History of Western Society Sixth Edition Chapter 13 Outline I. The Evolution of the Italian Renaissance A. Economic growth laid the material basis 1. Cultural achievements of the 14th to 16th centuries 2. Northern Italian cities led the way 3. Advances in ship construction greatly increased the volume of goods that could be transported; improvements in the mechanics of sailing accelerated speed 4. Italian renaissance appeared in Florence 5. The economic foundations of Florence was so strong that even severe crisis could not destroy the city 6.
Driving enterprise, technical know-how, and competitive spirit saw Florence through the difficult economic period of the late 14th century B. Communes and Republics 1. The Northern Italian cities were communes, sworn associations 2. Groups tied by blood, economic interests, and social connections 3. A properly qualification, years of residence within the city, and social connections 4. In the 15th century, political power and elite culture entered on the princely courts of despots and oligarchs C. The Balance of Power Among the Italian City States 1. Passionate attachment to their individual city states . The kingdom of Naples had long been disputed by the Aragonese and by the French. 3. In the peace treaty signed at Lodi in 1454, Venice received territories in return for recognizing Sforza’s right to the duchy 4. Renaissance Italians invented the machinery of modern diplomacy 5. In a number of fiery sermons between 1491 and 1494, Savonarola attacked what he considered the paganism and moral vice of the city 6. The invasion of Italy in 1494 by the French king Charles VIII 7. In 1508 his cousin and heir, Louis XII, formed the league of Cambrai II. Intellectual Hallmarks of the Renaissance
A. The Renaissance was characterized by self-conscious awareness among the 14th and 15th century Italians 1. Francesco Petrarch (1304-1374) considered the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the developments of human civilization 2. The Renaissance manifested itself in a new attitude toward men, women, and the world B. Individualism 1. Middle Ages had seen the appearance of remarkable individuals 2. Large literature with the nature of individuality emerged, represented the flowering of distinctly Renaissance individualism C. Humanism 1.
Humanism emphasized human beings, their achievements, interests, and capabilities 2. Renaissance humanists approached the classics differently D. Secular Spirit 1. Secularism involves a basic concern with the material world instead of with the eternal world of spirit 2. Humanist Lorenzo Valla (1406-1457) defends the pleasures of the senses as the highest good 3. Papal interests, which were far removed from spiritual concerns, fostered, rather than discouraged, the new worldly attitude III. Art and the Artist A. The subject matter of art through the early 15th century as in the Middle Agrs, remained overwhelmingly religious 1.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, a large, intricately carved wooden bed, a chest, and perhaps a bench served as its sole decorations 2. Florentine Masaccio (1401-1428) inspired a new style, realism, the new international style B. The Status of the Artist 1. The Renaissance artist was considered a free intellectual worker 2. The social status of the artist of genius was immortally secured IV. Social Change A. The Renaissance changed many aspects of Italian, and subsequently European, society 1. Renaissance culture witnessed a shift in the status and experience of women B. Education and Political Thought . One of the central preoccupations of the humanists was education and moral behavior 2. In the 16th and 17th centuries, The Courtier was widely read 3. No Renaissance book on any topic, however, has been more widely read and studied in all centuries since its publication (1513) C. The Printed Word 1. By the middle of the 15th century, paper was no problem 2. Gutenberg’s Bible of 1456, movable type had brought about radical changes 3. Since books and other printed materials were read aloud to illiterate listeners, print bridged the gap between written and oral cultures D. Clocks . The English word quantification was first used in 1840 2. Mechanical clocks, usually installed on the cathedial or town church, were in general use in Germany by the 1330’s, in England by the 1370’s, and in France by the 1380’s 3. The status of upper-class women declined, in terms of the kind of work they performed 4. Laura Cereta (1469-1499) illustrates the successes and failures od educated Renaissance women 5. Women, of course, continued to perform economic functions 6. In the years 1338- 1358, rape was not considered a serious crime against either the victim or society 7.
In the 11th century, William the Conqueror had decreed that rapists be castrated E. Gender and Culture 1. The term homosexuality was coined only in 1892 2. On April 17th, 1432, the Florentine government set up a special magistracy, the Office of the Night F. Blacks 1. The beginning in the 15th century, sizable numbers of black slaves entered Europe 2. In 1491 Isabella of Este, duchess of Mantua, instructed her agent to secure a black girl between four and eight years old V. The Renaissance in the North A. Last quarter of the 15th century, Italian Renaissance thoughts inspired northern Europe 1.
There More found the time to write Utopia (1516), which presents a revolutionary view of society. 2. Francois Rabelais (1490? -1553) possess a distinctly secular flavor and have attracted broad readership among the literate public 3. Many of Bosch’s paintings reflect the confusion, and anguish often associated with the end of the Middle Ages VI. Politics and the State in the Renaissance (CA 1450-1521) A. Louis XI, Henry VII, and Ferdinand and Isabella in Spain had been labeled as “new monarchs” B. France 1. In 1438 Charles published the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges 2.
In 1516 the new treaty, the Concordat of Bologna, approved the pope’s right to receive the first year’s income of new bishops and abbots C. England 1. Between 1455 and 1471, adherents of the ducal houses of York and Lancaster waged civil war, the Wars of Roses 2. The council dealt with real or potential aristocratic threats through a judicial offshoot, the court of Star Chamber D. Spain 1. The centuries-long Reconquista- the wars of the northern Christian kingdoms to control the entire peninsula 2. In the administration of Castile, “New Christians” held the royal secretary ship