Brain Structures and Functions in Human. For this assignment, you are tasked with completing a 6-8-page paper that addresses the major structures of the brain and the influence these have….
Gender and Media Theories and concepts
Gender and Media Theories
- Study media content, processes, effects on audiences.
- Both quantitative and qualitative Measurement or rich description
- Therefore, Both can be employed to show a full picture
Mass communication methods
- Content analysis: qualitative and quantitative
- Textual analysis
- Historical analysis
- Ethnography (field research)
- In-depth Interviews
- Lastly, Participant observation
- Additionally, Long-held theory which states that media don’t tell people what to think, but rather, tell people what to think about. (McCombs and Shaw, 1972)
- Media emphasize the important issues in society.
- So, These ideas and issues are chosen by media gatekeepers.
Symbolic annihilation: Gender and Media Theories
- However, Absence in the media of certain groups, which leads to their marginalization in society.
- Lack of coverage and representation in media symbolically dismisses these groups as important.
- Usually refers to minorities, women, disabled people, gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people, people of different religions and cultural groups. (Tuchman, 1978)
Cultivation and social learning theories
- George Gerbner and other researchers postulated that heavy exposure to cultural products (media) affects a person’s concept of reality.
- For example, people who watch a lot of crime shows on television tend to think crime is more prevalent than it actually is.
- Social learning theory (Bandura) says that people model behavior that they see in others or from television/film.
- How people use their expectations to make sense of everyday life (Erving Goffman)
- In news media, framing refers to the way journalists construct common scenarios that uphold audiences’ expectations. Therefore, they reinforce the status quo.
- Examples: Naming any type of scandal with –gate, as in Watergate
- Missing white woman syndrome
- Student who died was an honor student with a promising future n“Welfare queen,” “homeless addict,” “illegal immigrant”
- theory that maintains the dominant group in society holds powerful control, imposing its ideologies as “common sense.”
- Subordinate groups are persuaded to accept the dominant ideology, allowing the system to work and the dominant group to remain in power.
- The theory was developed by Antonio Gramsci, Italian imprisoned for his opposition to the fascist leader Mussolini.
- Subordinate groups may defy the hegemonic structure, but it largely remains intact and the power structure stays in place.
- What is the dominant group in American society as far as race, gender, class, economic status, education?
- Using signs or symbols to provoke emotional responses from audiences.
- These signs are socially constructed, so certain groups of people share common meaning about what the sign or symbol represents. Examples:
- The U.S. flag
- Rainbow flag
- Car brands (what does a BMW mean?
- What does a Honda mean? What does a Maserati mean?) n“The real world”