Historical and Scientific Perspectives on Homosexuality PSY/265 February 17, 2013 Historical and Scientific Perspectives on Homosexuality To understand homosexuality you need to first understand what it means. Homosexuality is defined….
Progression of Homosexuality
Abstract Progression of Homosexuality: Evolution of a phenomenon over time Some authors believe that homosexuality is not a kind of conduct, as commonly supposed, but a psychological condition (Woggon, 1981). Thus, it is important to understand that the genuine homosexual condition or inversion, as it is often termed. This condition is something for which the subject is in no way responsible. Some literature suggests that homosexuality in itself it is morally neutral. Like the condition of heterosexuality, however, it tends to find expression in specific sexual acts; and such acts are subject to moral judgment (McNeill, 1966).
A major premise established in contemporary literature is the concept that sexual orientation ranges along a continuum, as opposed to simply being heterosexual or homosexual. It is possible that this is mainly because increased attention has been paid to the attraction and not merely the action. Braverman (1973) has examined a scale developed by Kinsey, who thought that homosexuality is a normal manifestation of human sexuality. This scale operationalizes the continuum. People are rated on a scale of zero to six.
Zero representing exclusive heterosexual inclinations and six exclusive homosexual inclinations. Those who don’t fall into either extreme feel a mixture of both to varying degrees. This middle group is theoretically bisexual. However, people who are close to either extreme tend to be absorbed into that respective category. This absorption leaves only those closer to the centre in the bisexual group. Most research conducted has grouped people into these three categories. The Causes of Homosexuality Fathers, on the other hand, were thought to prefer the other children.
In doing so, fathers failed to protect the child from the destructive influence of the mother. The researchers espousing biological and genetic causes of homosexuality were considered to be fringe in those times. Even so, there were studies corroborating such causes. Kallman (1952) conducted a study in which male homosexual monozygotic twins were found to be significantly more similar (in terms of homosexual tendencies) than dizygotic twins. These results were not taken to mean that genetic composition was a necessary condition for the development of homosexuality. Rather, it was generally hought by proponents, that a hereditary physical trait played a role in the cultural shaping of a homosexual. In other words, if a young male or female exhibited physical characteristics associated with the opposite gender that individual would have been treated as if they were homosexual. This would in turn influence their development (a self-fulfilling prophecy). Silberner (1984) referred to a study conducted by the State University of New York, in which researchers found a physical correlate to homosexual behavior. They went further to conclude that biological markers for sexual orientation may exist.
Even so, researchers made it clear that findings did not focus on definite causes of homosexuality. However, it was admitted that there was a real possibility that there is a biological element of the phenomenon. Even into the 1990’s this vein of research has continued. For example, Bower (1993) identified that significant progress had been made in the pursuit of identifying a gene that may influence some instances of male homosexuality. It was suggested that a gene within a small segment of the X chromosome (passed from mother to son), contributes to the sexual orientation of a subset of homosexual men.
Interestingly, a tendency to focus on male homosexuals in scientific research can be seen at this stage. Although an exhaustive list of studies on homosexuality cannot be provided in this forum (nor would it be practical), from a review of the available literature, this is confirmed. The APA removed homosexuality from its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Psychological Disorders in 1973. In 1975 it then released a public statement that homosexuality was not a mental disorder. In 1994, two decades later, the APA finally stated, “… omosexuality is neither a mental illness nor a moral depravity. It is the way a portion of the population expresses human love and sexuality” From the premises established in this section, a holistic illustration of world-views regarding homosexuality, can be detailed. World Views of Homosexuality Secular As discussed previously, the first half (and a little beyond) of the 20th century spawned varying views of homosexuality (constitutional, developmental and genetic were the main ones). However, the worldviews resulting from such were congruent in the main.
This is primarily because of the fact that these theories were aiming to explain the occurrence of a class of aberration/disorder. Consequently, claims, such as homosexuality being classified as a serious psychiatric and social problem (Bieber, 1969), were commonplace in academic literature and reverberated in the wider society. The passage of time into the final quarter of the last century, realized a progressively softer position regarding homosexuality, by both from the academic and wider community. This softening can be observed as being simultaneous with stances adopted by the APA.
After the organization’s actions in 1973 and 1975 concerning acceptance of homosexuality, the literature had been littered with expressions of the wide variability in the social acceptance of homosexual activity (Greenberg & Bystryn, 1982). Christian The ELCA encourages its congregations to welcome gay and lesbian persons as church members, but it does not allow for the approval or affirmation of gay or lesbian relationships. Specifically, the ordained, commissioned, and consecrated ministries…are open to homosexuals only it they remain celibate and no provisions exist for the blessing of same-gender unions (Childs, 2003, p. 32). From these official points of view, a sense of where Christianity stands with regard to homosexuality is only halfway complete (at best). Individual members of the Church, including clergymen, sometimes have conflicting views. As demonstrated, a plethora of worldviews exist, with regards to homosexuality. It is as a result of these, that there are various views of the role that psychology and counseling should play in the life of a homosexual and the phenomenon (homosexuality), as a whole. Role of Psychology/Counseling Conclusion
Throughout the literature reviewed for this paper, the themes of variability and non-consensus are recurrent. There has been no conclusive study which has unearthed potential causes of homosexuality. Resultant worldviews are varied across and even within secular and religious sources, allowing for no clear-cut path for psychologists/counselors to take in dealing with the phenomenon. By looking at past and current events in the field, it appears as though distinct lines will be drawn, but in non-traditional ways, namely, within as opposed to without. This is with reference to the dichotomy within
Christian and secular views of homosexuality. It appears as though the only area of near-consensus is the view that homosexuals (distinct from homosexuality) are not to be condemned, or view as inherently pathological. Holding firm to this premise, further research and interest from the various interest groups may be beneficial to all. References A vicious intolerance. (2009, September 19). Economist, 392(8649). Authorized Version King James Bartoli, E. , & Gillem, A. R. (2008). Continuing to depolarize the debate on sexual orientation and religious identity and the therapeutic process.
Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 39, 202-209. Benoit, M. (2005). Conflict between religious commitment and same-sex attraction: Possibilities for a virtuous response. Ethics & Behavior, 15, 309–325. Bieber, I. (1969). Homosexuality. The American Journal of Nursing, 69(12), 2637-2641. Bieber, I. , Dain, H. J. , Dince, P. R. , Drellich, M. G. , Grand, H. G. , Gundlach, R. H. , et al. (1962). Homosexuality: A psychoanalytic study. New York: Basic Books. Binder, C. V. (1977). Affection training: An alternative to sexual reorientation. Journal of Homosexuality, 2, 251-259.
Bower, B. (1993). Genetic Clue to Male Homosexuality Emerges. Science News, 144(3), 37. Broman, C. L. (2003). Sexuality Attitudes: The Impact of Trauma. The Journal of Sex Research, 40(4), 351-357. Brooke, H. L. (2005). “Gays, ex-gays, ex-ex-gays: Examining key religious, ethical, and diversity Issues”: A follow-up interview with Douglas Haldeman, Ariel Shidlo, Warren Throckmorton, and Mark Yarhouse. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 24, 343-351. Bullough, V. L. (1976). Sexual variance in society and history. New York: Wiley. Campos, P. E. , & Goldfried, M. E. 2001). Introduction: Perspectives on gay, lesbian, and bisexual clients. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57, 609-613. Childs, J. M. (2003). Faithful Conversation: Christian Perspectives on Homosexuality. Minneapolis: Fortress, 132. Cianciotto, J. , & Cahill, S. (2006). Youth in the crosshairs: The third wave of ex-gay activism. New York: National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. Davison, G. C. (1976). Homosexuality: The ethical challenge. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44, 157-162. Davison, G. C. (1978). Not can but ought: The treatment of homosexuality.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 170–172. Davison, G. C. , & Wilson, G. T. (1973). Attitudes of behaviour therapists toward homosexuality. Behavior Therapy, 4, 686-696. Ellis, A. (1956). The effectiveness of psychotherapy with individuals who have severe homosexual problems. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 20, 191-195. Ellis, A. (1959). A homosexual treated with rational psychotherapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 15, 338-343. Ellis, A. (1965). Homosexuality: Its causes and cure. New York: Lyle Stuart. Erzen, T. (2006). Straight to Jesus: Sexual and Christian conversions in the ex-gay movement.
Los Angeles: University of California Press. Freud, S. (1962). Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (J. Strachey, Trans. ). New York: Basic Books. (Original work published 1905). Good, R. (2000). Human Behavioral Genetics/ Sexual Orientation. The American Biology Teacher, 62(5), 322-324. Greenspoon, J. , & Lamal, P. A. (1987). A behavioristic approach. In L. Diamant (Ed), Male and female homosexuality: Psychological approaches (pp. 109-128). Washington, DC: Hemisphere. Hacking, I. (2002). How “Natural” are “Kinds” of Sexual Orientation?. Law and Philosophy, 21(1), 95-107. Haldeman, D. C. (2004).
When sexual and religious orientation collide: Considerations in working with conflicted same-sex attracted male clients. _The Counseling Psychologist, 32, 691-715. _ Hart, T. A. , & Heimberg, R. G. (2001). Presenting problems among treatment-seeking gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57, 615-627. Herek, G. M. (2000). The Psychology of Sexual Prejudice. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9(1), 19-22. James, S. (1978). Treatment of homosexuality: II. Superiority of desensitization/arousal as compared with anticipatory avoidance conditioning: Results of a controlled trial.
Behavior Therapy, 9, 28-36. Jones, S. L. , & Yarhouse, M. A. (2007). Ex-gay? A longitudinal study of religiously mediated change in sexual orientation. Downer’s Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press. Kallmann, F. J. (1952). Comparative Twin Study on the Genetic Aspects of Male Homosexuality. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 115(1), 283-298. Katz, J. (1995). Gay American history: Lesbians and gay men in the United States. New York: Thomas Crowell. King, M. , Smith, G. , & Bartlett, A. (2004). Treatments of homosexuality in Britain since the 1950’s—an oral history: The experience of professionals.
British Medical Journal, 328, 429-432. Kinsey, A. C. et al. (1948). Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co. , 610-666. Langevin, R. (1983). Sexual strands: Understanding and treating sexual anomalies in men. New York: Erlbaum. LeVay, S. (1996). Queer science: The use and abuse of research in homosexuality. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute Technology Press. Maguire, D. (1983). The morality of homosexual marriage. A Challenge to Love: Gay and Lesbian Catholics in the Church (R. Nugent ed. ), New York: Crossroad Martell, C. R. , Safren, S. A. , & Prince, S. E. (2004).
Cognitive behavioural therapies with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients. New York: Guilford Press. Massett, L. (1969). Homosexuality: changes on the way. Science News, 96(24), 557-559. McMinn, L. G. (2005). Sexual identity concerns for Christian young adults: Practical considerations for being a supportive presence and compassionate companion. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 24, 368-377. McNeill, J. J. (1966). The church and the Homosexual. Kansas City: Sheed Andrews and McMeel, 42-66. Moberly, E. (1983). Homosexuality: A new Christian ethic. Greenwood, SC: Attic Press. Murphy, T. F. (1992).
Redirecting sexual orientation: Techniques and justifications. Journal of Sex Research, 29, 501-523. Murphy, T. F. (1997). Gay science: The ethics of sexual orientation research. New York: Columbia University Press. Nicolosi, J. (1991). Reparative therapy of male homosexuality. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson. Nicolosi, J. , Byrd, A. D. , & Potts, R. W. (2000). Retrospective self-reports of changes in homosexual orientation: A consumer survey of conversion therapy clients. Psychological Reports, 86, 1071-1088. O’Leary, J. S. (1987). Sexual Orientation. The Furrow, 38(11), 680-685. Phillips, J. C. (2004).
A welcome addition to the literature: Non-polarized approaches to sexual orientation and religiosity. The Counseling Psychologist, 32, 771-777. Ponticelli, C. M. (1999). Crafting stories of sexual identity reconstruction. Social Psychology Quarterly, 62, 157-172. Safren, S. A. , & Rogers, T. (2001). Cognitive behavioural therapy with gay, lesbian, and bisexual clients. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57, 629-643. Shidlo, A. , & Schroeder, M. (2002). Changing sexual orientation: A consumer’s report. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 33, 249-259. Silberner, J. (1984). Hormone Markers for Homosexuality?
Science News, 126(13), 198-199. Silverstein, C. (1991). Psychological and medical treatments of homosexuality. In J. C. Gonsiorek & J. D. Weinrich (Eds. ), Homosexuality: Research implications for public policy (pp. 101-114). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Silverstein, C. (2007), Wearing two hats: The psychologist as activist and therapist. J_ournal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 11_(3/4), 9-35. Spitzer, R. L. (2003). Can some gay men and lesbians change their sexual orientation? Two hundred participants reporting a change from homosexual to heterosexual orientation. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 32, 403-417.
Stevenson, I. , & Wolpe, J. (1960). Recovery from sexual deviations through overcoming nonsexual neurotic responses. American Journal of Psychiatry, 116, 737-742. Stevenson, M. R. (1988). Promoting Tolerance for Homosexuality: An Evaluation of Intervention Strategies. The Journal of Sex Research, 25(4), 500-511. Tan, E. (2008). Mindfulness in sexual identity therapy: A case study. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 27, 274-278. Thomson, & Devine. (1998, May 5). Homosexuality: biologically or environmentally constructed. Retrieved October 18, 2009, from Wolkomir, M. (2001).
Emotion work, commitment, and the authentication of the self: The case of gay and exgay Christian support groups. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 30, 305-334. Wolkomir, M. (2006). Be not deceived: The sacred and sexual struggles of gay and ex-gay Christian men. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Yip, A. K. T. (1994, June 23). The Development of Lesbian and Gay Rights Movement within the Christian community in Britain. Lecture presented at Organizing Sexuality Confernce, University of Amsterdam. Yip, A. K. T. (1997). Attacking the Attacker: Gay Christians Talk Back. The British Journal of Sociology, 48(1), 113-127.