DB Forum Replies


Post a substantive reply of at least 300 words each to a minimum of TWO threads. 
· You must use at least 1 peer-reviewed reference (not used in the original posting) in your response.
· Do not simply revisit what was discussed in the thread, but add information from the unique article you researched on the concept and compare the findings. Did the findings of the article you found and the articles used in the original thread agree, disagree, address different aspects of the concept?
· Only the substantive part of the response will be counted toward the word count. 
· Use APA format and write in 3rd person. 

Thread 1:

Brainstorming are sessions where people pop out ideas. (Knight-Wallace, 2017)
Carol Knight-Wallace (2017) discusses brainstorming myths and  strategies to overcome them. The article does this by referring to the  process of brainstorming and relating it to popping popcorn. The first  indication of this is when coming up with ideas during a brainstorming  session they “pop” out. Knight-Wallace (2017) reviews three myths of  brainstorming. The first myth is that in groups more ideas will be  produced. The second myth is that debating topics is bad and should be  limited. The third myth is that all ideas should be treated the same. By  making adjustments and modifications to the brainstorming process these  myths can be overcome. By giving people time to be creative and  structure ideas alone before coming together as a group. Incentives such  as rewarding the most creative or unique idea. Encouraging  improvisation to enhance creativity. Structure the brainstorming by  using the Seven Ways method as a tool. Seven Ways encourages a team to  solve a problem or create a new process. Knight-Wallace (2017) offers  many solutions to processes to enhance brainstorming and avoid the  problems that are discussed.
Before brainstorming starts a flow chart is created, data collected,  the root cause determined, and, now it is time to discuss solutions.  (Knight-Wallace, 2017) Brainstorming can be beneficial however, it  doesn’t come without potential concerns. The first myth is that groups  generate more ideas; many people can be more creative alone so It is not  always true that brainstorming in a group setting can generate more  ideas. (Knight-Wallace, 2017) Downfalls to brainstorming in a group  setting are group think and fear of ridicule. Sharing can be difficult  in this setting and create a situation where one forgets what they were  going to say when they get the chance to talk. (Knight-Wallace, 2017) In  a study conducted by Said Abdullah Al Saifi, Stuart Dillon, and Robert  McQueen (2016), where 25 interviews were conducted of top and middle  managers, and frontline employees regarding face-to-face social networks  and knowledge sharing. Ten of the participants stated that  brainstorming and problem-solving can play an important role in  supporting knowledge sharing. (Saifi, Dillon, McQueen, 2016) The second  myth is that debates are bad; the key of brainstorming is that all ideas  are good ideas and debate should be limited. (Knight-Wallace, 2017) A  study indicated that when debate is made permissible and encouraged as a  method to stimulate more ideas it is actually successful.  (Knight-Wallace, 2017) Through brainstorming and problem-solving social  interactions between employees can occur. (Saifi, Dillon, McQueen, 2016)  Brainstorming can often cause people to focus on being right, and they  come up with ideas that may be too obvious and uncreative.  (Knight-Wallace, 2017) The third myth is that all ideas are treated  equally; when an idea is being shared already the group is thinking  about that idea and no longer thinking about their own. This is a  concept that Knight-Wallace (2017) describes as anchoring, and it can  crush original and creative ideas. It is possible to counteract the  myths discussed. Employees need to be given the time needed and  opportunity to use the right process. Time can be given for individual  thoughts, group interaction, discussion and debate in order to create  more creative ideas. (Knight-Wallace, 2017) One enhancement to  traditional brainstorming is asking people to write down ideas  individually. This allows for people to spend time alone allowing  creative juices to flow before sharing with others. Giving rewards for  ideas that fall outside of the box encourages people to not just play it  safe. Apply improvisation rules to encourage creativity, innovation,  communication, teamwork, and leadership. (Knight-Wallace, 2017)  Encourage criticism during debate explain this increases creativity to  help reduce defensive reactions.  
Biblical Integration:
God wants us to work together. In Ecclesiastes 4:9, “Two are better  than one; because they have a good reward for their labor. There is  reward in working together and creating order instead of disorder by  working together. In Proverbs 27:17, “Iron sharpeneth iron; so a man  sharpeneth the countenance of his friend.” A group working together  offers checks and balances. The help each other to stay on task. In  summary 1 Corinthians 12:14, “For the body is not one member, but many.”  The body of Christ are a team we are the strongest when working  together to do God’s will.

Thread 2:

Definition: Environmental uncertainty means the managers do not have  enough information about the environment to understand or predict the  future. This setback forces the managers to rely on scientific studies  and findings. this is a costly procedure that managerial have to adhere  for the success of the success of the organization.
Martin Weiss, Christina Wittmann,  (2018) “Objective environmental conditions and perceived environmental  uncertainty: Cognitive models as explanation for a perceptual gap”,  Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change , Vol. 14 Issue: 1, pp.33-60, https://doi-org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1108/JAOC-11-2016-0079 .
Summary: Martin Weiss did scientific study on why their is a huge  differences between objective and perceived environmental uncertainty.  This has posed a huge problem for executive directives towards making  effective organizational changes. The purpose of this paper is to  develop deeper understanding of what lead to gap between objective and  perceived eenvironmental objectives. The process consisted of three  stages that included attention, encoding and storage/retrieval. This may  explain why people perceive the environmental conditions differently.   Schneider and Angelmar(1993) define cognitive structures as  “representations of knowledge that contain and organize information.  These include categories, construct systems, causal systems and scripts  which refer to the structures and not the contents of those structures”.  Cognitive structures are innate, although they can be acquired,  developed and adjusted over time through experience, which results from  learning (Stanovich, 2012). Therefore, cognitive structures are dispositional. Yasai-Ardekani (1986) discovered  that fundamental differences in individuals’ cognitive structures  result from varying levels of cognitive complexity. Schroder et al. (1967) summarize  that the number of categories that are used in the context of  perceiving environmental stimuli as well as the system of rules, which  organizes these categories, determine the degree of cognitive  complexity. In this regard, individuals with superior cognitive  complexity gather broader ranges of information (Streufert et al., 1964) and tend to put their attentional focus on complex information, rather than simple information (Schroder, 1971; Yasai-Ardekani, 1986).  Individuals with complex cognitive structures are able to perceive  multidimensional stimuli, which is important for properly perceiving  complex conditions (Schroder, 1971; Yasai-Ardekani, 1986). Accordingly, complex cognitive structures result in a more accurate perception (Baron and Ensley, 2006; Dane, 2010). 
Biblical  Integration: Jesus Biblical leadership is a good implication to  organizations to keep striving for the best despite the challenges we  face. Jesus was rejected at different occasions despite him proving  himself through healing and performing miracles. This is a good moral  lesson that we should always expect any outcome and keep pressing for  the best.

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