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World Religions

World Religions – Buddhism

World Religions – Buddhism.
The idea of a “union of opposites” pervades Taoist writings and exerts a tremendous influence over the root philosophical concepts of Taoism, encompassing issues which may be considered metaphysical or even mystical, but also influencing issues of applied ethics and personal behavior.

The idea of conjoined opposites begins at the root, metaphysical level of Taoist thought which asserts that “being and non-being give rise to each other”; a stark departure from Christianity which posits that God is eternal and so has always been (Chen, 1989, p. 55).

This metaphysical assertion continues from the macrocosmic (universal) to the microcosmic (personal) levels, where opposites are seen to give rise to the world of motion and being: “The difficult and easy complement each other, The long and short shape each other, The high and low lean on each other, Voices and instruments harmonize with one another, The front and rear follow upon each other” (Chen, 1989, p. 55).
Following up on the universally derived union of opposites from a macrocosmic level, the Taoist asserts a union of opposites, also, within the self and in regards to personal conduct: “the sage manages affairs without action,” and therefore should practice “creative quietude” in pursuit of personal wisdom and even ambition. The idea that opposites are, in nature, united through the Tao means that moral divisions are also damaging and artificial.
The true sage accomplishes merit ” without claiming merit” and since “he does not claim merit, His merit does not go away” (Chen, 1989, p. 55). Such seeming paradoxes are often difficult for Westerners to understand The idea that the universe itself could be comprised of a union of opposites, rather than a pervading and omnipotent single-Creator is not compatible with idea of Christianity which elevates a dualistic vision of the universe with good and evil at odds with one another and a single, benevolent God.
Taoism seems to reflect a much more organic and complete of vision, at least in my opinion although the extension of Taoist philosophies into western religion is probably not something which will happen any time soon, such a “union of opposites” would provide a rich synthesis of spiritual and philosophical ideas. References Chen, E. M. (1989). The Tao Te Ching: A New Translation with Commentary (1st ed. ). St. Paul, MN: Paragon House.

World Religions – Buddhism

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World Religions Study Exam Study Guide

World Religions Study Exam Study Guide.
EXAM REVIEW HRF3O1 Unit 1 Approaches to Religion 1. Explain the meaning of the following terms; * Ascetic, Agnostic, Polytheistic, Monotheistic, Religious Impulse, Sacred, Secular, Animism and Humanist Ascetic: One who practices very strict devotions using sever of self-denial. Agnostic: A person who doubts that humans can know the existence of a possible God and the possible existence of anything beyond this life. Polytheism: Belief in more than one God. Monotheistic: Believing in only one God. Religious Impulse: The universal urge to believe in something beyond ourselves.
Sacred: Connected with religion. Secular: Connected with or belonging to the material world. Animism: The attribution of a living soul to plants, animals, inanimate objects, and natural phenomena. Humanist: An adherent of humanism- an outlook or system of thought that views humankind, rather than spirituality or religion, as the source of all value or meaning. 2. Explain the connection (or lack of one) between religion and ethnicity. Religion is primarily concerned with beliefs, rituals and practices, while ethnicity refers to a person’s origins, race, culture but not necessarily his or her religion. . Define Pop Culture. Provide examples of the influence on traditional concepts of religion. Pop Culture: Commercial culture based on popular taste. A negative influence that pop culture has had, would be the negative image we have of Muslims, labeling them all as terrorists, based on a small minority. 4. Define Culture and describe how it is learned. Culture: The arts and other manifestations of human intellectual achievement regarded collectively. Culture is learned through our family, our school, our friends, and our society.
Things that limit what we learn culturally could be laws, or society’s expectations of us, our “class. ” 5. Identify the world’s 3 “Great Religions”. Why are they considered “Great”? Islam, Christianity and Judaism. They are geographically spread, old, complex scriptures, many places of worship, involves the roles of people. 6. Identify 3 reasons people feel the need to practice religion. People feel the need to practice religion out of fear, out of wonder, to answer questions, to give them a guide in life, it helps them find themselves, etc. 7.

All spiritual systems share some “universal” similarities. Identify and explain 3 of these. Organized institutions, Church, Synagogue, Mosque, places to practice their religions. Rules of conduct; the Five Pillars, the Ten Commandments, etc. , rules they must follow to guide them in life. Sacred writings or scriptures; the source of information for their practices and beliefs, or a sacred written history. Other examples would be a belief in the afterlife, salvation, ideas that parallel good & evil, etc. 8. How does religion provide both social harmony and social control?
It could provide social harmony because it brings people together, gives them something to do, something to believe in, most religions are based off of ideas of good and evil, so if someone practices this, they will be trying to stay good, therefore making social aspects better too. It could provide social control again, because there are rules to be followed in that religion, and through history there have been attempts to convert everyone into a certain religion, or places that have a state religion, makes the religion a way to control the people. . Explain the difference between Fact and Opinion. How could you tell if someone is bias? Fact: A thing that is indisputably the case. Opinion: A view or judgment formed about something, not necessarily based on fact or knowledge. You could tell someone is biased if they have had a previous experience that makes them lean a certain way, or if they got incorrect information from somewhere. Someone is usually bias is they have an extreme opinion- either positive or negative. 10. Provide 2 examples each of a primary source and a secondary source.
A Primary Source could be an auto biography, or an interview with the person whom you’re talking about. A Secondary Source could be the Bible, or a documentary based on something that happened in history. 11. Explain the difference between Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism. Ethnocentrism: Belief in the superiority of one’s own ethnic group. Cultural Relativism: Understanding the ways of other cultures and not judging these practices according to one’s own cultural ways. Aboriginal Spirituality 1. Define Residential schools. What was the purpose of these schools?
Residential schools were schools that Aboriginal children were forced into, and were abused, while people tried to assimilate them into European culture, by separating them from their parents, their language and their culture. 2. Define Self Government. What did the Indian Acts of 1895 encourage? Self-Government: Government of a political unit by its own people. They encouraged Aboriginal peoples to give up their culture and adopt “white ways. ” 3. What is Oral History? Describe the Native views of Creation vs. our own. Oral History is the communication of stories and lessons of history by speaking fluently, listening and understanding.
Aboriginal Creation stories usually involve several spirits or animals, where our Creation stories usually come from a supreme Creator. Unit 2: Early Religions Zoroastrianism 12. Identify the founder of Zoroastrianism Zarathustra was the founder of Zoroastrianism. 13. Explain the 3 similarities Zoroastrianism has with one of the “Big 3” religions. (Great Religions) It is very old, it is monotheistic and believes in one supreme being/god (Ahura Mazda), a belief in an afterlife, i. e. , good people spend their afterlife with Ahura Mazda, and bad people spend it with Angra Mainyu. (Parallels good and evils tendencies. ) 14.
What is the significance of fire for Zoroastrians? Fire signifies the divine. 15. Where is Zoroastrianism origins to be found geographically? It began in Azerbaijan, Iran around 1700 BCE. 16. What are the two main gods in Zoroastrianism? What happens to the “soul” after death in Zoroastrian beliefs? The two main gods are Ahura Mazda, the good god and supreme creator, and Angra Mainyu, the bad god and evil spirit of death and violence. 17. Explain the Zoroastrian death rituals. The bodies are placed in Dakhmas where the bones are picked clean by vultures. 18. Explain the symbolism used in the Faravahar. What does each part represent?
The Faravahar, is to remind one of the purpose of life on this earth, which is to live in such a way that the soul progresses spiritually and attains union with Ahura-Mazda. Center Circle: Represents the soul of the individual. Wings: Allow the soul to progress and evolve. Five layers of wings represent the five divine songs (Gathas) of Zarathustra, the five divisions of the day (Gehs), and the five senses. Long Curved Legs: Represents the opposing forces of good and evil. A conflict occurs between the two and a person must choose which path to follow. Tail: Helps the soul to balance itself between these forces (like a rudder).
Three layers of the tail represent:1. Good thoughts2. Good deeds3. Good words Head: Every soul has free choice to either obey or disobey the divine natural laws. Ring in Hands: Symbolizes the cycles of rebirth on this earth and planes the soul can undergo. Jainism 1. In what ways does a Jain achieve salvation/liberation? They must be fully ascetic and monasticism. A path to liberation (Moksha) consists of: i. Right Perceptionii. Right Knowledgeiii) Right Conduct They must conquer material existence to release oneself from Samara (the cycle of births and re-births) 2. What is Sallekhana?
Compare with anorexia. Sallekhana is the voluntary death by fasting. Anorexia is an eating disorder where a person refuses to eat for fear of gaining weight, or to lose weight. Mentally it gives the victim control when they feel they can’t control other aspects of their life. Compared to Sallekhana, anorexia is a mental disorder where the person doesn’t understand anymore that they can die from not eating, versus Sallekhana, where the person is wishing to achieve liberation through fasting, and is a spiritual decision to detach oneself from the material world by starving themselves to death. . Explain Karma, Moksha, and Samsara, and Atomism in the context of Jainism. Karma: The sum of a person’s actions in this and previous states of existence, viewed as deciding their fate in future existences. Moksha: Release from the cycle of rebirth impelled by the law of karma. Samsara: The cycle of death and rebirth to which life in the material world is bound. 4. Identify 3 Rules of Conduct for a Jain and explain them. a. Ahimsa (Non-Violence, through thought word or deed) b. Celibacy c. No stealing 5. Sketch the symbol for Jainism and explain each part of the figure.
Taoism 1. What does “Tao” mean? How is this included in Confucianism, Taoism, and Shintoism? Tao means “The Way”. Confucianism one best maintains the Tao via alignment with existing social values, so defined by tradition and cultural morays. Taoism believes that by to follow the Tao you must ‘sit and do nothing’, ‘go with the flow’ as we can’t have control over the way. The Shinto tradition focuses on the worship of the pure to the exclusion of the impure, and focuses on nature, although there is no Tao. 2. Explain the significance of Huang Di, Lao Tzu and Chuang Tzu for Taoism.
Huang Di: The first sort of founder for Taoism. Lao Tzu: Wrote the Lao Tzu and is one of the most ‘famous’ founders of Taoism. Chuang Tzu: He wrote the Tao Te Ching. 3. What is the major difference between Eastern Religions and Western Religions in your opinion? Western religions hold a distinction that humans are the most important, where Eastern religions tend to believe everything is alive, and has a soul. Western religions believe in a supreme creator, Eastern religions tend to believe that nature is divine, and that there is no one god.
In Western religions the source of happiness and salvation are through a relationship with the supreme creator, or “God”, whereas Eastern religions believe that enlightenment and liberation is within oneself. 4. Sketch a Yin-Yang in your notes. Identify 3 points for each. The small circle in each side represents that there is a little bit of dark in light and vice versa. 5. What is Wu-Wei? Provide an example. Wu-Wei means do nothing, let nature take its course. If someone happens you don’t like, don’t try to fight it, it’s natural to happen and you’ll be messing with life’s natural cycle if you try to stop it. . Why is Taoism concerned with physical health? Provide ways that physical health is promoted Among Taoists. Taoism believes that to keep the body pure (the vessel of the spirit) that you are also being healthy spiritually. Being physically healthy helps your mind stay clear. Confucianism 1. What did Kung Fu Tzu (Confucius) experience that made him so revered? Confucius experienced heartache. His father died when he was a toddler, and his mother died later on. He was born out of wed-lock, and was “kicked out” of him family. Confucius was kind of a loner, being giant, and ‘ugly’ didn’t have many friends.
Confucius experienced rejection from people of power but never stopped trying. People admire Confucius for his accomplishments even when he had such a hard life. 2. What is the “Golden Rule”? Was Confucius a founder? The Golden Rule is a code of moral and ethics. “What you do not wish for yourself, do not do to others. ” Confucius was a founder, since he believe that no matter what rank, people should be judged based on their quality (intellect, wisdom), instead of looks , power or wealth. 3. Identify and explain the 5 virtues. 1. Ren: The virtue of benevolence, charity, and humanity. . Yi: Honesty and uprightness. 3. Zhi: Knowledge 4. Xin: The virtue of faithfulness and integrity 5. Li: Correct behavior, or propriety, good manners, politeness, ceremony, worship. Shintoism 1. Why is comparing Shintoism to other religions difficult? There is no founder, no ritual use of scripture, and no organized teachings. It is seen more as folklore and mythology. 2. How is Shintoism adaptable and tolerant? 3. Identify the main deities in Shintoism. Who were their offspring? Who was most significant? Izanagi-no-Mikoto (brother/husband) and Izanami-no-Mikoto (sister/wife).
Their offspring was Amaterasu, goddess of the Sun and Universe. Amaterasu was the most significant. 4. What is a torii gate? What is the purpose of the gate? A torii gate marks the transition from a profane place to a sacred place and is usually the entrance to a Shinto Shrine. 5. How is purification apparent in Shinto ritual and prayer? Cleanliness is an important part of Shinto and before entering any sacred place on must be clean. Cleaning represents purification, and before entering some shrines, you must rinse your mouth out at a special station. 6. What exactly do Shintoists worship?
Shintoists believe in worshipping the natural world to establish communion, harmony and peace with its spirits and deities through prayer and ritual. In their view, moral and physical purity is a basic law. Shintoists worship Kami, divine beings, gods/goddesses who inhabit the water, the ground, the air, all parts of nature. 7. What are the major Shinto varieties? Folk Shinto: A looser form of Shinto, not so involved, and revolved more around the basic gods and myths of Shinto. State (Shrine) Shinto: There was emphasis that the emperor was a divine being, being a descendant of Amaterasu herself, making him a sort of God.
Sect Shinto: Practices the worship of Kami, through shrines dedicated to particular Kami. Unit 3 : Eastern Religions : Hinduism and Buddhism 1. What did the Aryans have to do with the origins of Hinduism? The Aryan settlers created poems and later texts on rituals and philosophy. Aryan religious thought flourished between 1500 to 500 BCE and was embodied in a collection of works called Vedas, which are considered Hinduism’s earliest sacred writing. To this day, Hindus consider the Vedas to be the authoritive scripture. 2. What does “you are that” mean? What is a Puja? You are that” refers to the Hindu idea that everything and everyone is Brahma. That by worshipping other gods, you are still worshipping Brahma because he is everything. That you are also Brahma (in a way) because Brahma is everything. Puja is a common thanksgiving ritual that involves offerings of flowers, food and other articles to deities 3. Who was Mahatma Ghandi and how did Jainism influence him? Ghandi was a peaceful leader who believed that things can be achieved or settled in a peaceful way. He believed that you could be against something, or protest something, without being violent, following along with Ahimsa in Jainism. . What are Bindi and Tilak? What can they mean for Hindus? The Bindi is the represent the third eye, and to strengthen the 6th Chakra, is worn by married women to show they are married and should be respected as such. Tilak is a sandalwood paste, in which there are different colours, and when worn in different colours, or fashions on the face, it shows people what God you worship. 5. Identify the 3 main Hindu Gods. Brahma; the Creator, Vishnu; the Preserver, Shiva; the Destroyer. 6. What are the laws of Manu? What did this mean for Women? It is a law book that affirms the Hindu concepts of dharma, caste, and the four arms of life.
It deals with religious practice, law, and politics. Brahmins accept this, but it is rejected by other castes. For women this means they are expected to follow the rules of the Manu, which means bearing sons, never being without a man’s presence, having to do traditional cooking and cleaning, etc. Sort of repressed. 7. Identify and describe the main Hindu Goddesses and their consorts. Saraswati: Goddess of learning and the arts, which is why she is depicted holding a book and a musical instrument called a veena. She rides a swan or peacock, her consort is Brahma.
Parvati: Mother Goddess, worshiped as Shakti, or female energy. Changes into Durga or Kali according to different levels of anger, representing the different levels of Shakti. She is Shiva’s consort. Lakshmi: Goddess of wealth, happiness, and good fortune. 8. What is the Ramayana and what is the significance? An Epic which contains 240 000 verses. It is the story of Prince Rama, who is worshipped throughout the Hindu world as the 7th avatar of God Vishnu. The epic represents the constant struggle between good and evil forces, where good eventually prevails. Intro. To Buddhism: 1.
Why is Buddhism becoming more popular in the West? Buddhism is becoming more popular in the West because it fills a spiritual void that “Western” religions can’t fill. It is more of a philosophy and can appeal to anyone. It allows the idea that anyone can achieve liberation through the practice, again not ceremonies like Western religions tend to revolve around, i. e. meditation instead of church, peaceful behaviour instead of preaching beliefs, etc. 2. What does Buddhism emphasize? Buddhism emphasizes practicing the teachings rather than to engage in ceremony in ritual. There is also a large emphasis on meditation. . What does Buddhism believe about people in search of truth? 4. What is Buddhism’s ultimate goal? The ultimate goal is to end human suffering Origins: 1. When and where was Buddhism founded? It was founded in India, 6th Century BCE. 2. Who was Siddhartha Guatama? What does his name mean? Siddhartha Guatama was the founder of Buddhism. Siddhartha means “the one who has achieved his goal. ” 3. Describe Siddhartha’s miraculous birth. What did the Brahmins say about Queen Maya’s dream/the baby? What did King Suddhodana hop for his son and how did he protect him from the “real” world?
Siddhartha was conceived as a baby white elephant, and his mother could see him in the womb. After 10 months of carrying the baby, his mother gave birth leaning against a tree, which lowered its branch to help her during labour. After he was born, water poured from the sky the wash him and his mother, though he was hardly dirty. After his birth, he took 7 steps and said, “This is my last birth. ” The Brahmins told Queen Maya that she would give birth to a son, and that if he accepted the world, he would become King of all India, but if he rejected the world, he would become a redeemer of mankind.
The King Suddhodana was more interested in his son becoming a king, so he made sure Siddhartha had everything he could possibly want, and shielded him from suffering, so that he accepted the world. 4. What changed Siddhartha at the age of 29? Describe what he saw. Siddhartha discovered suffering. The first day he went outside the palace he saw an old man. The next day, he saw a man riddled with disease. The third day, he saw someone pushing a cart with a corpse on it, followed by a grieving mother and her children. The last day he saw a monk, who seemed like he had been through the hardships of life, but accepted them with peace and serenity.
He realized that he too needed to solve this riddle to life. So he left his wife and son in the middle of the night. 5. What steps did Siddhartha take to find an answer on lifestyle choices? What was his conclusion? What did he learn about deeds? What state did he achieve? First he studied under Hindu hermits until he had learned all that they could teach. He then became an ascetic, giving up worldly pleasures and eating only a bean a day to survive. Siddhartha was close to death from fasting before his friends came and fed him. He realized that too much deprivation was as harmful as too much luxury, and the idea of “the Middle Way” was born. . What does Buddha mean? What did he believe about one’s personal salvation? Buddha means “the enlightened one” or “the awakened one. ” He believed that everyone has to find their own liberation-which is within us all. 7. What Hindu aspects did Buddha accept and reject? The Buddha rejected the caste system, Hindu rituals and offerings to gods, theories, language of Sanskrit (he used Pali), nirvana being only possible for Brahmins, the authority of the Vedas and the Upanishads. Concepts that he accepted are those in the idea of reincarnation. 8. Describe the First Sermon.
Define dharma, bhikkus, sangha and bhikku sangha. The First Sermon was when Siddhartha went back to the 5 ascetics and told them about this “Middle Way”, telling them how neither extreme was good- but that the path to liberation was one of moderation. This was his first teaching, so it is known as the First Sermon. Bhikku: A fully ordained monk who has left his home and renounced all his possessions in order to follow the way of the Buddha. Sangha: The community of Buddhist monks and nuns. Bhikku Sangha: The community of fully ordained monks and nuns. 9. Describe Buddha’s death.
What did he say to his followers? What state did he achieve? When he was over 80 years old the Buddha took a poisoned meal and ate- even though he knew it was poisoned, just to be courteous. He lie on his deathbed, surrounded by his followers, and he spoke : “In all my lifetime, two meals stand out supreme: one was the meal that I ate before I sat under the Bo tree, after which I received enlightenment; the other, tonight at the home of my dear friend, Cunda, after which I shall receive NiNana. ” And he died. Buddhist Beliefs: 1. How is Buddhism an introspective religion? What do Buddhist teachings express?
Buddhism is an introspective religion because it is subjective, not objective. It is based off one’s perception, and experiences, not “good” or “evil. ” It focuses on bettering oneself, rather than changing the things around them. Buddhist teachings express that nothing is permanent, so why fret, over something when everything is always changing and we can’t stop it. 2. Describe women in Buddhism? Who is Buddha Tara? Women in Buddhism are as equal as men. They are allowed to become nuns, and are allowed to practice in general. It is believed that women are also able to achieve nirvana, just as much as men are.
The Buddha Tara is a figure in Buddhist teachings- who vowed to take rebirth as a woman until she became a Buddha. 3. Anicca, Dukkha, and Anatta are the characteristics of what doctrine? What do they mean? Anicca(Impermanence): represents the idea that the world is in a constant flux and that nothing stays the same for long. Impermanence is a fundamental feature of everything. Dukkha(Dissatisfaction): represents the idea that all humans and animals experience suffering. Physical and mental pain, are good examples. Feelings of continuous happiness or pleasure do not exist since these feelings only last for a limited amount of time.
Dukkha touches everything in life. Anatta(no-self): is the notion that we cannot point to any one thing in ourselves and say it is our self. No single part of the body, is a human, only the parts put together makes the whole person. That is the same in that our mind, body, and spirit make up our “self”. These three things are the “Three Characteristics of Existence. ” They make up everything outside nirvana. 4. Buddha wanted to find the cause of unhappiness and its treatments. What did he come up with? What are the central themes? The Buddha found that suffering is cause by craving and aversion. It is caused by our perception. . The 5 Precepts are the “rules” that Buddhists follow. What are these rules? List the additional precepts monks/nuns observe. The Noble Eightfold path is comparable to what according to the film Religions of the World? 1. Abstain from killing or harming living beings 2. Abstain from stealing 3. Abstain from improper sexual conduct 4. Abstain from false speech 5. Abstain from taking alcohol and drugs (Additional precepts) 6. Abstain from eating after noon 7. Abstain from looking at dancing, singing or drama 8. Abstain from the use of perfumes and things that tend to beautify and adorn a person 9.
Abstain from using comfortable beds 10. Abstain from accepting gold or silver 5. Who/what are the Three Refuges? What does each represent? The Three Refuges AKA the Triple Jewel, are the Buddha (the guide), the dharma (the path) and the Sangha (companions and teachers. ) 6. Who practices the Six Perfections? List the Six Perfections. A Bodhisattva practices the Six Perfections which include: giving, morality, patience, vigour, meditation, and wisdom. Symbols and Icons: 1. What does the Wheel of Life represent? What is found in each circle? Who has control over the circle?
The Wheel of Life represents the endless cycle of births and uncontrolled rebirths (samsara. )The inner circle holds a bird, a pig, and a snake. These represent the human vices that keep the wheel turning- greed, ignorance, and hatred. The goal is to conquer these vices. The second ring shows the forms we take when we are reborn. The white half shows Heaven, the black shows Hell. The third ring shows the many regions into which one can be reborn. They represent real places and are not metaphors for states of mind. This ring includes experiences we may have as humans, i. e. suffering/pleasure.
The images in the outer circle represent the twelve causes of endless rebirths: the old, bind person is ignorance, the potter creating a pot means actions, the monkey climbing the tree of samsara represents consciousness, the man rowing a boat means name and form(body), a house with six doors and windows means the senses, a man and woman embracing means contact, the arrow in the eye means feeling, the man drinking alcohol depicts craving, the monkey grabbing fruit illustrates grasping, a women in labour depicts existence, a baby being born indicates birth, and finally a man carrying a corpse represents aging and death.
The Wheel of Life is held in the teeth of Yama; the Lord of Death, and there is no single being inside the wheel who is outside the control of death. Only the Buddha is outside the wheel, pointing at the moon symbolizing nirvana. 2. What is the Mandala used for? What monks are required to make Mandalas? What happens to the Mandala after it is used? While the Mandala is being made it is used for prayer and meditation. When it is finished, monks recite chants and prayers before it is swept away, which symbolizes impermanence. 3.
What influences the portrayal of Buddha images? When did these images start to pop up? There are images of Buddha to help followers remember their path, and to remember the meaning of his teachings, and honour his memory as a person, and the fact that he fact that he escaped Samsara. The images are to remind Buddhists, remember, and to honour. 4. Practice the 9 different Mudras and know what they represent. 5. What is found in the Stupas? Relics of the Buddha and other holy figures are found in the Stupas. 6. Describe how Lotus flowers symbolically represent humans.
The vision is that some of the flowers are bogged down in the mud, and some about to bloom. The comparison is that all people have the ability to develop their potential and rise from an undesirable life. 7. What are Buddhapadas? Name 2 symbols found on them? Buddhapadas are the representations of Buddha’s footprints, and are revered in all Buddhist countries, believed to be places where Buddha stood. Symbols could be the Buddha, or sacred wheels on the “soles” of these footprints . Practices, Rituals and Festivals: 1. What is karma? How did the film Religions of the World define it?
Karma: “Action” or law of cause and effect; the totality of one’s thoughts and actions, which determines one’s fate in the next life. 2. What are the common offerings and what do they represent? Flowers- because as they fade and wilt, they emphasize the notion of impermanence. Incense Sticks- burn in the home and the temple to symbolize the Buddha’s “odour of sanctity. ” Light of a candle- representing Buddha’s enlightenment. 3. Compare Buddha, Dhamma, and Sanhga Day. Buddha Day: Celebrated on the full-moon day of May, surrounding the belief that the birth, enlightenment, and death of the Buddha happened on this day.
People assemble on the grounds of the monasteries, bringing flowers, lit candles and incense sticks. They walk around the main hall three times while reciting the Three Refuges. Dhamma Day: Celebrated on the full-moon day of July, being the day of the First Sermon, people gather and offer food to monks, nuns and novices in Deer Park. At night, people give food to the poor, observe the Five Precepts, and practice meditation. Sanhga Day: Celebrated on the full-moon day of March, commemorates two important events in the Buddha’s life.
The first was the proclamation of the basic principles of Buddhist teachings, and the second was a sermon called the Basis of Success. Food is offered to monks, and people engage in good karma accumulating activities. Followers observe the Five Precepts and attend a sermon at the monastery. Groups and Institutions: 1. Compare the 3 main schools: Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana. Theravada: Practiced in Sri Lanka, Thailand, Laos and Cambodia. Considered the original and more conservative school of Buddhism. Only recognizes Tripitaka, as scripture. Focuses on the teachings of Buddha, not Buddha himself.
They rely on meditation and insight to attain nirvana. They believe that humans are individuals, the key virtue is wisdom, religions is for monks, the ideal being is the Arhat, that Buddha is a saint, and prayer through meditation. Mahayana: Practiced in China, Vietnam, Korea, and Japan. A more liberal school, and see Buddha as a divine being. Emphasis on Bodhisattvas. They believe that humans are involved with others, that the key virtue is compassion, religion is also for lay people, the ideal being is Bodhisattva, Buddha is saviour, and prayer for request.
Vajrayana: Practiced in Tibet, Bhutan, and Nepal. Focuses on rituals, such as mantras, and material creations attached to Buddhism such as mandalas. Focuses on the Dalai Lama, who is their spiritual leader. 2 . Where is Zen practiced? What does it emphasize? What are koans? Zen in practiced in the Rinzai School, and the Soto school. Koans are riddles used to test students on their enlightenment. Unit 4: Western Religions: Judaism and Christianity Judaism 1. Define: Tanakh, Torah, and Talmud. What is the difference between these?
Tanakh: The Jewish Bible consisting of the Torah, the Prophets, and the writings. Torah: Refers to the Law of Moses as well as the rest of the Hebrew Scriptures and the entire belief system of the Jewish faith. The word Torah is often translated as meaning “law”, but a more accurate translation is “teaching” or “instruction”. Talmud: Rabbinic teachings derived from the Mishnah. It is the main source of Jewish teaching from the medieval period to the present. The Torah is the first five books of the Tanakh, the Hebrew bible. Know to Christians as the old testament.
The Talmud is a collection of rabbinical commentaries on the Hebrew bible, Jewish history, and other such things. You can consider the Talmud to be an encyclopedia of commentary. 2. In a few points differentiate between the 4 main Jewish denominations. 1. Orthodox Judaism: Orthodox Jews believe that God gave Moses the whole Torah (Written and Oral) at Mount Sinai. Orthodox Jews believe that the Torah contains 613 mitzvot (commandments) that are binding upon Jews. Modern Orthodox Jews strictly observe halakhah (Jewish Law), but still integrate into modern society.
Ultra-Orthodox Jews, which includes Chasidic Jews, strictly observe Jewish laws and do not integrate into modern society by dressing distinctively and living separately. 2. Conservative Judaism: Conservative Judaism maintains that the ideas in the Torah come from God, but were transmitted by humans and contain a human component. Conservative Judaism generally accepts the binding nature of halakhah (Jewish Law), but believes that the Law should adapt, absorbing aspects of the predominant culture while remaining true to Judaism’s values. 3. Reform Judaism:
Reform Judaism believes that the Torah was written by different human sources, rather than by God, and then later combined. While Reform Judaism does not accept the binding nature of halakhah (Jewish Law), the movement does retain much of the values and ethics of Judaism as well as some of the practices and culture. Reconstructionist Judaism: Reconstructionist believe that Judaism is an “evolving religious civilization. ” In one way it is more liberal than Reform Judaism – the movement does not believe in a personified deity that is active in history and does not believe that God chose the Jewish people.
In another way Reconstructionist Judaism is less liberal than Reform Judaism – Reconstructionist may observe Jewish Law, not because it is a binding Law from God, but because it is a valuable cultural remnant. 3. Explain the significance of the following people in the historical development of Judaism; Abraham, Moses, David, Solomon, the Rabbis. Abraham was instructed by God to move to a special land to raise a nation. God chose Abraham and promised to bless him and make him a “great nation”. The idea of God’s Covenant. During the time of Moses, God’s Covenant took on a new meaning.
The Mosaic ties would have God provide His people with the Ten Commandments that would allow him to keep his Covenant. Moses came to Mount Horeb, called the mountain of God in the Book of Exodus. He encountered God through a burning bush. God revealed that the cries of the Israelites had been heard and that they would be set free through Moses. (Passover). David scored a number of military victories over his enemies and eventually established Jerusalem as his capital city. Solomon built a temple that would serve as a centre of worship for the Jewish faith for the next millennium.
Rabbi: A Jewish scholar or teacher, especially of the Law, a person appointed as a Jewish religious leader. 4. What are Kashrut and Terafah? Kashrut: The Jewish dietary Laws; the active adherence to the rules of being Kosher. Terafah: nonkosher: not conforming to dietary laws. 5. Describe the Jewish rituals. What are some of the “items” used in Jewish rituals? Synagogue, Kiddush, minyan, yarmulke, tallis, tefillin, Shabbat, Rosh Hashannah, Yom kippur, Hanukkah, Pesach, Seder, chametz, Haggadah, circumcision. 6.
Explain how both God and those of the Jewish faith uphold the Covenant. The idea of the Covenant is that the Jewish people are God’s people and part of His Covenant. In turn they must do His will to be in His Covenant. 7. Explain Mitzvah, Barakhah, and Halakah. Mitzvah: A commandment from God; the act of performing a good deed. The most well-known mitzvoth are the Ten Commandments. Barakhah: A blessing. Halakah: The legal part of Talmudic literature, an interpretation of the laws of the Scriptures. 8. Explain Bar Mitzvah and what it means for a young Jewish boy.
Bar Mitzvah: The religious initiation ceremony of a Jewish boy who has reached the age of thirteen. This means they can now be a part of the Minyan. Christianity 1. Identify the importance of the following on the life of Jesus Christ and Christianity: Augustus Caesar, Pontius Pilate, Pax Romana, The Sanhedrin, Roman Tolerance, Constantine. Augustus Caesar was the Emperor when Jesus was born. Pontius Pilate was the Roman Governor who ordered that Jesus be crucified. Pax Romana was a time when Rome was very powerful and relatively peaceful, during which Christianity multiplied rapidly.
The Sanhedrin: The highest court of justice and the supreme council in ancient Jerusalem. The Roman empire had a tolerance for Christianity allowing it to spread during the times of the Pax Romana. Constantine was a Roman Emperor who converted to Christianity. 2. Summarize the following: Lent, Easter, Christmas, Epiphany, Ascension and Pentecost. Lent is a 40 day period of time, in which Christians give up something, symbolically representing how Jesus went into the desert for 40 days. Easter is the holiest Christian holiday, celebrating Jesus’ Resurrection.
Christmas is the day celebrating Jesus birth. Epiphany, twelve days after Christmas, used to commemorate the revelation of Jesus as God’s son at the time of his baptism in the Jordan River. When the Holy spirit granted the apostles with spiritual gifts and abilities fifty days after Easter allowing them to go into Jerusalem and proclaim their faith enthusiastically. 3. Outline the fundamental beliefs of Christians as outline in the Nicene Creed of 325 CE. They believe in one God, and that Jesus Christ is His son.
That Jesus shall come again with glory to judge the living and the dead, the belief in the Holy Spirit, the catholic and apostolic church, and the acknowledgement of baptism for the forgiveness of sins. 4. Who wrote the Gospels of the New Testament? Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. 5. In what ways is the Catholic belief “outwardly” expressed? Through the Pope, one of the most well-known religious leaders in the current world. It is not just based on one’s own belief and faith, but also through one’s actions and how they speak, proclaiming their faith, making it known through thought, word and action. . Identify the Sacraments of Christianity (i. e. Confirmation). Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist. 7. What was the Great Schism? What caused it? What was the result? The Great Schism was a split between the Eastern and Western Church, caused by mainly the accepted or rejection of the Pop and his authority, and the filioque cause, using “ and the Son” at the end of the Nicene Creed, where as other groups believed that the Holy Spirit proceeds solely from the Holy Father, and not from the Son.
This resulted in the two groups to separate and become their own denominations. 8. What was the Protestant reformation? Explain the difference between Catholicism and Protestanism. The Protestant Reformation was the reform of the western church in protest to its practices. Orthodox and Roman Churches had always focused on the importance of both faith and works, Protestantism is the belief of salvation through faith alone, which turned the belief inward, rather than focusing on outward sings.

World Religions Study Exam Study Guide

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World Religions Paper

World Religions Paper.
World Religion Paper (Rough Draft) By: Allison Workman The religion that I have chosen for my report is Wicca. Wicca is the religion of Witchcraft also referred to as the Craft. There are many myths that are associated with the Wiccan religion. Witches do not perform ride brooms and they are not “bad or scary” people. In fact most witches are normal people we come in contact with every day. I have learned many interesting facts in my weeks researching this religion.
At this time my site visit and interview have not been completed due to family medical problems with my source. However, the interview and site visit are both scheduled for April 3, 2011 I will attempt to submit a summary of those by mid week next week for review. Compare and Contrast Wicca and Christianity are actually quite similar in many ways. However, there are vast differences in the beliefs of the parties as well. Both Christianity and Wicca have a symbol that is prominent within the religion.
Christians have the cross that represents the death of Jesus to wash away the sins of mankind. Wicca’s symbol is the pentagram. Despite the reports to the contrary the pentagram is not the symbol of a Satanist; in fact Satan does not even exist in the Wiccan culture. The pentagram is the symbol of the four elements (water, air, fire, earth) and the sprit which draws them all together. Both religions have groups that worship together. Christians call these congregations and they usually meet in a Church.

When a group of witches gather to worship the group is referred to as a Coven and they generally practice outdoors though not always. Some Covens will gather at the home of the High Priestess to worship. Meeting places will differ from Coven to Coven. Many of the Ethical and Social views of these religions are similar as well. The Wiccan Rede is “If it harms none, do what you will”. Christians generally try to live by the Golden Rule. “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you”.
These two phrases have a similar meaning. Both religions believe that women and men are equal in value as human beings. Both religions also accept women in secular leadership roles. All Wiccan religious groups believe that women should hold religious leadership roles as well; some denominations of the Christian faiths are accepting of this, but others still believe that men should be the religious leader of the family/church. The number of differences between these two groups is much larger that the similarities.
One of the most notable is that Christianity is a monotheistic religion and Wicca is a polytheistic religion. While Christians worship God. The Wiccans worship the God and Goddess simultaneously. The Wiccan religion is all about balabance so the worship of the God and the Goddess signifies the balance, though the primary focus to a witch is the goddess. Witches accept homosexuality completely where Christians believe that homosexuality is a sin. Christians worship every Sunday and Witches worship on the 13 full moons of the years and also perform rituals on the Sabbats.

World Religions Paper

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World Religions Report on Catholicism Hum/130

World Religions Report on Catholicism Hum/130.
World Religions Report on Catholicism HUM/130 By Sally Navarro This paper is to inform the reader about the religion called Catholicism. This religion had pned the trials and tribulations of time, and been throughout history as the only religion held sacred to the followers of this faith. The following will be told about the religion that I have found from a believer/follower of this faith. I will tell you about the interviewer, the interview site, what the interview contains. Also, I will be writing about how this religion compares and contrasts to the religion of my faith, which is Christianity.
Catholic Mass The mass I went to was very interesting. In this because, upon entering the Sanctuary, there is the Holy Water well, that the faithful dip, their fingers into, and make a cross motion on their forehead. The Holy Water is for the faithful in remembrance of their baptism, and rejects Satan. The faithful answer to several Hail Mary prayers before the start of the service; they prep their hearts and minds for mass. Throughout the service, there was constant standing, sitting, and kneeling while the Priest prepared the sacrament, or the Eucharist, commonly called communion of the last supper.
During this ritual, there were members of the congregation that assisted with the body of Christ, and the Blood of Christ, in dispensing them to other members of this parish. At the beginning of the mass, the altar boys and girls accompany the Priest into the sanctuary, where the altar boy is carrying a crucifix, the Priest is behind him, and there is the person carrying the bible, holding it in the air. For every ritual the Catholics have, there seems to be a prayer for that ritual. In the constant standing and sitting and kneeling, Father Weibel called this “Catholic Calisthenics,” (Father Weibel, St.

Wendelin Catholic Parish 2009). The Priest opens his sermon with a joke, followed by a brief sermon about Jesus and his love for us. The entire mass lasted about 45 minutes, less than the typical Christian service, which is about an hour. At the end of the service, there was a ritual where there is bell ringing and they put their hands over their hearts, I do not know what this is for, but I did forget to ask. The service ended with the Priest saying, “This mass is now over, go and be with God! ” Name The interviewee is Brenda Campbell. She is in her late 30’s has two school age daughters.
She is also married, and works at the College Co-operative. This is where college students from around the area can come to study, take tests, and look up reference information while in a quiet, study-oriented room with 8-10 computers. I asked her to give this interview if she has the time, and she jokingly said, “Anything for you Sally! ” So, I could not get an interview at the Catholic Parish itself, so I had to settle with interviewing her at her job, since I am a student registered there at the Library to use those services. Interview summary In this interview summary is the responses to the10 questions I had prepared for Mrs.
Campbell. Several of these questions have long answers, I will provide the answers in short summaries where possible, and being careful not to leave out the root or context of the response. If this happens, then the underlying meaning of the answer has been lost. In the opening question, I asked Brenda a simple, yet a beneficial question to this paper. I asked her “what are the foundations of Catholicism, and where did its beliefs originate? ” Her reply is rather short and to the point of no explanation, she says “the Catholic church is a continuation of the Christian community which was founded by Saint Peter.
The beliefs of Catholics are based on the Bible and traditions long handed down from the times of the apostles. ” I found this interesting, because I did not know that Catholicism was a branch of the Christian faith, nor did I know that Saint Peter founded the Catholic Church. Brenda gave a laugh when she told me that I was right, when I said I was ignorant to the Religion of Catholicism. In the second question I gave to Brenda which reads as “Why is the Virgin Mary, mother of Jesus held as sacred to believers of this faith? Brenda’s response shows how logically and true to believers when she says “The main reason for this is that she is the mother of Jesus. Secondly, there was a moment that the Angel Gabriel came to Mary at a very young age and at that moment she completely gave herself to God. With her acceptance of God’s will for us and her willingness to give herself fully and unconditionally to God is an example to everyone. ” This shows me that giving one’s self to God is easy, but then it is hard to stay in that mission.
But, Christian groups believe that Mary was just a vehicle for Jesus, who is the true messiah to the faithful. The third question is one that has been debated for years between two groups of Christian denominations. The Jehovah’s Witness do not believe in the Holy Trinity, as for the Catholics and the Christians do believe in this doctrine. When I asked Brenda this question she says that the” Trinity is made up of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. The followers of Catholicism believe they are three persons under one God head, representing the presence and the power of God. I have also heard it referred to as “team God,” This means all three the same, but in different beings. Christians have believed this all a long time, but how can they be the same, and different at the same time? Did Jesus raise himself from his grave? Here is a question I have longed to know. The question involves the use of altar boys/girls and their purpose in the service of Catholics. The question I posed to Brenda is “What is the purpose of Altar boys and girls during the ritual of service? ” Brenda replies in a simplistic answer, “Their roles are to assist the clergy when the service is being held.
They have a supporting role in tasks at the altar such as fetching and carrying communion cups, holding the Bible for the clergy reading from it, and ringing of the altar bells. ” This ritual in the Catholic Church seems to be a lot to understand when one has never been to a Catholic service before. So many players (roles) are involved for the service ritual to take place. In some Christian services, there are the uses of liturgists, normally people who rotate this duty to join the congregation in faith by reading together certain passages from the bible. The CCD classes, or commonly referred to as followers of this faith as being
Confraternity of Christian Doctrine. Brenda points out that the reason form this is the youth need to learn, and understand the basic teachings of the Catholic Church. The reason for this, she says is “the school age children need to understand and learn the roots of their faith. ” Just as one new to the world of Christianity would need to go to bible study to understand the word of God, and the teachings of Jesus, to fully understand what Christianity is and means. Also, instilling these root beliefs will aid them in the future by giving them moral beliefs.
In the Presbyterian Church, there is a class called new members class, which is the same as the Catholics, as in to the roots of the belief. When one enters the Catholic faith, and gets some understanding about this faith, they have a duty to go to confession. When I asked Brenda about confession, and what the purpose of confession is she sums it up in another simple answer. Confession, what is the purpose of confession, and what does it help the confessor deal with? She said, “The purpose of Confession or reconciliation is to provide healing to the soul of the confessor.
This means to regain the grace of God that is lost by sin. After confession, the Priest gives the confessor the forgiveness of sins. But, in Christianity, the only one who can forgive sins is God, through Jesus, who died for our sins according to the Bible. Priesthood, this is a very powerful topic in the sense of being a communicator to the almighty, and having power to tell the confessor that God forgives you for your sins. Does the priest or Father have that kind of authority to say this? I will let you make the decision on this question.
The topic of how one becomes a Father or Priest came up in the discussion with Brenda, and she tells me how one a Father or Priest becomes. In becoming a Father, or Priest, the first step is internal discernment, which means one must discover their call and act on it. After understanding and determining their calling, they must attend seminary for four years. This is no different than what ministers and other preachers would do to answer their call to God’s work. She also says that they can do this as well as go to college, but all must complete four years of college and four years of seminary.
Upon completion of seminary, the one who completed seminary would go to a Catholic church to serve as a deacon for a six month appointment. There is something that is equally needed in both Christianity, and Catholicism. That there is the answer to God calling one, and the need to go to Seminary, or Bible College to obtain the knowledge of God’s word to spread the message of God’s will for humanity. Here is a ritual that I have no understanding about. I asked Brenda what the name of this ritual was but she must not have heard me.
The question I said to Brenda was, “the blessing action that the Priest gives, what is the name of this ritual, and what does it symbolize? She answers, “The Priest is using incense to create smoke that comes out of the chalice. This represents purification and sanctification. The smoke is to represent the prayers that are being lifted up to heaven with the smoke. I understand this to be a purification ritual of some sorts, by the actions of the priest. He goes around in a underhanded motion to gently move the chalice back and fourth among the congregation, while blessing them and lifting their prayers up to heaven.
I thought that God hears all our prayers? The Christians, like the Jehovah’s Witness believes that all prayers go to heaven without the use of incense, and prayed through Jesus. This brings us to the ritual of communion. What this means and what this does is in the followers of this belief. The disciple’s last meal with Jesus is remembered by the Last supper. In describing this, Brenda says that this is the way we remember what Christ has done for us. This is our way of participating in the body of Christ, that we become one with him and as members of his church.
As Jesus said to his disciples, that they are to take of his body, to cleanse the soul, prepare the way for Christ to enter the their heart, by asking for forgiveness before they partake in the ritual of communion, also known as the sacrament to some other Christian beliefs. In closing of the interview with Brenda Campbell, there was one last question I had for her, which may be the biggest one I wanted to know the answer to. I asked Brenda “Is it easy to convert to the Catholic religion? How and what would someone have to do to be converted to the Catholic religion?
In a very lengthy response Brenda says, “Converting to the Catholic faith is a very big deal. In becoming a catholic means that the converter consents to all the church teachings. ” She also says with conversion, there is work and faith for her members, which translates to me that there is to be service work and spreading the word of the lord to others as well. She also continues to say, “One is expected to avail themselves to the sacraments regularly, as well as to attend a four to seven month class called RCIA, or Rite of Christian Initiation for Adults. This,” she says, is for the development of a solid grounding in the Catholic faith. “Before one gets initiated into the Catholic Church, this involves Reconciliation, Baptisms, and confirmation into the Catholic faith. This is a lot to go through to convert to the Catholic belief. This is more than other Christian denominations do for them to be members of certain churches. I know this to be true in a Christian church back where I used to live. Where the preacher asked someone to come down or has a decision to make today, that he invites them down and pray with him and tell him what you need.
This person went down during the invitation song, prayed with the preacher and after the song was over, he gave a brief description of what this person did to end up at that church and after that, the preacher turned to the person who joined the church and asked him a few questions. One of the questions the preacher asked the person joining the church was at the end. The preacher asks the person do you accept Jesus Christ as you personal Lord and savior, the person answered, yes. After that, this person was a member of the First Christian church.
That is a big difference form just confessing faith in the lord to become a member of the Christian Church, and how much more time is needed to become a member of the Catholic Church. Conclusion The difference between Christian and Catholic is Mary. The Catholics believe Mary is sacred, and the Christians believe that Mary is the mother of Jesus, which is true, but Jesus is the Messiah not Mary. References Father Weibel 2009 St. Wendelin Catholic Parish Brenda Campbell, 2009, St. Mary’s Catholic Parish, www. inplainsight. org 2009

World Religions Report on Catholicism Hum/130

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