Pre-school education is discussed mainly through the development of a child’s personality. The knowledge and practices acquired by children during this stage of learning are embedded with their character. Furthermore….
Middle Childhood and Adolescences
Human growth development theory is an organized statement of values and generalization that provides an outline for understanding how and why people change as they grow from infant to adulthood. Theorist tries to make sense out of observations and construct a story of the human journey from infancy through childhood or adulthood (P. H. Miller, 2002, p. 2). The theories link proofs with patterns, merging the details of life into a meaningful complete picture of human growth development. Freud and Erickson state that human beings, starting at infancy through adulthood pass a series of psychosexual and psychosocial stages of development.
The stages that will be discussed will be a combination of Freud and Erickson oral, identify vs. role of confusion, and phallic stages. There are six stages that Freud elaborated on but the first six years occurs in three stages each characterized by psychosexual pleasure center on difference parts of the body. However, Erikson’s stages differ significantly from Freud’s in that they emphasize family and culture, not sexual urges. He called his theory epigenetic, partly to stress that the expression of genes, as of biological impulses, is powerfully influenced by the social environment (Berger, p. 9, 2010). According to, Freud during the first stage of personality development with is the oral stage from birth to one year, the infant’s tongue, and gums are the focus of pleasurable sensations in the baby’s body, sucking, and feeding are the most stimulating actives. The mouth is an important source for feeding and eating. In addition this allows the infant to develop gratification with pleasure from oral stimulation through activities such as tasting and sucking. Therefore, the infant is completely dependent on its parent or guardian that is responsible for feeding and nurturing the infant.
Freud also stated that the oral stimulation could lead to oral dependencies later in life. For example oral personalities such as thumb sucking, nail biting, and smoking. These behaviors are exhibit when an individual is under stress (McLeod, S. A. 2008). Phallic Stage is another stage of human growth development. According to, Freud this stage starts at three though six years of age. This stage is when children become aware of their body organs. In additional, adolescences are also aware of their parents and other children that are around them. This pleasure switches between the oral nd anal stage to the phallic stage. The pleasure is not emphasized on the genitals. Freud has stated that the male develops an unconscious desire for the mother. Therefore, the male become in conflict with the adult male or caregiver seeing him as competition for the mother affection. This fixation gives the male an Oedipus complex, which is Freud psychoanalytic theory. This theory is the desire for sexual involvement with parent of opposite sex and a sense of rivalry with the parent of the same sex; a crucial stage in the normal developmental process.
Girls have been known to have an attraction for their father. This is known as the Electra Complex, but Freud strongly disagreed with this theory (Britannica. com). According to Freud, because strong competition with the male figures the male eventually decide to identify with the father rather than come in conflict with him. Because of this the boy develops masculine characteristics and identifies himself as a male, and represses his sexual feelings toward his mother. A fixation at this stage could result in unacceptable sexual behavior and confused sexual identity according to psychoanalysts (McLeod, S.
A. 2008). Identity vs. role confusion is the Erikson six stage of human development. This stage takes place between the ages of 13-18. This is an important stage of development for adolescence because this is the transition from childhood to adulthood. Adolescents try to figure out “who am I? ” They establish sexual, political, and vocational identities or are confused about what role to play (Berger, p. 19). This stage of human development allows the adolescent to identify what role he will occupy as an adult.
In this role the adolescents will re-examine his identify to try to figure out “Who am I? ” Erickson suggests that two identities are involved. These identities involve the sexual an occupational. According to (Bee, 1992) at the end of this stage “a reintegrate sense of self, or what one wants to do or be, and of one’s appropriate sex role. ” During the six stages the body image of the adolescent began to change. This stages is also were the adolescent start to feel uncomfortable about their body for a while until they can adapt and change into their new image.
Based upon the outcome of their adapting the adolescent can start to begin to form their own identity. Nevertheless, the adolescent can also start to become confuse about themselves, such as what is their place in the world and what they want to be when that grow up. In evaluating Freud Erikson human development theories it has been learned that both saw personality developing throughout a lifecycle of each individual. Each looks at and identified the crises at each stage in development.
In addition difference psychologist believe that different phases are more important than other phases, but what most psychologist do agree on it that one stage leads to the next stage. Reference Berger, K. , & S, . (2010). Invitation of the life p. Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database. McLeod, S. A. (2008). Psychosexual Stages Retrieve from simplypsychology. org/psychosexual from http://www. simplypsychology. org/psychosexual. html Bee, H. L. (1992). The developing child. London: HarperCollins. www. britannica. com