Does Positive Behavioral Intervention Support (PBIS) affect Student Growth? July, 2012 Executive Summary In this paper, I will investigate the correlation of Positive Behavioral Intervention Support (PBIS) and the effects on students’ academic growth. Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports (PBIS) is a systemic approach to proactive, school-wide behavior based on a Response to Intervention (RtI) model. (Wisconsin PBIS Network) I believe PBIS will have a positive effect on students’ academic growth.
The federal government strongly recommends that schools adopt Response to Intervention (RTI) as part of their general and special education programs (Burton & Kappenberg, 2012). Most RTI models are a three-tier support system with two spheres, one academic and one behavioral (Burton & Kappenberg, 2012). Positive Behavior Intervention Support (PBIS) has been used to describe school-wide and statewide efforts to implement and monitor comprehensive initiatives in our schools to decrease problem behaviors (Burton & Kappenberg, 2012).
For the purpose of this paper, SWPBIS, PBS and PBIS refer to School-wide Positive Behavior Intervention Support. Overview of Program As a component of Response to Intervention (RtI), PBS provides the tools that are essential for stabilizing and improving a student’s behavior, self-esteem, and relationship in general education classes as well as inclusive settings (Burton & Kappenberg, 2012).
As a system within RtI, PBS shifts the burden on the teacher from competency to “manage” the class and “control” the students’ disruptive behavior to identifying causes of inappropriate behavior, encouraging positive behaviors and monitoring interventions (Burton & Kappenberg, 2012). By implementing PBIS, the teacher has a unique and important role in each students schooling. PBS is based on understanding why problem behaviors occur and it gives educators and parents a new way to think about behaviors.
It is the application of evidence-based strategies and systems to assist schools to increase academic performance, increase safety, decrease problem behavior and establish positive school culture (Burton & Kappenberg, 2012). RTI is a “three-tier composite of academic and behavioral spheres that, in fact, interact with one another, rather than being parallel but isolated (Buffum, Mattos & Weber, 2010). ” The RtI is a three tier composite of academic and behavioral spheres, these reflect and reinforce one another (Burton & Kappenberg, 2012).
This model is based on and understanding that academic performance is a form of student behavior. These two spheres are interdependent and inseparable and the program needs to evaluate all aspects of a child’s performance in school including curriculum works and social interactions (Burton & Kappenberg, 2012). It is scientifically and nationally recognized as the most effective approach to integrating both spheres of a child’s life (Burton & Kappenberg, 2012). In reviewing these three spheres, PBS is an effective intervention in each of the three tiers.
In the behavior sphere, it is often a greater challenge to identify goals and interventions because they are less well known and tested (Clonin, McDougal, Clark and Davison, 2007). One of the greatest advances of RtI over traditional student evaluation processes is its reliance on proactive identification of students who may be at risk and the use of early interventions that might prevent this. There are few reliable screening processes (Burton & Kappenberg, 2012).
RTI is about establishing a school-wide system for allocating instructional resources where they are needed. This initiative gives all students (Tier 1) access to the regular curriculum and provides differentiated instruction and support. It requires high quality differentiated instruction based on insights into student thinking and keeping track of students’ progress. General education teachers can use the CHAMPs (Conversation-Help-Activity-Movement-Participation-Success) model by Randy Sprick (2009) as one of the effective approaches to PBS for a Tier 1 student.
It allows teachers to design a proactive and positive approach to classroom management that has been proven successful for large numbers of struggling students in a clear, teacher and student friendly system of five prosocial behaviors (Burton & Kappenberg, 2012). This model assists the teacher in identifying the behaviors they want to see and teach what these behaviors look like in the classroom by giving students specific behaviors to practice and expectations and reminders are reinforced (Burton & Kappenberg, 2012).
Students who are struggling and need more targeted interventions will receive increasingly intense intervention matched to their need at Tier 2. These services and interventions are usually provided in small group settings in addition to their instruction in the general curriculum. If behaviors still need to be reinforced, there are other Tier 2 interventions like peer mentoring, group counseling, being assigned an adult role model to work with (Burton & Kappenberg, 2012).
One of the significant impacts that RTI and PBS have is the systematic collection of data on each child’s response to the interventions as well as support from teachers, parents and guidance counselors who can report on the effect of interventions inside and outside the school environment (Burton & Kappenberg, 2012). Some students may need a more intensive individualized intervention that targets the students’ skill deficits in Tier 3. There would be a reanalysis of all the data from Tier 1 and 2, looking particularly for potential causes or interventions that had been overlooked (Burton & Kappenberg, 2012).
The team may decide to complete a functional behavior assessment (FBA) that will collect extensive data to identify, the antecedents that may have caused negative behavior, review of the behavior itself and the consequences of the behavior (Burton & Kappenberg, 2012). This would then lead the team to create a professionally developed behavior intervention plan (BIP), which would recommend specific interventions based on the data collected from the FBA (Burton & Kappenberg, 2012).
Students who do not achieve the desired level of progress in response to these targeted interventions are then referred for a comprehensive evaluation by the Committee on Special Education. Analysis In reviewing the current literature, there were several studies that determined the key elements of SWPBIS that make it successful. In addition, the following studies conducted have reviewed the correlation between SWPBIS and student achievement. All eight studies found a positive relationship between the implementation of SWPBIS programs and improved student behavior.
A positive correlation between the use of SWPBIS programs and improved student achievement was found in research by Hong, LeBurn, Pavlovich, and Yeung. Hong (2011) investigated the effectiveness the effectiveness of SWPBIS on statewide standardized tests using a longitudinal study over a three year period at both elementary and middle school levels in Minnesota. Preliminary data analysis based on elementary schools indicates there was statistical significant relationship between SW-PBIS program and schools’ accountability.
Another study conducted by Pavlovich (2008) examined the relationship between PBIS strategies and school-wide discipline problems as well as the difference in educator’s perceptions of the school climate and academic achievement. Results indicated a significant increase in third grade reading scores between the years of PBIS implementation and one year following PBIS implementation. In addition, LeBurn (2008) looked at the “Effects of Large Scale Implementation of School Wide Positive Behavior Support on Student Discipline and Academic Achievement (SW-PBIS). The study began in 2002 and went on for 3 consecutive years, with 124 public and private schools from K-12 in New Hampshire across four cohorts that participated. Implementation was associated with academics gains in math whereas the reading remained neutral. Finally, Yeung (2009) examined the effects of The Positive Behavior for Learning (PBL) initiative (adopted from the PBIS model in the USA) in Australia to improve learning outcomes for students. The results of the study show that PBL made some significant contributions in determining long term benefits for students.
These preliminary findings suggest that the school-wide PBL system has the potential to make a difference in learning outcomes. One of the most significant aspects of PBIS that educators need to understand is that behavior and academics are a major part of a child’s life in school. You can not only concentrate on one aspect and ignore the other. I believe PBIS will improve student success in school because more time will be dedicated to teaching rather than managing misbehavior. The program will also improve the school climate for students and teachers.
Through PBIS, there will be an enduring, positive change in behavior, reduction in suspensions as well as increase in graduation rates. I think there are still years of work and development in PBIS, but I believe this is a significant paradigm shift in education where educators are collaborating and assuring that all children learn by analyzing their academic work as well as their behaviors. Decision Matrix Key Characteristics| Weight %| Fidelity of the PBIS Program| 25%| Increase in referrals to Special Education| 20%|
Increase in Suspension and behavior issues| 30%| Teacher/Student Buy In| 10%| Cost Effectiveness| 15%| Total| 100%| Key CharacteristicsOptions weight| Fidelity| Referrals| Suspension| Teacher/Student Buy In| Cost| Total:| | 25%| 20%| 30%| 10%| 15%| 100%| 1. PBIS| raw| 10| 8| 8| 7| 7| | | wt. | 300| 160| 160| 105| 105| 830| 2. Ripple Effects| raw| 5| 5| 5| 4| 5| | | wt. | 150| 100| 100| 60| 75| 485| 3. Leaps| raw| 3| 5| 4| 5| 7| | | wt. | 90| 100| 80| 75| 105| 450| References: Benner, G. , Nelson, J. , Ron, J. Sanders, E. , Ralston, N. (2012). Behavior intervention for students with externalizing behavior problems: primary-level standard protocol. Exceptional Children, 78 ( 2). Retrieved from http://search. proquest. com. arktos. nyit. edu/education/docview/916923328/137DC178FA97D350E74/1? accountid=12917 Buffum, A. , Mattos, M. , & Weber, C. (2008) Pyramid response to intervention: RtI, professional learning communities, and how to respond when kids don’t learn. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree. Burton, D. & Kappenberg, J. 2012). The complete guide to RTI: an implementation toolkit. California, Corwin Clonin, S. M. , McDougal, J. L. , Clark, K. , & Davison, S. (2007). Use of office discipline referrals in school wide decision making: A practical example. Psycology in the schools, 44(1), 19-27. Hong, S. , Ryoo, J. (2011). Investigating the effectiveness of SW-PBIS on school’s accountability at both elementary and middle schools: Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness, Retrieved from http://www. eric. ed. gov/PDFS/ED528760. pdf.