Micropollutants and endocrine disruptors in the environment

Micropollutants and endocrine disruptors in the environment

Micropollutants and endocrine disruptors in the environment

The abstract of the article published by Rizzo et al. (2109) states as follows:

Urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are among the main anthropogenic sources for the release of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) into the environment, which can result in toxic and adverse effects on aquatic organisms and consequently on humans. Unfortunately, WWTPs are not designed to remove CECs and secondary (e.g., conventional activated sludge process, CAS) and tertiary (such as filtration and disinfection) treatments are not effective in the removal of most CECs entering WWTP.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969718346229

 

What are endocrine disruptors and why are they an environmental concern?

Micropollutants and endocrine disruptors in the environment

 

the scientific literature on Organic Micropollutants / CECs in the environment

Do a search of the scientific literature on Organic Micropollutants / CECs in the environment, and use each of the following headings to discuss:
i) Sources of CECs. What are the main types / forms of CECs, and where do they originate from?
ii) The extent of the problem. Environmental impact and threat to human health, with specific reference to endocrine disruptors

 

What are some estrogen-like endocrine disruptors that occur in the environment?

Micropollutants and endocrine disruptors in the environment
iii) Role of microbial metabolism and activity in wastewater treatment. Microbes are the main drivers in wastewater treatment plants, yet the abstract above states “Unfortunately, WWTPs are not designed to remove CECs”. Nevertheless, a number of recent articles report on microbial degradation of micropollutants (search for example “microbial degradation of micropollutants”). Provide possible explanations why CEGs are not effectively removed by the microbes in WWTPs, by citing the scientific literature, and / or your own opinion.
iv) Wastewater treatment plants as a source of antibiotic resistance.