Literature Review: Overview.
Literature Review Making it a Success, Sue Larkey, 2008 ‘Making it a Success’ written by Sue Larkey is a book which has many strategies and worksheets to use during a literacy lesson for students with Autistic spectrum disorder. Larkey identifies Autism Spectrum disorder (ASD) as ‘A lifelong developmental disability affecting about 1 in 500 people. Confused by the world around them, people with an Autism spectrum Disorder need help to fit in.
They have great difficulty understanding what they see, hear and otherwise sense’ (Larkey, 2008) Larkey identified that students with autism may have the following, ‘Difficulty writing, difficulty writing imaginative stories, Difficulty recalling set tasks and difficulty starting a writing activity, have hyperlexia which is the ability to read text but do not have matching comprehension of the text. (Larkey, 2008) Larkey has identified strategies to use when teaching ASD students how to write those strategies are: ‘Co-actively write, putting your hand over the top of the students, use a computer for the student to write, Use a tape recorder for the student to record their work, use a voice activated computer which transcribes for the student, Teach use of a dictionary to look up words to spell, stick their book to the desk so they don’t have to hold the page. ’ (Larkey, 2008) Larkey has also identified what strategies can be used to help ASD students when reading.
Those strategies are: ‘Read stories that include their special interests to motivate reading and comprehension, include mainly non fiction books, make photo books about their own experiences to encourage reading, to extend comprehension remind student to look a picture, ask questions to check comprehension. ’ (Larkey, 2008) Making it a success is a very helpful book for teachers and teaching aids, the strategies which are provided by Sue Larkey are very helpful and it will help so many people out when teaching literacy to students who have ASD.
Supporting Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder, Hull learning services, 2004 Hull learning services’ book ‘Supporting Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder’ gives great insight to what language and communication difficulties associated with an ASD. Hull learning identified that students with ASD could have difficulties in understanding language such as, ‘There may be failure to respond, or the pupil does not seem interested when spoken o, The vocabulary and grammar of spoken language becomes difficult to understand as it increases in length and complexity, Information tends to be processed slowly, Confusion arrises when people talk too loudly, too fast or use too many words’ (Hull learning, 2004) Hull learning also identifies that students with ASD could have problems with communications such as, ‘There is absence or a reduction in the desire to communicate with others, the development of the speech may be absent or delayed, the content of speech tends to be one-sided and can be repetitive. (Hull learning, 2004) Hull learning sates many communication difficulties when working with students who have ASD the difficulties to help people who are dealing with ASD students. Also they have strategies to over come theses difficulties communication difficulties such as, ‘Being Face-to-face will encourage eye-contact and promote positive interaction, set up structured social communication skills groups to encourage pupils to take turns, listen and communicate with others, Say students name before communicating to help establish joint attentions, Use a slower rate if speech to allow the pupil time to process the information. (Hull learning, 2004) Hull learning book ‘supporting children with ASP’ can be summed up as a resource used for teachers and teachers aids in the classroom which gives helpful strategies of how to teach literacy to students who have ACD. Understanding and teaching children with autism, Rita Jordan and Stuart Powell 1995 ‘Understanding and teaching children with autism’ which is written by Rita Jordan and Stuart Powell is a book which is aimed at teachers in special education and the psychologist who work with teachers and parents of children with autism.
It gives a better understanding of autism and the different ways it is experienced by individual children. In chapter five of Jordan’s and Powell book it explains what the students who have autism go through when they are learning literacy and what approaches should be taken when teaching the students literacy. One main approach which Jordan and Powell outlined is that teachers have to be very precise with the language they use when teaching literacy to an autistic student because they can get very confused.
Powell and Jordan also explain that when teaching literacy to an autistic student best thing to do when giving out instructions is having it on the board. ‘A written instruction can be taken at the pupil’s own rate and remains available for consolidations. ’ (Powell, Jordan, 1995) The authors also write about recent research which has linked autism syndrome with dyslexia. ‘Since dyslexia is a form of language impairment and autism is linked with language difficulties, it would not be surprising to find some pupils with autism who also have dyslexia. (Powell, Jordan, 1995) Powell and Jordan list the kinds of structure approaches to literacy which is recommended for pupils with dyslexia are operating a word processor through the use of proper keyboard skills which has been shown to enhance spelling, grammar and reading ability by providing a motor memory, learning to read and write with cursive script rather then being taught print. Developing early Literacy, Susan Hill, 2006
Developing early Literacy written by Susan Hill (2006) is a handbook for understanding and teaching early literacy. Chapter 4 of developing early literacy is titled ‘The literacy program’ in chapter 4 Hill describes how a literacy program works. The Literacy program is divided into two different parts, reading and writing. ‘The first part to reading is modelled reading ‘which the teacher reads aloud, the teacher models how to read by reading aloud to the class from range of text types.
The purpose is for children to engage with text pitched at a more complex level than they can read’ (Hill, 2006) The second part is shared reading which is when an enlarge book is used to explore the conventions of print, It is a whole class activity but it is lead by the teacher the students join in. Guided reading is the next stage. ‘Guided reading involves a teacher working with a group of 4 to 6 children reading individual copies of the same text at the children’s learning level.
They have some challenges, and the teacher prepares them to use a range of problem solving strategies. ’ (Hill, 2006) Independent reading is the final stage of reading. ‘The purpose of independent reading is to build fluency and motivation for reading. Children are encouraged to read texts at their independent reading level so that reading is practiced and fluency is increased. The child is challenged to read on their own for a sustained period of time’ (Hill, 2006) Modelled Writing is the first stage of the writing part of the Literacy program. In modelled writing the teacher writes on a whiteboard showing how a writer uses words sentences and text types to record ideas’ (Hill 2006) Shared and interactive writing is the second stage which is usually a group activity where the teacher leads the class on ways to write various text types, spelling, grammar and complex sentences. And the students learn from example how writing is done. Guided writing is the third stage and ‘involves individuals or small groups of children writing a range of text types.
The teacher may provide short mini lessons to demonstrate a particular aspect of writing. ’ (Hill, 2006) Independent writing is the final stage where the purposes ‘is to build fluency and motivation, and is a time for students to express ideas and experiment. Children can write their own creative pieces. ’ (Hill, 2006) Developing early Literacy is a great book to read as the explanations are straight to the point. It is also good for people who do not know how literacy in the classroom works.
It is also a good book for Aids to read as when they are working in classrooms with students with disabilities they know how to help them out with while also following the literacy guidelines. Reference List Sue Larkey, 2008, Making it a Success, A. C. E. S. , Artarmon, NSW Hull learning services, 2004, Supporting Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder, David Fulton Publishers, London Rita Jordan and Stuart Powell, 1995, Understanding and teaching children with autism, John Wiley & sons, Chichester, West Sussex Susan Hill, 2006, Developing early Literacy, Eleanor Curtain Publishing, Prahran, VIC