We would first need to establish if there is a valid and legally binding contract formation between Iris (“the offeror”) before deciding on the likely outcomes for the parties. A….
Law of Torts
PAPER-4 (LL1008) LAW OF TORT AND CONSUMER PROTECTION LAWS nd st (2 Semester, 1 Year of the 3-Year LLB course) PART A- Law of torts PART B – Consumer Protection Law PART –A General Principles 1. General Principles – Definition, distinction between tort, crime, contract, breach of trust. 2. Essential conditions of liability – Damnum Since injuria, Injuria sine damnum, Malice, Motive. 3. Foundations of tortuous liability, fault liability, strict liability, principles of insurance in torts. 4.
Capacity of parties to use and / or be used – State its subordinates – executive officers, judicial officers – mirrors corporation, unicorporated bodies, trade unions, etc foreign soveriengs, convicts bank rupts. 5. General defences – consent, resources cases, inevitable accident, Act of G mistake private defence, necessity statutory authority, act of State. 6. Remedies – Judical and extra judicial Damages- kinds of damages remoteness of damages- comparison with principles in contracts ; novas actus intervenes, successive action on the same facts, Merger of tort in felony. . Vicarious liability – Master and Servant – Distinction between servant and independent contractor, concept of servant, course of employment, Hospital cases, Masters duties towards servants, servants duties to his master, Servant with two masters, common employment, liability for tort of independence contractors, criminal acts of servants. 8. Joint tort feasors – common law rules, law reform act, 1935 applicability in India of the English principles. 9. Effect of death of parties in tort – Motor Vehicle accident cases. Specific Torts : 10.
Wrong to person – assult, battery, false imprisonment 11. Wrongs to property – trespass to land, continuing trespass, trespass to goods, convesion, detinue specific restitution. 12. Wrong to reputation – defamation – libel, slander- principles governing liability for defamation; defences – Justificaiton fair comment principles – absolute and qualified. 13. Negligence – Proof of negligence principle in Donoghue Vs Stevenson, requirements standard of care, resipsa loquiture contributory negligence, principles in Devies Vs Mann the last opportunity rules- constructive last opportunity rule. 4. Dangerous chattels – duty to persons permitted or invited to use chattel duty to immediate and ultimate transferee.
23 15. Deceit- rule in Derry Vs Peek, principles of liability, exceptions – liability for negligent mis statement. 16. Injury of Servitudes, Nuisance, Private and Public – defences valid and invalid 17. Occupier’s liability – (1) under a contract (2) as invitee (3) as licence (4) as trespasser (5) Child Visitor. 18. Conspiracy – requirements 19. Injurious falsehood – slander of title, slander of goods – passing off interference with freedom of contract, intimation. 0. Wrongs of family relations – husband and wife, parents and child, seduction – enticement, loss of service. 21. Strict liability- rule in Rylands Vs Fletcher, exceptions to the rule, liability for animals, cattle trespass. 22. Abuse of legal process – malicious prosecution, malicious civil proceedings, maintenance and champerty. New and emergent torts (Pages 36 to 43 of Salmond, 20th ed. And pages 324 to 327 of Pillai – 8th Edition) Books for Reference 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Salmond Winfield Ratanlal Ramaswamy Iyer Gandhi B. M.
Achutan Pillai James Law of Torts Law of Torts Law of Torts Law of Torts Law of Torts Law of Torts Introduction of the Law of Torts Cases to be studies 1. Ashby Vs White : Smith leading cases 266 912 ed (Legal Damages) 2. Mayor of Bradford Vs Pickles : (1895) AC 587 (Malic – relevancy) 3. Haynes Vs Harwood (1935) 1 KB 146 (Rescue Cases) 4. Stanley Vs Powell : 11 (1891) 1 OB 86 (Inveitable accident) 5. Bird Vs Hallorook (1828) 4 Bing 628=861 of Morrison – case on Torts (No duty to trespasser) 6. Bird Vs Hallorook (1828) 4 Bing 628=861 of Morrison –case on Torts (No duty to trespasser) 7.
Buron Vs Denman (1848) 2 Ex 167 (Act of State) 8. Mersey Docks & Harbour Board Vs Coggins and Griffiths : (1946) 2 ALER 345 (Liability of the servant lent to another) 9. Llyod Vs Grace, Smith and Co (1912) 1 ABD 814 (Liability for projection over highway and for independent contracts act) 10. Tarry Vs Ashtorf (1876) 1 ABD 814 (Liability for projection over highway and for independent contractors acts) 11. Kasturilal and Ralia Ram Vs State of UP AIR 1965 SC 1039 (Governments liability for torts of its servants) 4 12. Wilsons and Clyde coas Co Vs English (1938) AC 57 = (1973) 03 All ER 628 (Masters duty to servants) 13. Polemis and furness with and Co (1921) 3 KB 560 (Fest Remoteness) 14. Over seas Tankshop (JK) Ltd Morts Dock and Engineering Co (1961) AC 388 = (1961) 1 ALL ER 494 (Tests of remoteness of damage) 15. Rose Vs Ford (1937) AC 826 (1937) 3 ALL ER (359) Damages for loss of expectation of life. 16. Bird Vs Jones (1845) 7 AB 742 temporary false imprisonment (1912) KB 496 (necessity as a justification) 17.
Six carpenters case (1610) 8 Co Rep 146 on Smith leading cases Vol 1 P 127 (Tress ab initio) 18. Cassidy Vs Daily Mirror News papers Ltd (1929) 2 KB 331 (defamation unintentional publication) 19. Blyth Vs Birmingham Water worked Co (1856) II Ex 781 (Definition of negligence) 20. Donoghue Vs Stevenson (1932) AC 562 (damages for breach of duty of care negligence) 21. Davies Vs Mann (1842) 10 546 or Morrison cases on torts 688 (last opportunity rules) 22. British Columbia Electric Railway Vs Loach (1916) 1 AC 759 (Constructive last opportunity rules) 23.
Hambrook Vs Stroke Brothers (1925) 1 KG 141 (Nervous Shac) 24. Derry Vs Peek (1889) 14 AC 337 (deceit requirements of) 25. Hedley Byrne and Co ltd Vs Heller and Partners Ltd (1963) 2 ALL ET 575 (Liability for negligent mis statements) 26. Francis Vs Cockrel (1870) LR 5 OB 591 (concept of dangerous premises) 27. Fairman Vs Peretuall investment building society (1923) AC 74 Occupoiers duty to licences) 28. Indermour Vs Dames (1866) LR 1 CP 274 (Occupiers liability to persons entering under contract) 29.
Cooke Vs Midland Great Western Railway of Ireland (1909) AC 229 (Occupers liability to children) 30. Crofter Hand Waven Harris Tweed Co Ltd Vs Veitch (1942) AC 435 = (1942) 1 ALL ER 142 (Conspiracy) 31. Lubley Vs Gye (1853) 2 Ed 216 (introducing a breach of contract) 32. Rylands Vs Fletcher (1868) LR 3 HL 339 = Smiths leading cases Vol 278 (Strict liabiolity principle) 33. Read Vs Lyons & Ltd (1945) KB 216 = (1945) 1 ALL ER 106 (escape necessary for strict liability) 34. May Vs Burdett (18460 9 AB 101 (Liability for animals) 25 PART- B ( 2nd Semester, 1st Year of the 3-Year LLB course)
CONSUMER PROTECTION LAW Consumer Protection Act – 1986- Definitions, consumer Protection Councils, their objects – consumer Disputes Redressal agencies – District forum, State Commission, National Commission- their jurisdiction, constitution, powers, procedure – appeals, reliefs to the parties, enforcement of the orders. Reading materials 1. Consumer Protection Act 1986 2. Law of Consumer Protection 3. Law of Consumer Protection 4. Law of Consumer Protection 5. Law of Consumer Protection Gurubax Singh D. N. Saraf R. K. Bangia Kaushal