Psychologists in Nazi Germany and political environment

Psychologists in Nazi Germany and political environment.

Read the Wolfgang Schonpflug (2017) article "Professional Psychology in Germany, National Socialism, and the Second World War" 

This article describes aspects of professional psychology in Nazi Germany.
Write an analysis of how psychologists in Nazi Germany were influenced by the political environment, whether they seemed to advocate for social justice issues, and what implications, if any, may exist for contemporary professional psychology.
In your analysis, you are expected to focus on YOUR perceptions of how ethical expectations for professional psychology, especially with regard to social justice concerns, have developed since the 1930’s. 

The role of German psychologists under National Socialism and the impact of the Second World War on professional psychology in Germany have become issues that are at once crucial and controversial. After the collapse of National Socialism, German psychologists were reluctant to discuss their involvement with the regime from 1933 to 1945. The response of Johannes von Allesch (1950), then president of the German Psychological Association (GPA), to Franziska Baumgarten-Tramer’s (1948) public remonstrations is exemplary in this regard.

Until 1941, the only formal qualification for psychologists was a doctorate with a focus on psychology. During the 1920s, the doctorate was an academic degree that was conferred by around 30 German universities (Dorsch, 1963, p. 82). The German Ministry of Science and Education (hereafter, also referred to as “Ministry”), which registered the number of doctoral examinations taken between 1932 and 1941 (Reichsministerium für Wissenschaft, Erziehung und Volksbildung, 1943), showed that a total of 316 individuals (including 54 women, nine foreigners) passed the doctoral examination during this time.

Psychologists in Nazi Germany

The advancement of modern technology and administrative practices brought about a growing awareness of the psychological aspects of public institutions such as education, law, industry, and the military. In fact, Hugo Münsterberg (1914a, 1914b) called for psychology to be applied to all areas of modern civilization. Regarding the promotion of practical psychology, there were two guiding concepts: The first was to provide continuing education to professionals from various fields, for example, teachers, engineers, and army officers; the second was that specifically trained professionals should provide psychological services.