kulintang Large gong: Agung Cylindrical drum: Gandang
Conical drum: Dadabuan Description Set of eight gongs made of bronze, on a wooden stand in the shape of a Sarimanok(mythical bird, divine messenger). Accompanied by one larger gong (here made of iron, but usually also made of bronze) and two drums. The eight small gongs differ in pitch but the height of the tone is not fixed and can differ per set. The number of large gongs can vary from one to several gongs of different pitch and size. The small gongs are struck with two sticks of appr. 30 cm. length and made of a soft kind of wood, probably of the papaya tree. The large gong is struck with a special beater.
The conical drum is struck with a thin piece of bamboo of appr. 40 c. m. length. The cylindrical drum is struck with either the hands or two short wooden sticks. To indicate the dimensions of the whole set, the length of the Sarimanok-shaped stand is 2,60 mtr, from head to tail. For other dimensions, see the pages of the other instruments of the ensemble (see above). Remarks The drums, the stand and the frame are all quite roughly made but elaborately decorated with colourfully painted wood carvings, called ‘okiran’. The stand for the large gong is a copy based on photographs of a stand used by a
Maranaw cultural group. The stand was made for the exhibiton ‘Ugnayan, music in the Philippines’, in 1977 in the The Hague Municipal Museum and in 1978 in the Rotterdam Ethnographic Museum. Ethnic group: Maranao Location: Central-west Mindanao (muslim south) Maranao (Maranao: [‘m? ranaw]), also spelled as Meranao, Meranaw and Maranaw, is the term used officially by the Philippine government in reference to the southern tribe who are now the people of the lake called Ranao in the Iranaon language, a predominantlyMuslim region in the Philippines island of Mindanao.
They are famous for their artwork, sophisticated weaving, wood and metal crafts, and their epic literature. The word Maranao, also spelled Maranaw is a misnomer as it does not have a sense in reference to nouns such as people, place or thing. The prefix MA- means ‘to be’, i. e. , Maranao means to be lake. The real term is IRANAON which when pronounced fluently is IRANON (also Iranun)meaning “People of the Lake,” referring to the indigenous people who inhabited the lands around Lake Lanao whose principal town is Marawi City. The Maranaos are part of the wider Moro ethnic group, who constitute the sixth largest Filipino ethnic group.
The life of the Maranaos is centered on Lake Lanao, the largest in Mindanao, and the second largest and deepest lake in the Philippines. This breathtakingly beautiful lake is surrounded with myths and legends, it is the main source of fisheries, and the main source of a hydroelectric plant installed on it; and the Agus River system that generates 70% of the electricity used by the people of Mindanao. A commanding view of the lake is offered by Marawi City, the provincial capital ————————————————- Etymology
The ancient people in Mainland Mindanao were called Iranun, also spelled Iranon, of the coastal area of Illana Bay (Ilian in Maranao) and Iranaon of the people in Bembaran orBukidnon and Kiaranda Area, a ragat or ranao, a lake, in local language. The Iranon is the people of the constant flow of rivers and creeks from the mountains to the coastal areas. A volcanic eruption developed a flat land surface little-by-little. In modern science describes and illustrates this process as results of sedimentary formation and residual remains that forms the low and flat land surface in the coastal areas.
The Maranao vernacular called it “ira” which means remains. Thus, the name of the people in the coastal area of Illana Bay was derived from the root word “ira” plus “ranao” forms the word Iranaon which means people living the residual remains in the coastal areas. In present days, the Maranao refers the word Iranaon “tao sa ragat” or the people of Lanao who migrated to sea area [others believed that the word Maranao is a combination of two words “Malay” and “Lanao” or the Ancient Lake Lanao thus making it “Maranao” that mean People living around lake lanao] while the Maranaos are people who dwelled around the lake of Lanao.
These peoples belong to same genealogy, lineages, culture and history. They are called Maranao in general term. ————————————————- Culture and Customs Language Maranao is an Austronesian language spoken by the Maranao people in the provinces of Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur in the Philippines.  Art Sarimanok is a legendary bird of the Maranao that has become a ubiquitous symbol of their art. It is depicted as a fowl with colorful wings and feathered tail, holding a fish on its beak or talons. The head is profusely decorated with scroll, leaf, and spiral motifs.
It is said to be a symbol of good fortune.  Musical Heritage Main articles: Music of the Philippines and Kulintang The native Maranao have a fascinating culture that revolves around kulintang music, a specific type of gong music, found among both Muslim and non-Muslim groups of the Southern Philippines. Biyula is another Instrument for the Maranao people to use, Biyula is a string instrument. In 2005, the Darangen Epic of the Maranao people of Lake Lanao was selected by UNESCO as a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. Cuisine Exquisite Maranao cuisine and hospitality are palpable. 7] They are known of having a spicy taste in their foods. A condiment made of traditionally cultivated spices, locally known as Palapa is one of their distinguished cuisine symbol. It is made of stewed scallion bulbs or “sakurab” in Maranao. The thinly sliced scallion bulbs and ginger are caramelized by slow cooking and mixed with chillies and little coconut oil.  Maranao recipes are so rich that it talks about life itself! Suffice it to say that the recipes are intertwined with the life cycle rites and rituals of all aspects of Maranao society and culture: from birth to death.
In other words, food cannot be separated with daily life activities because food is life itself!  The Legend of Maranao Food According to a scholar, food is one of the panabi-nabian, prophet, a mercy and a gift from Allah. “When the world was created, mankind had no food to eat. The soil was asked to feed mankind but it refused because it does not have enough to feed mankind. And so one of the sons of Fatima, Asa, was buried so that Nabi Adam will also be fed and be able to move. For seven days Nabi Saopak was buried. After seven days, it grew.
On the head part grew a coconut, on the heart grew the palay, on the pelvis grew cotton, and on the lower art grew a white chicken. The palay was harvested and fed to mankind. “ ————————————————- Demographics Maranaos number about 1,142,000. Along with the Illanun and Maguindanao, the Maranao are one of three related indigenous Muslim groups native to the island of Mindanao. In turn, these groups also share genes, linguistic and cultural ties to non-Muslim Lumad groups such as the Tiruray or Subanon.
Maranao royals have varied infusions of Arab, Indian, Malay, Javanese, as well as Chinese ancestry. The language of the Maranao people is also called Maranao. It is a language spoken by approximately 1,142,000 people living in areas near Lanao del Sur and Lanao del Norte.  The language can be traced from the Southern Philippine sub-branch of the Western Austronesian language family, and is closely related to the Illanun language spoken in Sabah and Malaysia. It is also close toMaguindanaon, the language spoken in Maguindanao, North Cotabato, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, and
Zamboanga del Sur provinces. They speak Cebuano, Tagalog, and Arabic language, and English as second languages. Practically, all Maranaos are Muslims. A few, especially those living in the hills around Lake Lanao practice a version of Islam mixed with traces of pre-Islamic traditions. ————————————————- History Previous to the occupation of the Philippines by Spanish, and later American and Japanese, the Maranaos had their own kingdom with a Sultan ruler due to the influence of Muslim missionaries. Danganan (Ceremonial Sword Handle), Mindanao Island, Philippines
Danganan, early 20th century Maranao Culture, Mindanao Island, Philippines Ivory, copper, silver and wood; 8 in x 5. 5 in. Bowers Museum #96. 27. 1 Pick Laudati Fund Purchase This exquisite and rare example of a danganan (ceremonial sword handle) once belonged to a Maranao royal. The danganan dates to the first half of the 19th century, a time between the fall of the old royal sultanate and the Spanish occupation of the southern Philippine island of Mindanao. During this time several claimants and out right pretenders made attempts to establish power and declare rule over their own sultanates.
The danganan, a symbol of authority and power, functioned like a scepter and was part of the “sultans’” regalia. The ivory knob is shaped as a stylized bird, the mythical sarimanok – the symbol of Maranao royalty, its people and of the high lake region they are associated with. Islamic influence has shaped much of Maranao culture and the wide bands stamped with shaped tools are evidence of such influence. The elaborate shaft is covered in rings of silver, the narrower of which are worked to show texture. Alternating bands of gilt copper rings are overlaid with gold. Because the object is ceremonial in purpose, the blade attached to it, if