Biological and Humanistic Approaches to Personality PSY250 As research into personality progressed, scientists began to look beyond psychoanalysis and trait theories for other explanations into how personality develops. They started….
Existential Psychology and Humanistic Approach: Use in Modern Perspective
Extistencail psychology & humanistic approach (personality) Use in modern perspective Focus on how it relates to happiness Difference: humanist + side of human Est related to sex and aggression. Which statement about Freud’s theory of personality is FALSE? The most important aspects of personally development are finished by age 6 The ego continues to develop as you grow The id is present at birth The ego must balance the demands of the id and super-ego The id is entirely unconscious. The ego is entirely conscious Difference: ego & super ego Ego: the eye since of self, intelligence ore rational Super ego: (over-eye) develop early on Demand of your culture, what your culture (good boy or girl) should or shouldn’t do. Ex: good person won’t have sex In this defense mechanism, an individual acts in a manner opposite to their true desires or motives.
Displacement You displace your anger on something or someone else Projection Instead of admitingit to yourself you accuse everyone else of it Reaction formation Regression Using a baby talk Denial Act as if something isn’t happening * Defense machanism do exist. He’s probably wrong about ppl use it by unciounsious * There are many reasons that contribute to our attraction to others. One of the best predictors in selecting and developing interpersonal and romantic relationships is Mere exposure effect Is why proximity is such a good predictor Just seeing them won’t influence it as much as the other one Personality characteristics Commonalities in parental behavior Physical proximity How close u live to each other They are there and you get to know them, b/c they live close to you What is familiar is more appealing then what isn’t Age Defense mechanisms are enated by The id The ego The super-ego
Both the ego and the super ego Both the id and the super-ego In _________love we experience feelings of euphoria, intimacy, and intense sexual attraction, in ________love, we experience affection, trust, and concern, for a partner’s well-being. Passionate; companionate Companionate deals w/ oxitocen Passionate deals w/ dopamine (like w/ drugs) Research has consistently demonstrated five core components of personality. Which of the following is not one of the Big Five personality tratis? Agreeableness Extraversion + to neutral? Openness to experience Narcissism – to neutral? B&C
Which of the big 5 is associated w/ school and work success? (along w/ predicting IQ) Consciousness What do obedience to authority and a tendency to reciprocate other’s favors have in common? Norms (unwritten standards for behavior or how ppl will react to one other) Differ from culture to culture No one is going to sit u down & tell you Ex: you will obey an officer (or ppl in position of authority) When your friend does really well on a test, he says it’s b/c he is smart. If he fails, he says it’s b/c the test was really hard. This is an ex of which of the following? Extraversion Denial Sublimation
Self-serving bias We have a general good look of our self Look at outside reason why we didn’t do so well. repression The tendency for ppl to engage in ____________ explains why some ppl prefer negative evaluation over positive ones and also seek mate who view them poorly. Self-verification Get info from ppl around us Deosn’t change a lot over time We seek ppl out who confirm w/ our own thoughts Self denial Self actualization Self serving bias Self report * * _____________ persuasion is a type of persuasion that involves a chang in attitudes or beliefs that is brought about by appeals to habit or emotion.
Systematic Heuristic Habbits & emotion Happy, joy Non-systematic Logic & reason (opposite of heuristic) Ppl take their time (ppl are spending a lot of $) Inferential Residual The Lexical Hypothsis suggested that: Language will have many words for very important personality traits. Language will have few words for the very important personality traits Some cultures do not believe in the idea of stable personality traits. Some cultures do believe in the idea of stable personality traits. Which of the following statements about personality traits is NOT true?
Traits allow us to predict behavior in specific situations. Only over time, not in situations Intelligence is not a personalilty trait According to the ___________ ppl aggress when their goals are thwarted. Pleasure principle Frustration-agression Drive principle Motivation principle Aggression-motivation hypothesis As cover in class the humanistic perspective on personality and motivation suggests that there are 3 b Automomy relatedness Competence Dominance Milgrams famous obedience study reveals that about ______% of participants delivered the max level of shock. 15% 25% 50% 65% 95% top sooner if they had to touch the learner being closer to the learner personality traits matter too often ppl who didn’t car about what ppl thought about them being taught by parents/ even if you are told to do something it wasn’t ok to hurt some one ppl who had a strong need to be approved of they were more likely to continue Researches have discovered a gene associated w/ serotonin availability in th frontal love. This gen is also related to the personality trait of neuroticism The Zimbardo prison study has been cited as an example that: negative situation pressures often outweigh personality traits.
When ppl in angry mobs, they may not be awar of their own standards of behavior. This may be due to: Reciprocal altruism Altruism Diffusion of responsibility Doesn’t have to do w/ being aware of yourself This is in the ex of who is going to come forth to do the work When someone needs help & it isn’t clear if it’s a emergency When there is a crowd &ppl act like it’s fine then u assume it’s fine too When u are by yourself, u don’t have reference of others so u r more likely to help Deindividuation Group polarization
In _________ an individual’s experience of the environment is shaped y unintentional effects of their personality on others. Situation selection Manipulation When we do it intension to manipulate others to get what we want Evocation Unintentional effect ppl respond to b/c of ur personality Passive correlation Spent a lot of ppl who have the same gene as you so it’s hard to pull apart Self-serving bias In John Gottman’s research on predictors of divorce, couples who remained married showed a ratio of ____ positive interactons for every _____negative interactions 5;1 1;5 2;1 1;2 1;1 *