Parenting Styles and development psychology.Developmental psychologist Diana Baumrind studied different ways in which parents interact with their children and the effects on children’s socioemotional development. Baumrind’s interest was in the quality of parenting, not simply how much time parents spent with their children (quantity). She observed many variations in parenting styles and determined that two dimensions underlie similarities and differences: “demandingness” and “responsiveness.” Baumrind classified three parenting styles by crossing these qualities. Maccoby and Martin (1983) identified the fourth style to complete the diagram.
Demandingness refers to parents’ expectations of children. Parents high in demandingness expect much of their children, set clear standards of behavior and firm boundaries, and communicate the consequences for breaking rules. High demand may also bring high reward for appropriate behavior. Parents low in demandingness set fewer and lower expectations; their children are allowed more autonomy and self-direction. Low demand is often paired with low responsiveness.
Parenting Styles and development psychology
Responsiveness refers to the degree to which parents pay attention to their children and provide support for their efforts. Highly responsive parents often monitor their children’s behavior and step in to correct, redirect, and reward. Low responsiveness is characterized by less attention, longer delays before parents express concern or offer reward, and fewer rewards or punishments.
Crossing these two dimensions creates the four parenting styles in this diagram:
Parenting Styles Diagram
High responsiveness characterizes both the Permissive (Indulgent) and Authoritative styles.
Uninvolved (Neglectful) and Authoritarian parents are both low in responsiveness.
High demandingness is seen in both Authoritative and Authoritarian styles, whereas Permissive / Indulgent and Uninvolved / Neglectful parents are low in demandingness.
The details of each of the four styles are described in your textbook (pp. 178-179) and summarized in the figure above. Please study these parenting styles and read the entire section on parenting, punishment, and child maltreatment (pp. 177-184) before completing this assignment.
Parenting Styles Discussion Instructions:
In the last assignment, your caretakers described you as an infant and young child. Now it is your turn to describe your parents and their interaction styles with you. Please note: The questions are written to reflect a traditional mother/father family unit, but there is a great deal of variation in today’s families. Please adjust your answers (and the questions) to fit your family situation as appropriate.
The goal of this assignment is to describe the parenting styles you experienced while growing up. You are asked to describe each parent’s style (if you had two acting parents) or focus only on one if you had a single parent. You may substitute “parental figures” as appropriate, including grandparent(s), aunts & uncles, older siblings, or whomever acted as your parent(s).
Children from single-parent families: For Q 1 or 2, please explain that the parent was not present in your life and describe the woman/man who acted as a mother/father figure, if appropriate. Most children in single-parent families are raised by their mothers or mother figures, but of course this varies. Be careful to identify whether your “missing” parent was completely absent or was there but neglectful, as neglectful/uninvolved is an identified parenting style.
Children with GLTBQ+ parents: Please substitute labels/pronouns as appropriate (e.g., Mom1, Mom2).
Answers must include parenting style labels and descriptions to show your understanding of the concepts. You may use additional academic sources to deepen your understanding of parenting styles. Please cite all sources appropriately and include a full list of references at the end of your responses.
Privacy Option: If you are uncomfortable answering the questions in a public Discussion forum, you may complete Questions 1-4 as an Assignment and turn in via Canvas email. Be sure to meet the Initial Post deadline with your email, and then go into the Discussion to post your Peer Response (Q5).