Classical conditioning operant conditioning and the self-theory
The theories that I find to be most acceptable are classical conditioning, operant conditioning and self-theory. Classical conditioning theory explains how behavior is learnt. According to this theory, a stimulus yields a specific response usually caused by a second inducement as a result of repeated pairing (“Chapter 3” 60). An example is feeling relaxed whenever the evening bell in school rings because it means all activities are over and you can rest. This theory has been found to effectively help overcome fears. For instance, if an individual cringes after hearing the sound of a dentist’s drill because it is usually painful. Repeated pairing of painkillers and using the drill will remove the association of the drill and pain and reduce cringing (“Chapter 3” 61). When the drill no longer causes pain the sound of it will not affect the individual. Operant conditioning is another learning theory where an individual learns more complex and voluntary behavior by consequences. The frequency of a behavior increases or decreases based on the positive or negative reinforcement (“Chapter 3” 61). Positive reinforcers increase the frequency of behavior when they happen such as receiving money after performing a task. The money is the positive reinforcer and the individual will perform more tasks so they can make more cash. Negative reinforcers increase behavior when they are removed after a particular behavior (“Chapter 3” 62). An example of negative reinforces is pain and to avoid feeling it, an individual will stretch before exercising. Finally, Carl Roger’s self-theory is one of the humanistic theories where people shape themselves through free choice and action (“Chapter 3” 69). Rogers argues that self-concept and self-esteem are important in explaining an individual’s personality (“Chapter 3” 70). Self-concept refers to how we view ourselves and it is unique for everyone whereas self esteem reflects the approval others have of us which creates a sense of well-being (70). Therefore, our personality is dependent on what is important to us and the ability to stick to our decisions because of high self-esteem. I find classical conditioning an operant conditioning to be acceptable because I experience it daily. I choose behavior that results in rewards such as money and avoid situation that would cause me pain. I also believe the choices I make are mine and not a result of my environment which is the basis of humanistic theories.
B. Which seems the most easily ‘explainable’ to you? Why? How so? Let us know your thoughts and feelings.
The humanistic theory is the most easily explainable to me. The theory notes that humans are not puppets controlled by environmental influences or internal mental structures. The main concept of this theory is that humans are fundamentally free to make decisions about their lives (“Chapter 3” 67). This theory believes in the autonomy of humans to make decisions based on what make them happy or comfortable. The theory also argues that every individual has different priorities based on their self-concept.
Part III: Take a look on Page 37 – Multiple Choice Questions, is your professor giving you a gift by creating all of your Quizzes Multiple Choice? Justify your answer and explain your rationale
Multiple-choice questions are a gift from the professor. There are two types of multichoice questions. Easy multichoice questions which have obviously incorrect and difficult multi choice questions whereby the distractors seem as likely as the correct answer (“Chapter 2” 37). When dealing with easy multiple-choice questions choosing an answer for the question is simple. Conversely, when dealing with difficult multiple-choice questions, although choosing an answer may be difficult, the choices give you an idea of what may be correct. Having an idea can work as a hint to help you remember the answer from lessons or readings.