Burrhus F. Skinner, a graduate of Harvard, earned a prominent reputation for his revolutionary practices of “radical behaviorism” in the field of psychology. Skinner’s research, theories and worldview concerning behaviorism….
Psychology Before And Now
Wilhelm Wound Wound founded what is considered to be the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany in 1879. His approach, called structuralism, focused on the elements, or Structure, Of mental processes using the technique known as introspection to define the sensations, images, and feelings of his experimental subjects.
Origins of Psychology Today Research Goals and Methods Ethic in William James James was influenced by Darning’s Theory of Evolution – the process by which over time humans acquire behaviors that benefit their survival. His approach is called functionalism as it focused on the adaptive purpose, or function, of behavior. Psychology Ethic In Sigmund Freud Freud is probably the best known of all names in Psychology. His theories have had an enormous impact on western culture.
He stressed the importance of subconscious sexual desires and aggression in understanding human behaviors. BEHAVIORISM B. F. Skinner John B. Watson Watson was influenced by Pavlov’s work in stimulus and responses, and believed behaviors could be programmed. Skinner added the concepts of rewards (called reinforces) and punishment as motivations for Watson and Skinner believed that in order for Psychology to be a “true” science, it must focus only on behaviors that could be observed and measured.
Humanistic perspective Behavioral Cognitive Biological Psychodrama Evolutionary Psychology today is a broad discipline based on historical and modern schools of thought. Coloratura The 7 current perspectives are: biological, evolutionary, cognitive, psychodrama, behavioral, coloratura, and humanistic. Most psychologists do not rigidly adhere to just one of these perspectives but are likely to take what is referred to as an eclectic approach that integrates or combines several perspectives. 9% Self-employment 34% 4-year colleges and universities Private, non profit 7% Other educational institutions 11% private, for profit 4% Federal government 6% State and local government Business and Industry Educational institutions Government Most psychologist practice in a clinical or counseling setting in private practice, or public institutions. Many others work in the teaching areas, most n colleges, and a few are seen in government organizations.
Origins of Although women and minorities generally were not allowed to receive graduate degrees in the early development of psychology, they still made significant contributions. Margaret Washburn was the first woman to be awarded a doctorate in psychology and was the first female president of the PAP Francis Sumner was the first Africanizing to receive a doctorate in psychology from a U. S. University and is known as the father of African American psychology. Margaret Flow Washburn Francis Us manner In 2007 80% of masters awarded to women 73% of doctorates awarded to women
Almost 25% of doctorates awarded to minorities Nearly Currently far more women than men earn psychology degrees, yet inequities at the professional level still exist. Likewise racial and ethnic minorities in psychology have increased, yet progress has been slow. The main goals of psychology and psychological research are: Describe Describe Behavior Behavior (Observing and describing behavior) Predict Predict Behavior (What behaviors might occur? ) Explain Explain Behavior (Theories to explain the how and why of behavior) Control Control or or Change Change Behavior (Understand behavior in order to change)
Hypothesis: Students who study over a p of 3 weeks before a test perform better than those who wait until the night before Method Data Collection Analysis The steps of the scientific method are: – Define and describe the issue – Form a hypothesis – Choose a research strategy – Conduct the study, and – Analyze data The only method that can show cause and effect is an experiment. Absence Of pain = Dependent Variable Experimental Group Independent Variable Experiments are conducted in controlled settings. Subjects are randomly selected and divided into two groups, the Experimental Group who get the
Independent Variable (the thing being tested to see if it has an effect), and the Control Group who get a Placebo. The differences between the two groups are compared using statistical analysis to determine if the I. V. Truly is an agent of cause. Informed Consent Informed Consent apprises the participant of the general purpose of the research study, including the experimental nature of any treatment. It also gives the method by which participants will be assigned to treatment and control groups, as well as any aspect of the research that may influence a person’s willingness to participate in the research.
In addition, compensation for or monetary costs of participating will be given, as well as any risks or side effects that may be experienced as a result of participation in the study. Tricking participants in an experiment Although some experiments require deception to achieve unbiased results, measures must be taken to ensure participants are in at least as good of condition as before the experiment. In the Amalgam study (further explored in chapter 1 1), participants were subjected to psychological harm as a result of believing themselves to be hurting another person with electric shocks.