Book Report on Edward’s “Edward R. Murrow and the Birth of Broadcast Journalism” The turning point of the field of broadcast journalism was attributed to no one but Edward R…..
Expected Pattern of Development from Birth to 19years
Expected pattern of development from birth to 19years AgePhysicalCommunication and intellectualSocial,emotional and behavioural 0-3 monthsGross- waves arms and brings hands together over body. Fine-clasps and unclasps handsThrough crying and physical contact. Smiles back when they see a smiling face.. Babies may stop crying after they are picked up or by hearing a familiar voice. By 3 months they get excited when its time to feed 3-6 monthsGross-rolls over from back to front and moves head to watch others Fine-reaches for a toy and moves it from one hand to anotherEnjoys rhymes and action songs. Uses sounds to gain attention.
Can laugh showing a range of feelings. Stops crying when talked to and reaches out to be held. 6-12 monthsGross-sits unsupported and likely to be mobile e. g. rolling or crawling. by 12 months may stand alone briefly. Fine-grasps objects with index finger and thumb. Starts to babble and enjoys looking at books. They also watch and copy adults. Is affectionate towards family and primary carers but discriminates between strangers and family. plays peek-a-boo. 1-2 yearsGross-may walk holding onto furniture, by 2 years will walk unaided. Fine-uses spoon to feed, can hold own cup and will start to scribble.
Also read: Child Development Not Following Expected Pattern
Waves bye-bye, fingers point to objects to draw attention to adults. Less babbling and more recognisable words e. g. “no”,”come”Cries when left with someone they don’t know. keen to explore as they become more confident. Also interested in other children but does not play cooperatively. 2-3yearsGross-uses sit and ride toys and able to run. At this stage they are able play on slides. Fine-draws circles and turns pages in books. Points to pictures of familiar objects and names them. Start to recognise shapes. Starting to use sentences or putting words together. Playing imaginatively e. g. on the home corner.
Shows kindness Begins to understand anger and feelings. Gets frustrated when they don’t get what they want. Separation from carers remains an issue for some unless they know who they staying with. 3-4yearsGross-walks upstairs with alternate feet. Runs backwards and forwards. throws a ball. Fine-draws face with features washes and dries hands with help. Use language to say how they are feeling because speech is understandable most of the time. Can name some colours and can verbally count to 10. constantly asks questions. Listens attentively to age appropriate stories. Start to understand the consequences of own behaviour.
Can express their thoughts resulting in decrease in tantrums. Seeks approval from adults. 4-5 yearsGross- aims and throws ball, walks in a line. Climbs ladders, tree and playground equipment. Fine-draws a person with head, trunks and legs. Memory develops which allows recall of songs and rhymes. Imagination develops. Start to understand symbols e. g. writing and reading. Aware of others emotions and gender roles. Will follow basic rules and seeks play with peers in groups. Attends to own toilet needs 5-6 yearsGross- runs quickly and able to avoid obstacles. throws a ball to a partner and catches it.
Fine-has control of pencil to form letters. Colours in pictures. Attention p increases and the development of vocabulary extends communication. Most children know the alphabet and can name upper case and lower case. Enjoy a joke. Physical care needs are developed. Understand the rules of games. Often has one or two focused friendships. 6-7yearsGross-hops skips and jumps confidently, balances on a beam and uses wheeled toys e. g. roller skates. Fine-cuts out shapes accurately. ties and unties shoelacesShows reasoning skills but still using trial and error learning. Able to carry adult like conversations.
Uses appropriate verb tenses, word order and sentence structure. Have strong friendships. Develops self help skills e. g. wiping up spills. Uses language rather than tantrums or physical aggression to express displeasure. 7-12 years Gross- Increased coordination skills which allow more concentration on games like football/netball. Fine-skills are refined allowing work like model making and typing. Able to reason and use logic to solve problems. Show creativity in role play. Begins to use information form one situation and transfer to another.
Some are keen to show inappropriate behaviour to gain attention from adults and admiration from other children. 12-19 yearsPuberty begins for boys between 14-17 years and for girls between 13-16 years. May became sexually active Gross-stamina increases which allow for them to walk for longer distances and take part in energetic sports. Fine -increase of strength in hands enables movement such as twisting lids of jars. Question sources of information e. g. parents,books and teachers. Start to change physically and hormones affect their mood. Making a transition from dependence on family to independence.