THE GEOGRAPHY OF DISEASE AND HEALTH

 The Geography of Disease and Health

The Geography of Disease and Health. Purpose:  Provides the student with an opportunity to relate reading material from real-world scenarios from Spillover to themes and concepts covered in lectures and slides.

Directions:  In addition to writing specific answers to questions you may refer to outside sources on the internet to complete answers.  (Google Earth may be useful for incorporating maps, if desired.)  The snipping tool (free download) is also very handy.  A good paragraph should have no less than four complete sentences.  A drawing program such as PowerPoint or any other drawing software may be useful to express your ideas.  You can even create images by hand but make sure you can scan the image, save as a png or jpeg “picture”, and then insert into this document with your answer.  All answers should be in this document and saved as a Word document.

I Pale Horse

The Geography of Disease and Health.

  1. (2 points) Landscape Epidemiology: Describe the transmission chain in terms of type (refer to the lecture slides) and identify the reservoir species, amplifying host, and host.  You may use a diagram or image.  Write just a couple of sentences describing your diagram.
  2. (3 points) Construct a Triangle of Human Ecology for the Nipah Hendra virus incorporating the nodes or vertices of population, behavior, and habitat. Some elements from the sub-triangles or individual factors within the nodes may not be present. Write just a couple of sentences describing your diagram.

II 13 Gorillas

The Geography of Disease and Health.

  1. (2 points) In terms of Landscape Epidemiology, describe the transmission chain for Ebolavirus. What are the host/reservoir species?  How does the pathogen circulate? Write just a couple of sentences describing your diagram.
  2. (3 points) Construct a Triangle of Human Ecology for the Ebolavirus incorporating the nodes or vertices of population, behavior, and habitat. Elements from the sub-triangles or individual factors within the nodes may not be present. Write just a couple of sentences describing your diagram.

III Everything Comes from Somewhere

  1. (3 points) Go to the CDC website on malaria. Snip the illustration of the life history or life cycle of Plasmodium and insert in this document.  In your own words describe each of the life cycle stages of Plasmodium using the proper terms with their definitions.  Write one paragraph.
  2. (3 points) Is malaria considered a zoonoses? Why or why not? Write one paragraph.
  3. (2 points) In terms of its transmission chain, what is different about knowlesi, and why might it pose a problem in the control of malaria? Write one paragraph.

 

 

IV Dinner at the Rat Farm
  1. (2 points) What is SARS and its significance in understanding the global reach of infectious diseases? Write one paragraph.
V The Deer, the Parrot, and the Kid Next Door
  1. (2 points) Describe the difference between viruses and bacteria. What is unique about Rickettsia bacteria with respect to bacteria as a whole? Write no more than a paragraph.
  2. (6 points total for a, b, c) This chapter describes how spillover events are not exotic phenomena but can occur over a wide range of human activities and environments interacting with pets, local wildlife, and livestock. For each of the following pathogens and their respective diseases, illustrate (or diagram) their transmission chain. Write no more than one paragraph for each of the following pathogens and provide one example from the book, Spillover.
    1. Q-Fever: Coxiella burnettii
    2. Psittacosis: Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) psittaci
    3. Lyme Disease: Borrellia burgdorferi

VI Going Viral

  1. (3 points) Viruses can have either DNA or RNA within their capsids. Why are RNA viruses more unstable and problematic for medical intervention?  Provide three examples each for DNA and RNA viruses important in human and animal health.  Write no more than one paragraph.
  2. (4 points) Write no more than 2 paragraphs on the various strategies of viral transmission and dispersal in human populations. Be sure to relate pathogenicity and viral survival to these strategies and provide examples.  You may use diagrams.

VII Celestial Hosts VIII

  1. (2 points) Discuss the role of reservoir hosts in disease/pathogen transmission systems. What is meant by the term “amplifying host”? Select one example from chapter VII.  Write one paragraph.
  2. (3 points) Create two Triangles of Human Ecology for Nipah virus transmission in Bangladesh and one for Malaysia. How are the two triangles different?  Be sure to label appropriately and describe in one paragraph.
  3. (4 points) Describe co-evolution of pathogens and animal hosts. What makes flying foxes/fruit bats important in understanding pathogen adaptation?  Write two paragraphs.

The Chimp and the River

  1. (4 points) What is a retrovirus? Describe the relationship between SIV and HIV and their hosts.  What are the most prevalent groups of HIV and where do they tend to be located?  Write no more than two paragraphs.
  2. (6 points) Trace the theoretical origins of HIV both geographically and temporally. Include the earliest probable date of HIV emergence.  Be sure to include the hypothetical scenario of how HIV may have entered North American populations.  You may use Google Earth maps or your own diagrams such as a timeline, to answer this question.  Write no more than three paragraphs.

 

IX It depends

  1. (4 points) Describe the human influenza transmission system, while considering the three types of Influenza and their transmission chains. Your answer should include such basic facts about the nature of these influenza types such RNA, proteins, and evolution, the importance of “H” and “N” in epidemic cycles and immunization programs.  Write no more than two paragraphs.
  2. (2 points) What are Burke’s three criteria that “might implicate certain kinds of viruses as likeliest candidates to cause a new pandemic”? Write no more than one paragraph.