CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES FOREIGN STUDIES In its broadest sense, impeachment is the process by which public officials may be removed from office on the basis….
Oregano (Scientific name: Origanum vulgare) is also known as Wild Marjoram, Mountain Mint, Origanum, Wintersweet and Winter Marjoram. This erectly spreading plant has strong aromatic characteristics, with leaves and stems that are fleshy. The leaves of oregano are heart-shaped, with toothed edges, and which, grow for up to 9 meters in length. In other countries, the plant is primarily used as a culinary ingredient. However, in countries like the Philippines, Oregano is a known herbal medicine for its strong anti-oxidant properties.
Plant family: Lamiaceae (mint family). Oregano is more popularly known for its aromatic and balsamic flavor and is commonly used as mint flavoring in Mediterranean and Mexican foods. Oregano, as used as herbal medicine, has its earliest beginnings even in early Egyptian times and has been traditionally used as herbal remedy for skin burns, cuts and bruises. Because of the minty flavor of oregano, it is also used as herbal remedy for sore throat, asthma, colds, coughs and flu. Oregano was first used by the Greeks. In their mythology the goddess Aphrodite invented the spice.
Giving it to man to make his life happier. The word “oregano” is actually derived from the Greek phrase, “joy of the mountains”. Just married couples were crowned with wreaths of it. It was also put on graves to give peace to departed spirits. Ancient Greek physicians discovered that the herb had beneficial effects and prescribed it for a variety of ailments. Hippocrates used it as well as its close cousin, marjoram as an antiseptic. The Roman’s, who later conquered Greece, would adopt much of the culture of the region. They tasted oregano and thought that it was good.
The ease of its cultivation coupled with the Roman proclivity for the expansion of Empire would spread its use throughout Europe and much of Northern Africa. In these regions it was used to spice meats, fish, and even as a flavoring for wine. In the middle ages, people continued to use it. Sharp spices were not common at this time. Oregano was one of the few food flavorings available to give variety to the daily fair. The people of the dark age cast about for medicinal properties in whatever form they could find. They would chew the oregano leaves as a cure for rheumatism, toothache, indigestion, and as a cough suppressant.
Oregano found its way to China probably via the spice road that wended through the Middle-East during the Medieval period. Here again it was a medicinal herb. Doctors prescribed it to relieve fever, vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice, and itchy skin. Later, the English found a use for oregano as an additive to snuff (which was generally a tobacco concoction taken through the nose). It was also used as a perfume in sachets. In spite of its use in England, Oregano was little known in the United States prior to the Second World War. Soldiers discovered the flavors and aromas during the Italian Campaign and brought back the spice and the desire for it.
Related Studies Oil of Oregano According to Scott Gavura, the less evidence that exists to support the use of a treatment, the more passionate its supporters seem to be. I learned this early in my career as a pharmacist. One pharmacy I worked at did a steady business in essential oils. And king of the oils was oil of oregano. Not only were there several different brands of the basic oil, they were different forms, including capsules, creams and even nasal sprays. Not aware of any therapeutic benefits, I would ask customers what they were using it for.
I rarely heard the same condition described: skin infections, athlete’s foot, head lice, colds, sore throats, “parasites”, “yeasts”, diabetes, allergies and ringworm were apparently no match against the judicious use of oregano oil. Intrigued, I took a closer look. Long before our scientific understanding of bacteria and antimicrobials, infected wounds were packed with different products in an attempt to minimize the odor, and hopefully speed healing. It’s likely that someone happened upon a fragrant herb and discovered that it seemed to help treat wounds (or at least, cover some of the smell).
Given there have been some amazing drugs with powerful effects that have emerged from natural products, it’s certainly plausible that oil of oregano could have biological and therapeutic effects. Oregano (Origanum vulgare) leaves contain a wide variety of chemical compounds, including leanolic acids, ursolic acids, and phenolic glycosides. Phenolic compounds make up to 71% of the oil. Carvacrol, thymol, cymene, and terpinine and are found in oregano leaves and do appear to have biological effects. It’s these chemicals that are proposed to be the parts with beneficial effects. Effectiveness
When we contemplate administering a chemical to deliver a medicinal effect, we need to ask the following: Is it absorbed into the body at all? Does enough reach the right part of the body to have an effect? Does it actually work for the condition? Does it have any hazardous, unwanted effects? Can it be safely eliminated from the body? These questions are usually answered through a series of investigations, starting with preclinical (test-tube) studies, and moving into animal trials, and then to human clinical trials that start with validating the safety and then progress to investigating efficacy and safety.
The short answer is that there’s little beyond animal studies to demonstrate that the ingredients in oregano oil have any effects. One of the best reviews seems to come from the McCormick Science Institute (yes, the spice company). They commissioned a paper on oregano by Keith Singletary that appeared in the journal Nutrition Today in 2010. Happily, though the journal is paywalled, McCormick is hosting the paper on its own website.
Is oil of oregano absorbed? Some parts of the oregano do appear to be absorbed but the bioavailability of its different chemical constituents has not been verified. So we can’t be certain which components are reaching the circulation.
Does enough reach the right part of the body to have any beneficial effect? It’s not clear where the chemicals in oil of oregano act in the body, as no research, has been done to show that it is adequately absorbed. However, there is some evidence to suggest that oregano may be implicated in inducing abortions in mice, so some parts of the herb must be absorbed if this a causal effect. When applied to body surfaces or skin for topical effect, oil of oregano is more likely to reach high concentrations, at least locally, and then possibly deliver a medicinal effect. This makes topical effects seem much more plausible than ones that require ingestion.
Does it actually work for the condition? There is no published evidence to demonstrate that the oil of oregano is effective for any medical condition or illness. The McCormick review notes that that data for every condition evaluated is “preliminary, inconclusive. ” There is some very limited evidence to suggest that it might be useful for parasite infections — but given the evidence consists of only one study with 14 patients, and no placebo comparison, we really have no idea if the oregano oil itself was effective.
Let’s consider how oil of oregano might treat an infection. Bacteria are killed by antimicrobials based on a specific dose-response relationship. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) must be reached at the site of an infection. Then there’s a concentration range where the bacteria (or viruses, or fungi, or parasites, depending on what you’re treating) are killed, typically in rough proportion to the dose. Keep increasing the dose, and the effect plateaus.
If you can hit the MIC without causing side effects or toxicity, congratulations: you have a potential therapeutic agent. There’s some evidence out there demonstrating that oil of oregano will kill different species of bacteria, etc in the test tube or Petri dish ( in vitro). If I pour a pile of salt, lime juice, Cointreau, or tequila on a Petri dish, it will likely kill most bacteria too — but that doesn’t mean margaritas can treat pneumonia. It’s not difficult to kill bacteria if you change the conditions enough that it cannot live.
So while it’s easy to get high concentrations of oregano in a test tube and subsequent positive effects, these effects are meaningless in the human body unless we can achieve similar concentrations, without any toxicity. And this has not been demonstrated with oil of oregano, or its individual chemical ingredients. 4. Does oil of oregano have any hazardous, unwanted effects? Natural does not mean safe. There are some reports of gastrointestinal upset with oil of oregano. There are also reports of allergic reactions.
There is no evidence to suggest that oil of oregano, used at high (medicinal) amounts, may be used safely in pregnant or breast feeding women. However, when used in cooking, and as part of a regular diet, there is also no evidence that causes harm in pregnancy or breastfeeding. Animal studies show that if you give enough carvacrol, it will kill, though. 5. Can oil of oregano be safely eliminated from the body? So little published research exists on oil of oregano there is no way to determine if oregano oil is non-toxic.
Certainly, at low doses, when used as a food, there is no reason to have any concerns. But at higher doses, and particularly with regular use, there is no data to suggest it’s safe to consume all that carvacrol, thymol, cymene, and terpinine. As we have no idea if and how oregano oil works, we have no information to estimate what a proper dose might be. Doses published by manufacturers are not based on any published evidence. Conclusion Oil of oregano, and the claims attached to it, is a great example of how interesting laboratory findings can be wildly exaggerated to imply meaningful effects in humans.
A few small studies have been conducted, mainly in the lab, and advocates argue this is evidence of effectiveness. The rest is all anecdotes. Despite the hype, there is no persuasive evidence to demonstrate that oil of oregano does anything useful in or on our bodies. And while it is popular, there is no science to support the use of oil of oregano for any medical condition. Suggesting that this herb is can effectively treat serious medical conditions like diabetes, asthma, and cancer is foolish and dangerous. If you’re ill, stick to the proven science, and save your oregano for cooking.