Gender and Media Theories and concepts

Gender and Media Theories

Media research:

  • Study media content, processes, effects on audiences.
  • Both quantitative and qualitative Measurement or rich description
  • Therefore, Both can be employed to show a full picture

Mass communication methods

  • Content analysis: qualitative and quantitative
  • Surveys/questionnaires
  • Textual analysis
  • Historical analysis
  • Ethnography (field research)
  • In-depth Interviews
  • Lastly, Participant observation

Agenda setting:

  • Additionally, Long-held theory which states that media don’t tell people what to think, but rather, tell people what to think about. (McCombs and Shaw, 1972)
  • Media emphasize the important issues in society.
  • So, These ideas and issues are chosen by media gatekeepers.

Symbolic annihilation: Gender and Media Theories

  • However, Absence in the media of certain groups, which leads to their marginalization in society.
  • Lack of coverage and representation in media symbolically dismisses these groups as important.
  • Usually refers to minorities, women, disabled people, gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people, people of different religions and cultural groups. (Tuchman, 1978)

Cultivation and social learning theories

  • George Gerbner and other researchers postulated that heavy exposure to cultural products (media) affects a person’s concept of reality.
  • For example, people who watch a lot of crime shows on television tend to think crime is more prevalent than it actually is.
  • Social learning theory (Bandura) says that people model behavior that they see in others or from television/film.

Framing

  • How people use their expectations to make sense of everyday life (Erving Goffman)
  • In news media, framing refers to the way journalists construct common scenarios that uphold audiences’ expectations. Therefore, they reinforce the status quo.
  • Examples: Naming any type of scandal with –gate, as in Watergate
  • Missing white woman syndrome
  • Student who died was an honor student with a promising future n“Welfare queen,” “homeless addict,” “illegal immigrant”

Hegemony

  • theory that maintains the dominant group in society holds powerful control, imposing its ideologies as “common sense.”
  • Subordinate groups are persuaded to accept the dominant ideology, allowing the system to work and the dominant group to remain in power.
  • The theory was developed by Antonio Gramsci, Italian imprisoned for his opposition to the fascist leader Mussolini.
  • Subordinate groups may defy the hegemonic structure, but it largely remains intact and the power structure stays in place.
  • What is the dominant group in American society as far as race, gender, class, economic status, education?

Semiotics

  • Using signs or symbols to provoke emotional responses from audiences.
  • These signs are socially constructed, so certain groups of people share common meaning about what the sign or symbol represents. Examples:
  • The U.S. flag
  • Rainbow flag
  • Car brands (what does a BMW mean?
  • What does a Honda mean? What does a Maserati mean?) n“The real world”


find the cost of your paper

Brain Structures and Functions in Human

Brain Structures and Functions in Human. For this assignment, you are tasked with completing a 6-8-page paper that addresses the major structures of the brain and the influence these have….

Restriction of Freedom of Speech in USA

Restriction of Freedom of Speech in USA. The government is usually in a dilemma when it comes to disseminating information to the public. The government usually possesses information about its….

Free Speech Controversy and other issues

Free Speech Controversy and other issues. The freedom of speech is a human, civil and political right recognized and appreciated by the United States government and its citizens. Every citizen….