Chromatography was used because of its powerful technique in separating mixtures. In this experiment the Chili pepper pigments was extracted using DCM, the extract was then introduced into the column….
The city’s land has been altered substantially by unman intervention, with considerable land reclamation along the waterfronts since the American colonial times. Some of the natural variations in topography have been evened out due to the arbitration of the city. The city occupies an area of 38. 55 square kilometers and is divided into 897 Barings, the smallest unit of local government in the Philippines. Each bargain has its own chairperson and councilors. For administrative convenience, all the Barings in Manila are grouped into 100 zones. These zones have no form of local government.
Manila is composed f 16 former towns and municipalities which was absorbed by the city in the 19th century. These settlements are now known as places within the city. They are further grouped into the six legislative districts of Manila. Borders and boundaries The main roads of Metro Manila are organized around a set of radial and circumferential roads that radiate and circle in and around Manila proper. Rosa Boulevard, easily the most well-known of Manila’s streets, line the southern shores of Manila with Manila Bay. The boulevard is part of the Radial Road 1 that leads south to the province of Cavity.
Another well-known radial road is Spans Boulevard (part of Radial Road 7) that starts in Quip and ends at the Welcome Rotunda along the border with Guenon City. Pres. Sergei Semen Sir. Highway, part of the South Luzon Expressway or Radial Road 3 is the most important highway linking Manila with the provinces of southern Luzon. Land area 38. 55 sq. Km (14. 88 sq. M’) Map b) Background and History History Manila City proper is bounded on the north by Novas and Cloacae City, on the northeast by Guenon City and San Juan del Monte, on the southeast by Manhandling and Magmata, and on the south by Papas City.
It faces beautiful Manila Bay to the west. A relatively new development is the incorporation of all the cities and municipalities comprising the Manila metropolitan area into one unit–a “mega-city”–called “Metro Manila. ” It is governed as one unit by a governor, who coordinates its functions and services through the various city and municipal officials, very much like a provincial governor rules many towns. And yet, the component cities, provinces and municipalities retain their previous Jurisdictions. Metro Manila is comprised of the cities of Manila, Guenon City, Cloacae City and Papas City, and the municipalities of
Novas, Malabar, Valuable (in Vulcan province), Marking, Passing, Manhandling, San Juan del Monte, Magmata, Patters, Tagging (Taiga), Appearance, Lass Pains and Manumitting. Manila derived its name from two Toga words; “may,” meaning “there is,” and “inlaid,” the name of a shrub that originally grew abundantly along the shores of the Passing River and Manila Bay. Long before the Spanish conquest, Manila was settled by Mohammedan, who carried on a thriving trade with Chinese and other Southeast Asian merchants. Manilas” was the principal bay settlement of these Togas south of the Passing River, although it was probably less important immemorially than Tendon, the town on the north bank. Manila was first visited by Spaniards in 1570. Governor-General Legalize, searching for a suitable place to establish his capital after being compelled to move from Zebu to Panky by Portuguese pirates, and hearing of the existence of a prosperous Mohammedan community in Luzon, sent an expedition under Martin De Agouti to discover its location and potentials.
De Agouti anchored at Cavity, and tried to establish his authority peaceably by sending a message of friendship to Manilas. Rajah Solomon, then its ruler, was willing to befriend the Spaniards, but would not submit to Spanish sovereignty acceptably. Naturally, this was unsatisfactory to the Spanish commander, so after he secured equipment and reinforcements, he attacked Manilas in June of 1570. He captured it after a stout fight, and having formally taken possession of the city in the name of the King of Spain, he returned to Panky.
The next year, in 1571, the Spaniards returned, this time led by Governor-General Legalize himself. Seeing them approach, the natives set fire to the town, leveling it to the ground, while the people fled to Tendon and neighboring towns. After occupying the remains of Manilas on June 19, 1 591, and commencing the construction of a fort there, Legalize made overtures of friendship to Rajah Lackawanna of Tendon, which this time were prudently accepted. Solomon, however, refused to submit to the Spaniards, despite the wise counsel of Lackawanna, whose aid Solomon solicited in an effort to expel the invaders.
Failing to get Lacuna’s support, as well as that of the Panamanian and Pangolin’s, Solomon gathered together a considerable force of Toga warriors, and attacked the Spaniards in a decisive battle at the town of Bandannas. There the Filipinos were defeated, and Solomon himself was killed. With the destruction of were enabled to establish their authority throughout the city and its adjacent settlements, and soon several Christian missions were established. Eventually, Roman Catholic missions, parishes and schools were established by nearly every religious order to come to the Philippines.
The first priests were Sustaining and secular priests, followed by Franciscans, Jesuits, Dominicans and Sustaining Recollects, with many other orders following in later centuries. The rule of the Spanish conquerors of the “City of Solomon” was full of dangers, since the people were opposed to foreign overweight. Consequently, the city was frequently the scene of serious disturbances. The Chinese, angered by the loss of free trade, the commercial restrictions placed by the untrusting Spanish upon them, and the laws forcing them to pay tribute to Spain, made several efforts to destroy the Spaniards.
The first of these Chinese revolts occurred in 1574, when a force of some 3,000 men and 62 Chinese warships under the command of Limiting attacked the city. This attempt proved fruitless, the Chinese being defeated with heavy losses. As a safeguard against similar uprisings eater, the Chinese residents and merchants of Manila were confined to a separate district, called “Pariah De Lacier. ” However, this precaution was not totally effective, for at various times in the following century, the Chinese rose in revolt. In 1602, they set fire to Quip and Tendon, and for a time threatened to capture Intramural.
In 1662, they again revolted, while in 1686, a conspiracy led by Toting plotted to kill all the Spaniards. It is no surprise, then, to learn that at various times during the Spanish era, the Chinese were expelled (or decrees were made to that effect) from Manila and from the entire country. Later reconciliations nearly always permitted the continuation of the Chinese community in the city, however. In 1595, Manila was decreed to be the capital of the Archipelago, although it had already in fact served that function practically from its founding in 1571.
Besides being Spain’s pre-eminent city in the Philippines, and dominant over other provincial capitals, it was itself a provincial capital over a province whose territory at one time covered nearly all of Luzon, and included the modern territorial subdivisions of Pangaea, Vulcan, Racial, Laguna, Battings, Guenon, Indoor, Messmate and Martinique. Later, Hess subdivisions were themselves made provinces, leaving Manila province with a territory roughly equal to the present City of Manila proper (except Intramural, the capital site), and the northwestern two-thirds of Racial province.
The boundary of Manila province went from northeast to southwest, including Antipodal, Cantina, Tatty and Tagging, and all of the towns north and west of them, in Manila province; and Anglo, Teresa, Mormon, and the towns south and east of them, in Laguna province. Early in the province’s history, the provincial name was changed Fran Manila to “Tendon” province, by which it was known for most of the Spanish era. In 1762, during the “Seven Years’ War,” the British occupied Manila, remaining in the city until 1764.
The fleeing Spaniards destroyed many of the records, and in the sack of the town by the British, many historical documents of great value were destroyed or stolen from the archives. In about 1853, four pueblos or towns of Tendon province were Joined with the northeastern towns of Laguna province to form the politico-military “District De Los Months De San Mateo,” or District of the San Mateo Mountains. Tendon province annexed to this new district the towns of Cantina, Tatty, Antipodal and Boss-boss, Tanya, Papilla and Jackal.
But the name of the new district proved unwieldy, too long, and misled many into thinking the town of San Mateo (in Tendon province) was the capital of the San Mateo Mountain District, when in reality the district capital was in Mormon. So, in about 1859, following common practice of the day, the district was renamed after its capital; namely, Mormon District. At about the same time, Tendon Province was renamed Manila Province. Being the traditional seat of education and liberal thinking in the Philippines, Manila was a rich field for anti-Spanish propaganda.
But outwardly it remained quiet until July 7, 1892, when the secret revolutionary organization devoted to the overthrow of Spanish rule of the country, called the Justinian, was organized in Manila’s suburb, Tendon. Although initial skirmishes between the Filipinos and Spanish were brief and nearly always lost by the Filipinos, the movement grew until open rebellion broke out in 1896, with the Spaniards losing the Philippines to the combined Filipino-American forces in 1898.
But Spain ceded the country only to the Americans, who exerted their control militarily, defeating the Filipinos in the “Mock Battle” of Manila on August 13, 1898. Thereafter, the Americans pursued the retreating Filipino forces province by province, until General Emilio Congenial (then president of the Republic) surrendered in Planar, Isabella, on March 23, 1901. Manila continued under an American military government until civil government was established for the city on July 31, 1901.
Along with the establishment of the civil government, the Philippine Commission dissolved the former province of Manila, and merged its pueblos with those of the District of Mormon, forming the new province of Racial. Few weeks later, the Philippine Commission provided for a new charter for the city of Manila, defining TTS boundaries, and thus annexing some of Racial Province’s towns to the city as districts. These boundaries were slightly revised and redefined on January 29, 1902, when the suburb of Clanging was annexed to the city district of Tendon, and the former pueblo of Santa Ana was annexed as a district to Manila City.
On July 30 of that year, the city board officially divided the city into 13 political subdivisions named districts, and the boundaries of each were defined. On August 15 of the same year, Panacea pueblo was annexed as a city district. The boundaries and city districts of Manila City proper have remained essentially unchanged ever since. With the outbreak of World War II, Manila entered a five-year period of sorrow and destruction. Hoping to minimize the loss of life and property, government officials declared Manila an open city on December 26, 1941.
The following New Years’ Day, 1942, President Guenon decreed the merger of the towns of Guenon City, Cloacae, San Juan del Monte, Manhandling, Magmata, Papas and Appearance with Manila City to form the town he called “Greater Manila,” to simplify the administration of the metropolitan area during the war. Being practically destroyed in the process, the city as liberated from Japanese control in March of 1945 by the Joint Filipino-American forces. Soon thereafter, “Greater Manila” was dissolved, and its towns returned to their pre-war status.
In 1948, Guenon City was declared the national capital of the new Republic of the Philippines, thus robbing Manila City of an honor it had held since 1595. But on May 29, 1976, President Ferdinand Marco’s’ Decree No 940 returned the national capital to Manila, declaring that “the area prescribed as Metro Political divisions * Legislative districts 1st District is Manila’s (and the country’s) most densely populated congressional district. It covers the western portion of Tendon that lies along Manila Bay.
Within this district, the northern Port Area is located. The 2nd District comprises the eastern inland portion often, a neighborhood known as Clanging. The 3rd District covers the districts of Bambino, Quip, San Nicolas and Santa Cruz. These areas were once the commercial and financial centers of the metropolis. The congressional district is home to the city’s Chinatown, and to several notable landmarks, including the Minor Basilica of the Black Nazarene, the Bambino Church, Avenged Racial, and the city’s three largest burial grounds: the La Loam
Cemetery, the Manila Chinese Cemetery and the Manila North Green Park. Some areas of this district is a part of the University Belt. The 4th District comprises solely the geographical district of Compact, a mainly residential area. Televisions of Santos Tomato, along with several well-known universities is located in this district. The 5th District consists of the geographical districts of Eremite, Emulate, Port Area, Intramural, San Andrea Buick, and a portion of Pace (zone 90).
The congressional district contains some of the most historically and culturally significant madman’s and institutions in the country, such as the old walled city of Manila, Racial Park, the Manila Zoo, the National Museum and a portion of the Cultural Center of the Philippines complex. The Supreme Court of the Philippines, the Court of Appeals the World Health Organization are all in Eremite. The districts of Emulate and Eremite are known for entertainment and nightlife. The three century-old college, College De San Juan De Lateran is located in this district.
The 6th District covers the geographical districts of Pace (except zone 90), Panacea, San Miguel,Santa Ana and Santa Mesa. This congressional district is cost to the Mammalian Palace, the official residence of the President of the Philippines and the main campus of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines. * Administrative districts District I Barings I Population (2010 census) I Area (has. ) I Pop. Density (per km) I Bambino I Eremite | 13 Intramural I Emulate | 57 pace 143 1 Panacea I Port Area I 10 112,985 166. 11 119,641. 5 1 | 7,143 | 158. 91 1 4,495. 01 5 14,925 1 67. 26 | 7џ22. 31 | 77,513 | 259. 58 1 29860. 1 70,978 | 278. 69 | 25,468. 4 | 38 1 73895 1 166. 00 | 44,515. 1 5 157,405 1 315. 28 | 18,207. 6 | Compact | 192 | San And©s Buick 41,528 | 513. 71 | 47,016. 4 | 165 1 115,942 | 168. 02 | 69,004. 9 | 115 51 Tendon | 259 | 628,106 | 865. 13 1 72602. 5 The Muses Bambina is a children’s interactive museum, the first of its kind in the Philippines. It is in a sense an alternative to the formal classroom environment where learning resembles a one-way street – the teacher imparts knowledge and the students absorb it. In Muses Bambina, children can use their total senses and learn various concepts at their own pace.
It excites the minds of the young, inspires them to learn more, and most importantly revivalists what child learning should be – fun ND exciting! Opened in 1994, Muses Bambina is the dream-come-true of Nina Lime-Yukon, an early childhood educator and mother of four, who once brought her young children to the Boston Children’s Museum in America. They had so much fun with the museum’s hands-on exhibits that she wished there was a similar place back home where her kids – and the millions of Filipino children – can learn and have fun at the same time.
Background Former Department of Social Welfare and Development secretary Stefan Alden- Lime shared Hussy’s enthusiasm over the idea of having a children’s museum in the entry due to her past involvement with children for over three decades, including a United Nations appointment as Special Envoy for the International Year of the Child in 1979. They envisioned the museum as a venue for alternative learning for children, especially for those who have no access to formal education. Location Rosa Boulevard core.
South Drive, Bargain 667, Manila (1st District) Near Barings * Bargain 667 total population – 1,307 * Bargain 666 total population – 560 * Bargain 668 total population – 612 * Bargain 669 San Miguel | 12 San Nicolas Santa Ana | 34 Santa Cruz | 82 Santa Mesa I Muses Bambina | 15,992 | 91. 7 | 17,502. 5 | | 44,241 | 163. 85 | 27,000. 9 | | 60,952 | 169. 42 | 35,976. 9 | | 115,747 | 309. 01 | 37,457. 4 | | 99,933 | 261. 01 | 38,287. 0 | * Bargain 670 total population – 61 5 c) Demographic Profile Population As of the 2010 census, the population of the city was 1,652,171 making it the second most populous city in the Philippines.
It is the most densely populated city in the world with 43,079 inhabitants per km. District 6 is listed as being the densest with 68,266 inhabitants per km, followed by the first two districts with 64,936 and 64,710, respectively, and district 5 being the least dense with 19,235. Employment rate Language The vernacular language is Filipino, based mostly on the Toga of surrounding areas, and this Manila form of speaking Toga has essentially become the lingua franca of the Philippines, having spread throughout the archipelago through mass media and entertainment.
Meanwhile, English is the language most widely used in education, business, and heavily in everyday usage throughout the Metro Manila region and the Philippines itself. A number of older residents can still speak basic Spanish, which used to be a mandatory subject in the curriculum of Philippine universities and colleges, and many children of Japanese Filipino, Indian Filipino,and other migrants or expatriates also speak their parents’ languages at home, aside from English and/or Filipino for everyday use. Minoan Chinese (known as Landing- oh) is spoken by the city’s Chinese-Filipino community.
Religions Roman Catholics predominate, comprising 93. 5%; followed by Philippine Independent Church, 2. 4%; Giggles In Crisis, 1. 9%; Protestants, 1. 8%; Buddhists, 1 . 1%; Muslims and other religious groups comprise 1. 4% of Manila’s population. Education The center of education since the colonial period, Manila ? articulacy Intramural ? is home to several Philippine universities and colleges as well as its oldest ones. It served as the home of the University of Santos Tomato (161 1), College De San Juan De Lateran (1620), and Atone De Manila University (1859).
Only College De San Juan De Lateran (1620) remains at Intramural; the University of Santos Tomato transferred to a new campus at Compact in 1927, and Atone left Intramural for Loyola Heights, Guenon City (while still retaining “De Manila” in its name) in 1952. The University of the City of Manila located at Intramural, and Universal De Manila located Just outside the walled city, are both wend and operated by the Manila city government. The national government Philippines constituent universities and the center of health sciences education in the country. 67] The city is also the site of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, the largest university in the country in terms of student population. The University Belt refers to the area where there is a high concentration or a cluster of colleges and universities in the city and it is commonly understood as the one where thetas Miguel, Quip and Compact districts meet. Generally, it includes the western end of Spans Boulevard, Anchor Rexes SST. (formerly Moray SST. , the eastern end of Clara M. Recto Avenue (formerly Carriage), Laggard Avenue, Medical Street, and the different side streets.
Each of the colleges and universities found here are at a short walking distance of each other. Another cluster of colleges lies along the southern bank of the Passing River, mostly at the Intramural and Eremite districts, and still a smaller cluster is found at the southernmost part of Emulate near the border with Papas. The high concentration of higher learning institutions makes Manila the country’s educational capital. The Division of the City Schools of Manila, a branch of the Department of Education, offers to the city’s three-tier public education system.
It governs the 71 public elementary schools, 32 public high schools and the two city-owned universities. The city also contains the Manila Science High School, the pilot science high school of the Philippines; the National Museum, where the Spoliation of Juan Ulna is housed; the Metropolitan Museum of Manila, the premier museum of modern and contemporary visual arts; the Muses Bambina, the Children’s Museum, a place of hands-on discovery and fun learning; and, the National Library, the repository of the country’s printed and recorded cultural heritage and other literary and information sources.
Social services and facilities * Health facilities Manila is headquarters to the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific, the World Health Organization Country Office for the Philippines, main office of the Department of Health, and several private and public hospitals and medical centers. One of the many programs of the Department of Tourism is the promotion of Medical Tourism in the Philippines. Manila hosts a large number of wellness centers and spa facilities.
The Manila Health Department, which is responsible for the planning and implementation of the health programs of the city overspent, operates 44 health centers and lying-in facilities scattered throughout the city. Hospitals in the city are the Manila Doctors’ Hospital,university of the Philippines – Philippine General Hospital, Chinese General Hospital and Medical Center, DRP. Joss© R. Rexes Memorial Medical Center, Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital, San Lazars Hospital, the University of Santos Tomato Hospital and the city-owned Capital Eng Manila Medical Center. Transportation One of the more famous modes of transportation in Manila is the Jeep. Patterned after U. S. Army Jeeps, these have been in use since the years immediately following World War 11.  Today, the Tamari FIX, the third generation Toyota Kiang, has begun to compete directly with Jeepers. Along with buses, Jeepers and Tamaris numerous taxicabs, “tricycles” (motorcycles with sidecars, the Philippine version of the auto rickshaw), and “triads” or “kids” (bicycles with a sidecars, the Philippine version of pedicels).
In some areas, especially in the Divisor district, motorized pedicels are popular. Spanish-era horse-drawn sales are still a popular tourist attraction in the streets of Bambino and Intramural. All types of public transport are rivalry owned and operated under government franchise. The city is serviced by the Manila Light Rail Transit System, popularly known as ALERT, as distinct from the Manila Metro Rail Transit System, or MR., in other parts of Metro Manila. Development of the railway system began in the sass under the Marco’s administration, making it the first light rail transport in Southeast Asia.
The ALERT and MR. system has undergone a multi-billion dollar expansion.  Two lines provide service to the city: the ALERT-I Line (Yellow Line) that runs along the length of Taft Avenue (R-2) and Racial Avenue (R-9), and the MR.-2 Line (Purple Line) hat runs along Ramona Massage’s Boulevard (R-6) from Santa Cruz, through Guenon City, up to Cantonal in Passing. The main terminal of the Philippine National Railways lies within the city. Railways extend north to the city of San Fernando in Pangaea and south to Legalize City in Albany, though only the southern railway is in operation.