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Integrated HR Solution with Payroll Software Leave

Integrated HR Solution with Payroll Software Leave.
Having a proper HR solution is a key task for the HR executives to manage their employees. The primary job of HR manager is to manage employee’s daily attendance, i. e. the employee’s every day Time IN & Time OUT. There are various ways for it. Traditionally the companies using manual punch card machine, later proximity card system / barcode card system was in place. But still there was a problem of buddy punching (making proxy attendance for other employees). To address the issue Biometric Fingerprint system has introduced which is very fast / accurate & efficient.
Once employee’s time in & out timing captured by any type of machine then it has to be linked to a Time Attendance Software to generate the useful attendance reports. Those calculated attendance details needs to be linked to payroll software for the employee salary calculation. In addition to that there is a need to maintain employee leaves like annual leave, medical leave, unpaid leave, etc… If a HR manager has all the above solutions with different vendors / different platform then it will be very difficult to maintain and operate.
There will be lot of hiccups to integrate the different software’s and more importantly being the database is not integrated the newly join / resign employee details need to be entered multiple times in different software’s. So it very efficient and cost effective to have an integrated HR solution which comprises of fingerprint time recorders (preferably), time attendance, leave, Payroll & HR software’s. Fingerprint Time Recorder: It is very efficient to have a fingerprint time recorders to track the employees attendance instead of having manual punch card.

The biggest advantage of using the fingerprint system is the employees can’t do the buddy punching (making proxy attendance for other employees). Usually in most of the fingerprint time recorder, Up to 3 fingers per employee can be registered. While doing attendance the employee can use any one of the finger to do clocking. The purpose of registering 3 fingerprints is if any one finger has problem due to injured / cut / dirty then the employee can use alternative finger. So it is better to have a fingerprint time recorder with higher capacity. Usually the time recorder will have the capacity of 500 / 3000 / 5000 fingerprint templates.
It takes about one second to verify the employee finger, once verified the employee id, Date & time will be recorder into the device internal memory. Also it is good to have a device which can store more records. In general most of the fingerprint time recorder can store 20,000 / 30,000 / 50,000 records. Once the records reach the limit the new record will automatically overwrite the very first record. Those records can be downloaded to the Time Attendance Software via built-in Network card or via Thumb Drive. Time Attendance Software:
Information from fingerprint time recorder can be transferred to the Time Attendance Software which will calculate the useful information like Lateness, Overtime, allowances, etc… A good time attendance software should have the option for different shift patterns, Supports unlimited rotation duty roster, Auto-shift feature (System auto-assign working hours group based on IN time), Flexible working hours feature, Scheduling working hour’s group feature (No fixed working pattern) Companies are paying daily allowances like shift allowance, meal allowance, transport allowance to the employees based on some conditions.
For an example a company may like to pay $5 for night shift workers or a company may like to pay $2 who is working more than 5 hours of overtime. So the time attendance software should have all the above features. Good software should come with nicely designed useful reports like Daily attendance report, Individual attendance report, consolidated reports which consolidates the late comers, Early Leavers, Absents & missed out punching, Lateness summary report and Working hour’s summary report.
Payroll Software: Payroll software is the one which computes the employee salaries. A well written payroll software should have the below options. The employee may be paid by hourly rate / daily rate/ monthly fixed basis. Other than the employee basic salary, the employee’s overtime, daily allowances needs to be linked from the time attendance software. The employee may have some additions or deductions in every month salary like advance payment, medical claim, special allowance, etc… And the employee unpaid leave, lateness & early leaving needs to be deducted from his salary.
Different countries have their own computation for taxation & provident funds. So the payroll system should comply with the local government regulation for salary calculation. Finally the payroll should able to generate a pay-slip for individual employee with all his salary details which can be printed in an A4 size paper or sealed pay-slip paper. And payroll software must have useful reports like, Monthly Salary Summary Report, Overtime Payment Report, Taxation Report, Yearly Summary Report, and Monthly Reconciliation Report.
Leave Module: A leave module either can be built in with the payroll system or it can be a separate Electronic Leave Application Portal. Leave Module built-in with payroll system: The HR Executive needs to update the employees Annual Leave, Medical Leave, Unpaid Leave, Maternity Leave, etc in to the system manually. Electronic Leave Module: The employee can apply their leaves electronically online via web browser. Those applied leaves can be approved by respective approving officers via online.
This is paperless, convenient fast & easy. A good leave system should have the option to set Leave Eligibility for different group of employees and the Annual leave & Medical Leave earned until today should be prorated automatically. There must be an option to carry forward the balance annual leave to the next year. And the leave module should have the useful reports like Leave History & Leave consolidate report to view all kind of leaves taken.

Integrated HR Solution with Payroll Software Leave

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Measurement of Internal Consistency Software

Measurement of Internal Consistency Software.
Document analysis and fingerprint comparison are two of the most important tasks done by forensic experts in investigating a case. Documents and fingerprints related in a case make substantial evidences that can give progress to the investigation. With our ever advancing technology, new tools and equipments have been invented to help forensic experts in making these tasks easier for them. These tools, such as computer software, can give these people relevant information about certain documents, handwriting and fingerprint samples as evidences to a case they are examining.
One company who specializes in this kind of tools and software is the Limbic Systems, Inc. Limbic Systems’ technologies improve image-based identifications by way of advanced utilization of image intensity signals.1 Limbic Systems released several products that are used for fingerprint identification, handwriting and document analysis, and other forensic or security application products. One of those products is the Measurement of Internal Consistency Software or MICS.
The Measurement of Internal Consistency Software is an application that measures the intensity of the material (ink, for example) used and creates a three-dimensional model which can be likened to a topographic map complete with contour lines.2 This software had been developed by Limbic Systems, Inc. for 6 long years until the it was commercially released in 2003.

MICS features
1. Limbic Systems, Inc. (Forensic e-symposium). [Online] available from http://limbicsystems.forensic.e-symposium.com/it/index.html; accessed 25 Mar. 2006; Internet.
2. Emily J. Will. MICS Program Brings 3D Modeling and Mathematical Information to Handwriting Identification and Document Examination. [Online] available from http://www.qdewill.com/mics.htm; accessed 25 Mar. 2006; Internet.
Experts in handwriting identification very well know that handwriting is not just merely measured by its length and width, but it is also a three-dimensional product. The things visible to the human eye are just its length and width, but the third dimension is difficult to see, demonstrate or even quantify. But with the help of MICS, examiners can now easily visualize and measure the color density and other important aspects of handwriting and document examination.
MICS can examine scanned or digitally photographed images of documents and handwritten name. In Emily Will’s article3, she showed how MICS works in determining the density of her handwriting sample. Looking at the handwriting with the naked eye, it is just a simple handwriting done using a normal pen. But when it was placed through the thorough scanning features of the software, it revealed the density of the pen used. Other than that, it also showed a gap somewhere in the handwriting sample that means there was a moment when the pen was lifted off the paper while she was writing her name. One could never have thought of that without the use of the software.
Other than the gap, there are even more studies that can be done around the observation to gather more relevant information for the examiner. This kind of observation is definitely helpful for an examiner in identifying clues in an investigation. MICS makes it easier for them to closely examine different documents and handwriting samples in question.
Aside from handwriting and document analysis, MICS can also be used to identify and compare fingerprints. MICS is a platform where other application-specific products of Limbic Systems are based. And one of those applications and the first extension of MICS is the product called PrintIQ, which is a solution to identify fingerprints.
Just like how MICS works in documents, fingerprints are also identified and compare with another by measuring the intensity of the image between different points. MICS converts the fingerprint image into edge signals which are seen as the elevation in a three-dimensional surface map.
With all these features of the Measurement of Internal Consistency Software, it can definitely be an indispensable tool for examiners and investigators. The software can easily help them gather more relevant information with the documents and fingerprints that what can only be seen by our bare eyes. The results that MICS will provide can give them important clues that can possibly lead them to the progress of the case they are investigating.
3. Emily J. Will. MICS Program Brings 3D Modeling and Mathematical Information to Handwriting Identification and Document Examination. [Online] available from http://www.qdewill.com/mics.htm; accessed 25 Mar. 2006; Internet.
General Recommendation
Measurement of Internal Consistency Software or MICS is indeed a valuable “invention” by the Limbic Systems, Inc. It can prove to be a very useful tool for examiners and experts to help them perform their tasks much faster. However, as with other applications and tools, this software can be incorrectly utilized by the user. Thus, it is required that the user of the software understands the whole program – its theories, potentials, assumptions, and limitations. Knowing these things will give the user a more reliable output data. The company, Limbic Systems, Inc, has also been collaborating with current MICS users to formulate mathematical associations to be able to draw up more reliable conclusions based on the information provided by the software.
Bibliography
Limbic Systems, Inc. (Forensic e-symposium). [Online] available from http://limbicsystems.forensic.e-symposium.com/it/index.html; accessed 25 Mar. 2006; Internet.
Will, Emily J. MICS Program Brings 3D Modeling and Mathematical Information to Handwriting Identification and Document Examination. [Online] available ; accessed 25 Mar. 2006; Internet.
 
 

Measurement of Internal Consistency Software

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Software Requirements Specification Template

Software Requirements Specification Template.
Software Requirements Specification Template CptS 322—Software Engineering 9 February 2005 The following annotated template shall be used to complete the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) assignment of WSU-TC CptS 322. The instructor must approve any modifications to the overall structure of this document. Template Usage: Text contained within angle brackets (‘’) shall be replaced by your project-specific information and/or details.
For example, will be replaced with either ‘Smart Home’ or ‘Sensor Network’. Italicized text is included to briefly annotate the purpose of each section within this template. This text should not appear in the final version of your submitted SRS. This cover page is not a part of the final template and should be removed before your SRS is submitted. Acknowledgements: Sections of this document are based upon the IEEE Guide to Software Requirements Specification (ANSI/IEEE Std. 30-1984). The SRS templates of Dr. Orest Pilskalns (WSU, Vancover) and Jack Hagemeister (WSU, Pullman) have also be used as guides in developing this template for the WSU-TC Spring 2005 CptS 322 course. Software Requirements Specification Lead Software Engineer Prepared for WSU-TC CptS 322—Software Engineering Principles I Instructor: A. David McKinnon, Ph. D. Spring 2005 Revision History Date |Description |Author |Comments | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Document Approval The following Software Requirements Specification has been accepted and approved by the following: |Signature |Printed Name |Title |Date | | | |Lead Software Eng. | | | |A.
David McKinnon |Instructor, CptS 322 | | | | | | | Table of Contents Revision Historyii Document Approvalii 1. Introduction1 1. 1 Purpose1 1. 2 Scope1 1. 3 Definitions, Acronyms, and Abbreviations1 1. 4 References1 1. 5 Overview1 2. General Description2 2. 1 Product Perspective2 2. 2 Product Functions2 2. 3 User Characteristics2 2. 4 General Constraints2 2. 5 Assumptions and Dependencies2 3. Specific Requirements2 3. 1 External Interface Requirements3 3. 1. 1 User Interfaces3 3. 1. 2 Hardware Interfaces3 3. 1. 3 Software Interfaces3 3. 1. 4 Communications Interfaces3 3. 2 Functional Requirements3 3. 2. 1 3 3. 2. 2 3 3. 3 Use Cases3 3. 3. 1 Use Case #13 3. 3. 2 Use Case #23 3. Classes / Objects3 3. 4. 1 3 3. 4. 2 3 3. 5 Non-Functional Requirements4 3. 5. 1 Performance4 3. 5. 2 Reliability4 3. 5. 3 Availability4 3. 5. 4 Security4 3. 5. 5 Maintainability4 3. 5. 6 Portability4 3. 6 Inverse Requirements4 3. 7 Design Constraints4 3. 8 Logical Database Requirements4 3. 9 Other Requirements4 4. Analysis Models4 4. 1 Sequence Diagrams5 4. 3 Data Flow Diagrams (DFD)5 4. 2 State-Transition Diagrams (STD)5 5. Change Management Process5 A. Appendices5 A. 1 Appendix 15 A. 2 Appendix 25 1. Introduction The introduction to the Software Requirement Specification (SRS) document should provide an overview of the complete SRS document.

While writing this document please remember that this document should contain all of the information needed by a software engineer to adequately design and implement the software product described by the requirements listed in this document. (Note: the following subsection annotates are largely taken from the IEEE Guide to SRS). 1. 1 Purpose What is the purpose of this SRS and the (intended) audience for which it is written. 1. 2 Scope This subsection should: (1) Identify the software product(s) to be produced by name; for example, Host DBMS, Report Generator, etc (2)Explain what the software product(s) will, and, if necessary, will not do (3)Describe the application of the software being specified. As a portion of this, it should: (a) Describe all relevant benefits, objectives, and goals as precisely as possible.
For example, to say that one goal is to provide effective reporting capabilities is not as good as saying parameter-driven, user-definable reports with a 2 h turnaround and on-line entry of user parameters. (b) Be consistent with similar statements in higher-level specifications (for example, the System Requirement Specification) , if they exist. What is the scope of this software product. 1. 3 Definitions, Acronyms, and Abbreviations This subsection should provide the definitions of all terms, acronyms, and abbreviations required to properly interpret the SRS. This information may be provided by reference to one or more appendixes in the SRS or by reference to other documents. 1.
4 References This subsection should: (1)Provide a complete list of all documents referenced elsewhere in the SRS, or in a separate, specified document. 2)Identify each document by title, report number – if applicable – date, and publishing organization. (3)Specify the sources from which the references can be obtained. This information may be provided by reference to an appendix or to another document. 1. 5 Overview This subsection should: (1) Describe what the rest of the SRS contains (2) Explain how the SRS is organized. 2. General Description This section of the SRS should describe the general factors that affect ‘the product and its requirements. It should be made clear that this section does not state specific requirements; it only makes those requirements easier to understand. 2. 1 Product Perspective
This subsection of the SRS puts the product into perspective with other related products or projects. (See the IEEE Guide to SRS for more details). 2. 2 Product Functions This subsection of the SRS should provide a summary of the functions that the software will perform. 2. 3 User Characteristics This subsection of the SRS should describe those general characteristics of the eventual users of the product that will affect the specific requirements. (See the IEEE Guide to SRS for more details).
2. 4 General Constraints This subsection of the SRS should provide a general description of any other items that will limit the developer’s options for designing the system. See the IEEE Guide to SRS for a partial list of possible general constraints). 2. 5 Assumptions and Dependencies This subsection of the SRS should list each of the factors that affect the requirements stated in the SRS. These factors are not design constraints on the software but are, rather, any changes to them that can affect the requirements in the SRS. For example, an assumption might be that a specific operating system will be available on the hardware designated for the software product. If, in fact, the operating system is not available, the SRS would then have to change accordingly. 3. Specific Requirements This will be the largest and most important section of the SRS.
The customer requirements will be embodied within Section 2, but this section will give the D-requirements that are used to guide the project’s software design, implementation, and testing. Each requirement in this section should be: • Correct • Traceable (both forward and backward to prior/future artifacts) • Unambiguous • Verifiable (i. e. , testable) • Prioritized (with respect to importance and/or stability) • Complete • Consistent • Uniquely identifiable (usually via numbering like 3. 4. 5. 6) Attention should be paid to the carefuly organize the requirements presented in this section so that they may easily accessed and understood.
Furthermore, this SRS is not the software design document, therefore one should avoid the tendency to over-constrain (and therefore design) the software project within this SRS. 3. External Interface Requirements 3. 1. 1 User Interfaces 3. 1. 2 Hardware Interfaces 3. 1. 3 Software Interfaces 3. 1. 4 Communications Interfaces 3. 2 Functional Requirements This section describes specific features of the software project. If desired, some requirements may be specified in the use-case format and listed in the Use Cases Section. 3. 2. 1 3. 2. 1. 1 Introduction 3. 2. 1. 2 Inputs 3. 2. 1. 3 Processing 3. 2. 1. 4 Outputs 3. 2. 1. 5 Error Handling 3. 2. 2 … 3. 3 Use Cases 3. 3. 1 Use Case #1 3. 3. 2 Use Case #2 … 3. 4 Classes / Objects 3. 4. 1 3. 4. 1. 1 Attributes 3. 4. 1. 2 Functions 3. 4. 2 … 3. 5 Non-Functional Requirements
Non-functional requirements may exist for the following attributes. Often these requirements must be achieved at a system-wide level rather than at a unit level. State the requirements in the following sections in measurable terms (e. g. , 95% of transaction shall be processed in less than a second, system downtime may not exceed 1 minute per day, ;gt; 30 day MTBF value, etc). 3. 5. 1 Performance 3. 5. 2 Reliability 3. 5. 3 Availability 3. 5. 4 Security
3. 5. 5 Maintainability 3. 5. 6 Portability 3. 6 Inverse Requirements State any *useful* inverse requirements. 3. 7 Design Constraints Specify design constrains imposed by other standards, company policies, hardware limitation, etc. hat will impact this software project. 3. 8 Logical Database Requirements Will a database be used? If so, what logical requirements exist for data formats, storage capabilities, data retention, data integrity, etc. 3. 9 Other Requirements Catchall section for any additional requirements. 4. Analysis Models List all analysis models used in developing specific requirements previously given in this SRS. Each model should include an introduction and a narrative description. Furthermore, each model should be traceable the SRS’s requirements. 4. 1 Sequence Diagrams 4. 3 Data Flow Diagrams (DFD) 4. 2 State-Transition Diagrams (STD) 5. Change Management Process
Identify and describe the process that will be used to update the SRS, as needed, when project scope or requirements change. Who can submit changes and by what means, and how will these changes be approved. A. Appendices Appendices may be used to provide additional (and hopefully helpful) information. If present, the SRS should explicitly state whether the information contained within an appendix is to be considered as a part of the SRS’s overall set of requirements. Example Appendices could include (initial) conceptual documents for the software project, marketing materials, minutes of meetings with the customer(s), etc. A. 1 Appendix 1 A. 2 Appendix 2

Software Requirements Specification Template

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Causes and Effects of the War of 1812

Causes and Effects of the War of 1812.
Causes and Effects of The War of 1812 The nineteenth century brought major change to The United States turning it from a developing country into a world power. The addition of Alaska, Oregon, Texas, and Florida, the Mexican Cession and The Louisiana Purchase made The United States a world power. The War of 1812 catalyzed this great expansion. There were four main concerns that led to The War of 1812. Maritime and trade issues, the Embargo Act, territorial expansion, and War Hawks. Although they were major concerns, one alone did not start up the war. “On June 18, 1812, the United States declared war against Great Britain.
In what is often called America’s second revolution, the countries were locked in a series of battles for more than two years, which led to few gains on either side. It was one of the most unpopular wars in American history; when its treaty was signed on December 24, 1814, diplomats agreed that the countries should return to the situations they were in before the start of hostilities. ” The troubles with maritime and trade issues on the high seas could have been the biggest concern. As America increased in it’s foreign affairs it began to effect Great Britain and France and their on going quarrel.
So President Jefferson declared The United States a neutral power. However this tactic did not work because Britain felt anyone trading with France was an enemy. So from 1803 until 1812 Britain impressed approximately 10,000 Americans, forcing them to work on British ships. And in 1805 Britain decided in The Essex Case that any American commercial ship traveling between enemy or neutral ports will be seized. When word of this British interference and impressments of sailors came back to America citizens were outraged and anti-British feelings began to rise.

The Embargo Act was signed on December 22,1807 by Congress under President Jefferson. As a result of tension between Great Britain and France and the risk of losing American ships to either side this act was passed to ban all foreign trade. There was talk of amending the Non-Importation Act and The Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin even suggested going into a full out war, but Jefferson failed to see the benefit of a restrictive economic policy like the Non-Importation Act and preferred a peaceful end.
Although it was a noble idea to end the tension with a peaceful means, the act failed to make Great Britain and France respect American rights. The Embargo Act ended up affecting everyone at home more than it did Great Britain or France. The economy of The United States started spiraling downward since the act passed, and the smuggling trade began to increase. “Although it was successful in averting war, news of evasions and other such negative consequences of the Embargo forced Thomas Jefferson and Congress to consider repealing the measure.
The American economy was suffering and the American public opinion was not in support of its continuation. Ultimately, the embargo failed to have a significant effect on the British. Goods still reached Great Britain through illegal shipments; British trade was not suffering as much as the framers of the embargo had intended”. The act only had a major effect at home; making Americans furious Britain would not open up free trade. Britain began to see the increasing tension between themselves and the United States, so British officers in Canada began making friends with Indians residing in the Northwest region of The United States.
It was easy for Britain to befriend the Native Americans because they felt threatened by Americans and their desire to push westward, and take their land. One of the greatest Indian chiefs in North American history, a Shawnee chief, Tecumseh, prepared to protect their land. He began by traveling the Mississippi valley as far south as Tennessee looking for assistance to create an Indian confederacy strong enough to fight the Americans. He enlisted his brother, Prophet, to begin to unite the tribes of the west to fight against Americans.
A disagreement broke out over an American purchase of three million acres of land in Indian Territory. In a battle outside of Prophet’s town of Tippecanoe River, Prophet foolishly decided to attack American militiamen while they were sleeping. The town was torched in the battle that followed, and years of planning and organization was wasted. After this incident in June 1812, Tecumseh and a small company of Native Americans joined the British at Amherstburg. During the war, American’s called for an invasion of Canada mainly because the support the British gave to American Indians.
In the Battle of Thames, Tecumseh died and an American victory is gained. The War Hawks were a number of young representatives voted into the twelfth congress. They were typically people from southern and western states like Henry Clay, Speaker of the House at the time, John Calhoun of Kentucky and Langdon Cheves of South Carolina who spoke in Congress advocating going to war with Great Britain. They believed it was our right to expansion, and declared that a thousand Kentucky riflemen could take on Canada alone. They expected the war to be short, considering the British were in Europe fighting Napoleon.
Although opposed by the Federalist of New York, New Jersey, and most of New England, on June 18, 1812 James Madison declared war on Great Britain. “However the War Hawks had displayed much more energy in talking about war than in planning and preparing for war. At the beginning of hostilities there were about 7,000 men in the regular forces and these were commanded by senior officers who were old, incompetent or lacking in experience. Congress had voted for war, but seemed reluctant to spend the necessary funds upon equipment and supplies.
A bill introduced into Congress with the purpose of increasing the size of the American Navy was turned down by the members. Volunteer soldiers were badly fed and disgracefully clothed. In winter, the unfortunate sentries who patrolled the Canadian-American border shivered and shook on duty because they lacked overcoats. ” Some historians say the war hawks are the ones to blame for the war, because they wanted to wage a war knowing the United States military was inadequate at the time. The war ended December 24,1814 with The Treaty of Ghent. Not a single senator voted against peace.
Although the war did not have much effect at the time, besides gaining land conquered during battle, the effect of the War of 1812 would become grate. After the war, America gained international respect for resisting Great Britain’s control for the second time in less than forty years. Also, marking the last armed conflict between the two countries. Not only did the war prove the United States military, but also it’s army. It gave The United States battle tested leaders, and the opportunity to train servicemen; which proves to be needed to expand by land acquisitions from the Spanish-American and Mexican-American Wars.
The British blockade leading up to the War of 1812 strengthened the United States economy by requiring workers to manufacture most goods normally imported, diminishing foreign dependence. After the federalist did not support the war and were considered traitors for attempting to secede at the Hartford Convention, the party was destroyed. The end to this party marked an era of Good Feeling for the United States, since they did not have to deal with inter-party disputes. “Manifest Destiny”, America’s destiny to p from the Atlantic to the Pacific, would not be possible without the courage and wisdom The War of 1812 gave America.
The military would not have be what it is today without taking off the way it did after the war, or the nationalism Americans felt and have been able to p the difference between the oceans. Many nations saw how The United States struggled but kept holding on throughout the war to come to a peaceful agreement. By showing this, America became a force to be reckoned with and would prove to be a world power. Bibliography “American History Timeline- War of 1812. ” Accessed November 20, 2011. http://americanhistory. about. om/od/warof1812/a/war-of-1812-timeline. htm Dooley, Patricia L. “The Declaration of the War of 1812. ” The Early Republic: Primary Documents on Events from 1799 to 1820. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood, 2004. ABC-CLIO eBook Collection. Web. 27 Nov 2011 “Embargo of 1807,” Accessed November 20, 2011, http://www. monticello. org/site/research-and-collections/embargo-1807. Volo, Dorothy Denneen, James M. Volo. “WAR HAWKS. ” Encyclopedia of the Antebellum South. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood, 2000. ABC-CLIO eBook Collection. Web. 28 Nov 2011. “War of 1812, 1807. Accessed November 20, 2011. http://www. u-s-history. com/pages/h2621. html “War of 1812. ” Accessed November 20, 2011, http://www. warof1812. ca/intro. html “War of 1812: Battle of the Thames. ” Accessed November 20, 2011, http://www. historynet. com/war-of-1812-battle-of-the-thames. htm ——————————————– [ 1 ]. “Embargo of 1807,” accessed November 20,2011, http://www. monticello. org/site/research-and-collections/embargo-1807. [ 2 ]. “War of 1812. ” Accessed November 20, 2011, http://www. warof1812. ca/intro. html

Causes and Effects of the War of 1812

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Contingent Reward System

Contingent Reward System.
Contingent reward is a reward that should be given to staff members when they earn them, that is the principle of contingent rewards. (“Motivating others through,” 2011) This is a great way to get the desired effect when working with a staff that might not be motivated to get a task or assignment done. A trend in the United States is toward a larger portion of employees’ compensation to be provided in the form of “variable pay” such as bonuses and equity-based compensation. (“Motivating others through,” 2011)
Being the manager at the fast food restaurant and having a difficult time motivating your employees to clean the facility every three hours will be an easy task, when you find the best way to motivate them. What I have come up with is a three part contingent reward program. The three steps are; Assign tasks to each employee •We will provide a handout to each team employee listing there areas they are responsible through out the month. •This allows them to plan for the tasks and assignment they will need to complete. •Each employee will get assignments based on there level of experience.
As they move up in the company more tasks can be assigned. Manager/Head Manager checks daily on tasks •This is important part of the contingent reward system. •Every three hours the manager needs to verify that the task is done and make a note of it on a board where all the tasks for the month are represented. Reward •The reward is broken down per paycheck. Each completed task represents a certain percentage of additional money. •This will also be viewed quarterly for yet another possible percentage increase •So as the employees do there assigned task they are rewarded for that. If they do not do the task they will not receive the increase •It will also show they are not getting there tasks done on the big board oThis will service as a motivation as the team can see who is performing and who is not This is the concept that has been developed to help the employees to see the benefit of having a clean facility. With a clean facility and friendly staff there is a strong chance that the amount of customers will increase which in turn will affect profit. Reference Motivating others through goals and rewards. (2011, April 4). Retrieved from http://www. wright. edu/~scott. williams/LeaderLetter/motivating. htm

Contingent Reward System

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At War’s End: An Elegy

At War’s End: An Elegy.
THE evening before he killed himself, Virgilio Serrano gave a dinner party. He invited five guests—friends and classmates in university— myself included. Since we lived on campus in barracks built by the U. S. Army, he sent his Packard to fetch us. Virgilio lived alone in a pre-war chalet that belonged to his family. Four servants and a driver waited on him hand and foot. The chalet, partly damaged, was one of the few buildings in Ermita that survived the bombardment and street fighting to liberate Manila.
It had been skillfully restored; the broken lattices, fretwork, shell windows and wrought iron fence had been repaired or replaced at considerable expense. A hedge of bandera española had been planted and the scorched frangipani and hibiscus shrubs had been pruned carefully. Thus, Virgilio’s house was an ironic presence in the violated neighborhood. He was on the porch when the car came to a crunching halt on the graveled driveway. He shook our hands solemnly, then ushered us into the living room. In the half-light, everything in the room glowed, shimmered or shone. The old ferruginous narra floor glowed.
The pier glass coruscated. The bentwood furniture from the house in Jaen looked as if they had been burnished. In a corner, surrounded by bookcases, a black Steinway piano sparkled like glass. Virgilio was immaculate in white de hilo pants and cotton shirt. I felt ill at ease in my surplus khakis and combat boots. We were all in our second year. Soon we will be on different academic paths—Victor in philosophy; Zacarias in physics and chemistry; Enrique in electrical engineering; and Apolonio, law. Virgilio and I have both decided to make a career in English literature.

Virgilio was also enrolled in the Conservatory and in courses in the philosophy of science. We were all in awe of Virgilio. He seemed to know everything. He also did everything without any effort. He had not been seen studying or cramming for an exam in any subject, be it history, anthropology or calculus. Yet the grades that he won were only a shade off perfection. HE and I were from the same province where our families owned rice farms except that ours was tiny, a hundred hectares, compared to the Serrano’s, a well-watered hacienda that covered 2,000 hectares of land as flat as a table.
The hacienda had been parceled out to eleven inquilinos who together controlled about a thousand tenants. The Serranos had a large stone house with a tile roof that dated back to the 17th century that they used during the summer months. The inquilinos dealt with Don Pepe’s spinster sister, the formidable Clara, who knew their share of the harvest to the last chupa. She was furthermore in residence all days of the year. Virgilio was the only child. His mother was killed in a motor accident when he was nine. Don Pepe never remarried.
He became more and more dependent on Clara as he devoted himself to books, music and conversation. His house in Cabildo was a salon during the years of the Commonwealth. At night, spirited debates on art, religion language, politics and world affairs would last until the first light of dawn. The guests who lived in the suburbs were served breakfasts before they drove off in their runabouts to Sta. Cruz, Ermita or San Miguel. The others stumbled on cobblestones on their way back to their own mansions within the cincture of Intramuros. In October, Quezon himself came for merienda.
He had just appointed General MacArthur field marshal of the Philippine Army because of disturbing news from Nanking and Chosun. Quezon cursed the Americans for not taking him in their confidence. But like most gifted politicians, he had a preternatural sense of danger. “The Japanese will go to war against the Americans before this year is out, Pepe,” Quezon rasped, looking him straight in the eye. This was the reason the Serranos prepared to move out of Manila. As discreetly as possible, Don Pepe had all his personal things packed and sent by train to Jaen. He stopped inviting his friends.
But when the Steinway was crated and loaded on a large truck that blocked the street completely, the neighbors became curious. Don Pepe dissembled, saying that he had decided to live in the province for reasons of health, “at least until after Christmas. ” Two weeks later, he suffered a massive stroke and died. The whole town went into mourning. His remains were interred, along with his forebears, in the south wall of the parish church. A month later, before the period of mourning had ended, Japanese planes bombed and strafed Clark Field. Except for about three months in their unting lodge in the forests of Bongabong (to escape the rumored rapine that was expected to be visited on the country by the yellow horde.
Virgilio and Clara spent the war years in peace and comfort in their ancestral house in Jaen. Clara hired the best teachers for Virgilio. When food became scare in the big towns and cities, Clara put up their families in the granaries and bodegas of the hacienda so that they would go on tutoring Virgilio in science, history, literature, mathematics, philosophy and English. After his lessons, he read and practiced on the piano.
He even learned to box and to fence although he was always nauseated by the ammoniac smell of the gloves and mask. Despite Clara’s best effort, she could not find new boxing gloves and fencing equipment. Until she met Honesto Garcia. Honesto Garcia was a petty trader in rice who had mastered the intricate mechanics of the black market. He dealt in anything that could be moved but he became rich by buying and selling commodities such as soap, matches, cloth and quinine pills. Garcia maintained a network of informers to help him align supply and demand—and at the same time collect intelligence for both the Japanese Army and the Hukbalahap.
One of his informers told him about Clara Serrano’s need for a pair of new boxing gloves and protective gear for escrima. He found these items. He personally drove in his amazing old car to Jaen to present them to Clara, throwing in a French epée that was still in its original case for good measure. He refused payment but asked to be allowed to visit. Honesto Garcia was the son of a kasama of the Villavicencios of Cabanatuan. By hard work and numerous acts of fealty, his father became an inquilino. Honesto, the second of six children, however made up his mind very early that he would break loose from farming.
He reached the seventh grade and although his father at that time had enough money to send him to high school, he decided to apprentice himself to a Chinese rice trader in Gapan. His wage was a few centavos a day, hardly enough for his meals, but after two years, he knew enough about the business to ask his father for a loan of P60 to set himself up as a rice dealer. And then the war broke out. Honesto was handsome in a rough-hewn way. He tended to fat but because he was tall he was an imposing figure. He was unschooled in the social graces; he preferred to eat, squatting before a dulang, with his fingers.
Despite these deficiencies, he exuded an aura of arrogance and self-confidence. It was this trait that attracted Clara to him. Clara had never known strong-willed men, having grown up with effete persons like Don Pepe and compliant men like the inquilinos who were always silent in her presence. When Clara told Virgilio that Honesto had proposed and that she was inclined to accept, Virgilio was not surprised. He also had grown to like Honesto who always came with unusual gifts. Once, Honesto gave him a mynah that Virgilio was able to teach within a few days to say “Good morning.
How are you today? ” The wedding took place in June of the second year of the war. It was a grand affair. The church and the house were decked in flowers. The inquilinos fell over each other to, supply the wedding feast. Carts and sleds laden with squealing pigs, earthen water jars filled with squirming river fish, pullets bound at the shank like posies, fragrant rice that had been husked in wooden mortars with pestles, the freshest eggs and demijohns of carabao milk for leche flan and slews of vegetables and fruit that had been picked at exactly the right time descended on the big house.
The wives and daughters of the tenants cooked the food in huge vats while their menfolk roasted the suckling pigs on spluttering coals. The quests were served on bamboo tables spread with banana leaves. The war was forgotten, a rondalla played the whole day, the children fought each other for the bladders of the pigs which they blew up into balloons and for the ears and tails of the lechon as they were lifted on their spits from the fire. The bride wore the traje de boda of Virgilio’s mother, a masterpiece confected in Madrid of Belgian lace and seed pearls.
The prettiest daughters of the inquilinos, dressed in organza and ribbons, held the long, embroidered train of the wedding gown. Honesto’s family were awe-struck by this display of wealth and power. They cringed and cowered in the sala of the big house and all of them were too frightened to go to the comedor for the wedding lunch. Not very long after the wedding, Honesto was running the hacienda. The inquilinos found him more congenial and understanding. At this time, the Huks were already making demands on them for food and other necessities. The fall in the Serrano share would have been impossible to explain to Clara.
In fact, the Huks had established themselves on Carlos Valdefuerza’s parcel because his male children had joined the guerilla group. Honesto learned for the first time that the Huks were primarily a political and not a resistance organization. They were spreading a foreign idea called scientific socialism that predicted the takeover of all lands by the workers. Ricardo Valdefuerza, who had taken instruction from Luis Taruc, was holding classes for the children of the other tenants. Honesto was alarmed enough to take it up with Clara who merely shrugged him off. “How can illiterate farmers understand a complex idea like scientific socialism? she asked. “But they seem to understand it,” Honesto expostulated “because it promises to give them the land that they farm. ” “How is that possible? Quezon and the Americans will not allow it. They don’t have the Torrens Title,” Clara said with finality. “Carding Valdefuerza has been saying that all value comes from work. What we get as our share is surplus that we do not deserve because we did nothing to it. It rightly belongs to the workers, according to him. I myself don’t understand this idea too clearly but that is how it is being explained to the tenants. ” “They are idle now.
After the war, all this talk will vanish,” Clara said. When American troops landed in Leyte, Clara was four months with child. THE table had been cleared. Little glasses of a pale sweetish wine were passed around. Victor pushed back his chair to slouch. “The war has given us the opportunity to change this country. The feudal order is being challenged all over the world. Mao Tse Tung has triumphed in China. Soon the revolution will be here. We have to help prepare the people for it. ” Victor declared. “Why change? ” Virgilio asked. “The pre-war order had brought prosperity and democracy.
What you call feudalism is necessary to rebuild the country. Who will lead? The Huks? The young turks of the Liberal Party? All they have are ideas; they have no capital, no power. ” The university was alive with talk of imminent revolutionary change. Young men and women, most of them from the upper classes, spoke earnestly of redistributing wealth. “Nothing will come of it” Virgilio said, sipping his wine. “Of all of us, you have the most to lose in a revolution,” Apolonio said. “What we should aim for is orderly lawful change. You might lose your hacienda but you must be paid for it.
So in the end, you will still have the capital to live on in style. ” “You don’t understand,” Virgilio said. “It is not only a question of capital or compensation. I am talking of a way of life, of emotional bonds, of relationships that are immutable. In any case, we can do nothing one way or the other so let us change the subject. ” “Don’t be too sure,” I said. “We can influence these events one way or another. ” “You talk as it you have joined the Communist Party,” Virgilio said. “Have you? ” But before I could answer, he was off on another tack. You know I have just been reading about black holes,” Virgilio said addressing himself to Zacarias. “Oppenheimer and Snyder solved Einstein’s equations on what happens when a sun or star had used up its supply of nuclear energy. The star collapses gravitationally, disappears from view and remains in a state of permanent free fall, collapsing endlessly inward into a gravitational pit without end. “What a marvelous idea! Such ideas are art in the highest sense but at the same time, the decisive proof of relativity,” Virgilio enthused. “Do you know that Einstein is embarrassed by these black holes?
He considers them a diversion from his search for a unified theory,” Zacarias said. “Ah! The impulse towards simplicity, towards reduction. The need to explain all knowledge with a few, elegant equations. Don’t you think that his reductionism is the ultimate arrogance? Even if it is Einstein’s. In any case, he is not succeeding,” Virgilio said. “But isn’t reductionism the human tendency? This is what Communism is all about, the reduction of human relationships to a set of unproven economic theorems,” I interjected. “But the reductionist approach can also lead to astounding results.
Take the Schröedinger and Dirac equations that reduced previous mysterious atomic physics to elegant order,” Enrique said. “What is missing in all this is the effect on men of reductionism. It can very well lead to totalitarian control in the name of progress and social order,” Apolonio ventured. “Let me resolve our debate by playing for you a piece that builds intuitively on three seemingly separate movements. This is Beethoven’s Sonata, Opus 27, No. 2. ” Virgilio rose and walked gravely to the piano while we distributed ourselves on the bentwood furniture in the living room.
He played the opening Adagio with sensitive authority, escalating note to note until it resolved into the fragile D-flat major which in turn disappeared in the powerful rush of the concluding Presto, the movement that crystallized the disparate emotional resonances of the first two movements into an assured and balanced relationship. When the last note had faded, we broke into cheers. But at that moment, I felt a deep sadness for Virgilio. As the Presto flooded the Allegretto, I knew that he was not of this world. Outside, through the shell windows, moonlight softened the jagged ruins of battle. 2. THE INVESTIGATION
ON July 14, 1950, in the evening, Virgilio killed himself in his bedroom by slitting his wrists with a straight razor and thrusting them into a pail of warm water. His body was not found until the next morning. He did not appear for breakfast at eight. At eight-thirty, Josefa, the housemaid, knocked on the door of Virgilio’s bedroom. Getting no response, she asked Arturo, the driver, to climb up the window to look inside. The three maids panicked. Arturo drove off at once in the Packard to get me. After leaving a note for the Dean of the College of Liberal Arts, we stopped at the police station near General Luna to report the suicide.
Two police officers were immediately assigned to investigate. They came with us in the car to the house in Ermita. They started interrogating me in the car. “Who are you? ” Police Officer No. 1 asked. “Why are you involved? ”, Police Officer No. 2 demanded. I was somewhat nervous but as calmly as I could be, I answered. “My name is Nestor Gallego. I am a second-year student at University of the Philippines. Virgilio Serrano, the deceased, and I come from the same town, Jaen, in Nueva Ecija. I have known Virgilio since 1942 and I think he considers me his closest friend in university.
That is the reason the driver came to me. ” The policemen brought together the household staff. “Did you touch, move or remove anything in the bedroom? Did any of you go out of the house after the driver left for the university? ” To both questions, the maids answered, No, whereupon they were told to stay within the premises for separate interviews later in the morning. Police Officer No. 1 went out to the yard presumably to look for clues. Police Officer No. 2 made a sketch of the scene and then searched the bedroom systematically. He opened the drawers of the tallboy carefully, he felt around the linen and underwear.
The wardrobe and the aparador were also examined. But it was on the contents of the rolltop desk that No. 1 concentrated. The notebooks, a diary, and address book were all neatly arranged around a Remington typewriter. He was looking for a letter, a note even, to give him a clue or lead to the motive for the suicide. On the first page of one of the notebooks were the “Down There” and then “To my friend and confidant, Nestor Gallego, with affection. ” Although unsigned, it was in Virgilio’s spidery hand. “You know anything about this? ” No. 1 said in a low, threatening voice.
He handed it to me. I leafed through the pages. It looked like a long poem that had been broken down into thirteen cantos. “No,” I said. “I have not seen this before. ” “But it is for you. What does it say? ” “I don’t know, I have to read it first,” cuttingly. My sarcasm rolled off him like water on a duck. “Well then—read,” he ordered, motioning me to the wooden swivel chair. A frisson ran up my spine. My hands trembled as I opened the notebook and scanned the poem. There were recognizable names, places and events. There were references to his professors in university and his tutors in Jaen.
The names of some of his inquilinos appeared again and again. But the longest sections were about Honesto and Clara Garcia and Ricardo Valdefuerza. From the tone and the words, it was a satire patterned closely after Dante’s Inferno. Virgilio, like Dante, had assigned or consigned people to different circles “down there. ” It ended with a line from Valery, “A l’extrême de toute pensée est un soupir. ” “I cannot say truthfully that I understand it. I know some of the people and places referred to but not why they appear in this poem. ” “I will have to bring this back for analysis,” No. 1 said, giving it to No. who put it carelessly in a plastic carryall. “When you are done with it, can I have it back? I have a right to it since it was dedicated to me. ” I wanted desperately to read it because I felt that it concealed the reason for Virgilio’s suicide. They spent another hour talking to the household help and scribbling in grimy notebooks. Before they left past one o’clock, No. 1 said:
“It is clearly a suicide. There was no struggle. In fact, it was a very neat suicide. ” He made it sound as if it was a remarkable piece of craftsmanship. I hated him. I went with Arturo to the post office to send a telegram to Jaen. Virgilio dead stop please come at once. ” The undertaker took charge thereafter, informing us that by six o’clock, the remains would be ready for viewing. He asked me to select the clothes for the dead. I chose the white de hilo pants and the white cotton shirt that Virgilio wore the other day. “It is wrinkled,” the undertaker said. “Don’t you want to choose something else. ” “No,” I shouted at him. “Put him in these. ” 3. THE FUNERAL FATHER Sean O’Donovan, S. J. , refused to say Mass or to bless the corpse. “Those who die by their own hand are beyond the pale of the Church,” he said firmly.
Let us take him home,” Clara said. She asked me to make all the arrangements and not to mind the cost. The rent for the hearse was clearly exorbitant. I bargained feebly and then agreed. Victor, Zacarias, Enrique, Apolonio and myself were to travel in the Packard. Honesto and Clara had driven to Manila in a new Buick. The hearse moved at a stately 30 kilometers per hour while a scratchy dirge poured out of it at full volume. The Garcias followed in their Buick and we brought up the rear. The rains of July had transformed the brown, dusty fields of Bulacan and Nueva Ecija into muddy fields.
We passed small, nut-brown men, following a beast and a stick that scored the wet earth; dithering birds swooped down to pluck the crickets and worms that were turned up by the plow. The beat of sprung pebbles against the fender of the car marked our passage. The yard of the big house was already full of people. In the sala, a bier had been prepared. The wives of inquilinos were all in black. Large yellow tapers gave off a warm, oily smell that commingled with the attar of the flowers, producing an odor that the barrio folk called the smell of death.
Then the local worthies arrived, led by the congressman of the district, the governor of the province, the mayor of Jaen, the commander of the Scout Rangers who was leading a campaign against the Huks, with their wives and retainers. They were all on intimate teams with Honesto and Clara. Except for the colonel who was in full combat uniform, they were dressed in sharkskin and two-toned shoes. They wore their hair tightly sculpted with pomade against their skulls and on their wrists and fingers gold watches and jeweled rings glistened. They all knew that Honesto had political ambition.
It was not clear yet which position he had his sights on. With the death of Virgilio, the immense wealth of the Serranos devolved on Clara and on Honesto and on their 5-year old son, Jose Jr. Both the Nacionalista and Liberal Parties have been dangling all manner of bait before Honesto. Now, there will be a scramble. Honesto shook hands with everyone, murmuring acknowledgments of their expressions of grief but secretly assessing their separate motives. Clara was surrounded by the simpering wives of the politicians; like birds they postured to show their jewels to best advantage.
They only fell silent when Father Francisco Santander, the parish priest, came to say the prayer for the dead and to lead the procession to the Church where Virgilio’s mortal remains would be displayed on a catafalque before the altar before interment in the south wall side by side with Don Pepe’s. I left the sala to join the crowd in the yard. My parents were there with the Serranos’ and our tenants. There was a palpable tension in the air. A number of the kasamas had been seized by the Scout Rangers, detained and tortured, so that they may reveal the whereabouts of Carding.
They were frightened. From what I heard from my parents, most of the tenants distrusted Honesto who they felt was using the campaign against the Huks to remove those he did not like. The inquilinos were helpless because Clara was now completely under the sway of Honesto. I walked home. When I got there, Restituto, our caretaker, very agitated, took me aside and whispered. “Carding is in the house. He has been waiting for you since early morning. I kept him from view in your bedroom. ” He looked at me, uncertain and obviously frightened. “What shall we do? Leave it to me. But do not tell anyone—not even my parents. He shall be gone by the time they return. ” I put my arm around Restituto’s shoulder to reassure him. Carding wheeled when I walked in, pistol at the ready. He was dressed in army fatigues and combat boots. A pair of Ray-Ban glasses dangled on his shirt. He put the pistol back in its holster. “You shouldn’t be here. There are soldiers all around. ” “They will not come here. They are too busy in the hacienda,” Carding said. The shy, spindly boy that I knew during the war had grown into a broad muscular man.
His eyes were hooded and cunning. “I have to talk to you. Did Virgilio leave a last will and testament? ” “Not that I know of. He left a notebook of poems. ” “What is that? ” Carding demanded, startled. “A notebook of verses with the title ‘Down There. ’ You are mentioned in the poem. But the police has it,” I answered. “Did it say anything about the disposition of the hacienda in case of his death? ” “I did not have a chance to read it closely but I doubt it. Aren’t such things always done up in legal language? There certainly is nothing like that in the notebook.
What are you leading up to? ” Carding sighed. “In 1943; Virgilio came to see me. He had heard from Honesto that I have been talking to the tenants about their rights. Virgilio wanted to know himself the bases of my claims. We had a long talk. I told him about the inevitability of the triumph of the peasant class. Despite his wide reading, he had not heard of Marx, Lenin, or Mao Tse Tung. He was visibly shaken. But when I told him of the coming calamity that will bring down his class, he asked ‘What can I do? ’ and I said: ‘Give up. Give up your land, your privilege and your power.
That is the only way to avoid the coming calamity’. “He apparently did not have any grasp of social forces. He kept talking of individual persons—tenants that he had known since he was a child, inquilinos who had been faithful to his father until their old age, and all that nonsense. ‘The individual does not matter,’ I yelled at him. ‘Only the class called the proletariat. ’ “But even without understanding, he said that he will leave the hacienda to the tenants because it was probably the right thing to do. But Clara should not be completely deprived of her means of support.
It was exasperating, talking to him, but he did promise that in his will the tenants would get all. “Obviously, he changed his mind. ” Carding said in a low voice. “That is too bad because now we have to take his land by force. ” I was speechless. In university, talk of revolution was all the rage but this was my first encounter with a man who could or would try to make it happen. “When I get back the notebook, I will study it to see if there is any statement that will legally transfer the Serrano hacienda to you and the other tenants,” I said weakly. “I will be in touch,” Carding said.
He walked out the door. The day of the funeral was clear and hot. Dust devils rose from the road. In the shadow of the acacia trees in the churchyard, hundreds of people of all ages crowded to get away from the sun. Inside the church, even the aisles were packed. “Introibo ad altare Dei” Father Santander intoned. “Ad Deum qui laetificat juventutem meam,” I answered. The mass for the dead began. My heart was racing because I knew the reason for Virgilio’s suicide. But nobody would care, save me. Rony Diaz writes a novel / Serafin Quiason presents a model for our leaders “At War’s End”, Rony V.
Diaz’s first novel, had a tremendously successful launching at a recent PEN meeting in the Solidaridad Bookshop. Among the scores present were National Artists for Literature F. Sionil Jose and Bienvenido Lumbera, eminent writers Elmer Ordoñez, Lito Zulueta and Virgie Moreno. In brief remarks, Bien said he and Rony were both post-graduate students at Indiana U. ; when Bien asked Rony what he was taking, the latter replied, “Indian linguistics. ” There and then, Bien convinced Rony to take up literary courses which later led to Rony’s garnering Palanca prizes for short stories.
Earlier, while still at the UP, he had in fact already won several awards. Copies of “At War’s End”, printed by The Manila Times Publishing Corporation managed by Dante Ang II, are available in Solidaridad at P300. Rony is now working on two other novels: “The Adventures of Candida” and “Quita y Pone”. During the launch, Dr. Serafin D. Quiason, former National Library director and National Historical Institute chairman and now Lopez Museum consultant, so regaled me with accounts of Vietnam’s late president Ho Chi Minh that I requested him to send me a fuller description of the icon.
What follows is the speech Dr. Quiason delivered on May 10 at the Laguna State Polytechnic U. His Excellency Ambassador Nguyen Vu Tu, Dr. Ricardo Wagan, President, Laguna State Polytechnic University, distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen. May I take this rare occasion to extend to you my warmest greetings in conjunction with the unveiling of the statues of President Ho Chi Minh and Dr. Jose P. Rizal. It was the good fortune of Dr. and Mrs. Ricardo Wagan and my own to take part in the commemoration of the 120th birth anniversary of President Ho Chi Minh, the Father of the Modern State of Vietnam.
Measured by a universal moral yardstick, he was every inch a man of culture, letters and peace in the highest order. He was truly that, a unique Asian leader who served his beloved country and people faithfully, fully and extremely well. In the early morning of May 10, the foreign delegates to the international conference made a pilgrimage to Kim Lien commune in the province of Nghe An, the birthplace of President Ho Chi Minh. The distance from Hanoi to Nghe An province is about 1,000 kilometers. It took us eight hours to get there, breaking our arduous journey at two four-star hotels, and another eight hours to get back to Hanoi.
To us pilgrims, our visit was an unforgettable experience. Any homage bestowed upon Ho Chi Minh, no matter how tiring and how long the journey to his birthplace, is not wasted. Twenty years ago, I was in Hanoi and took part in the celebration of the centenary of President Ho Chi Minh. What I have witnessed during my brief stay is a remarkable transformation or an unprecedented metamorphosis of Vietnam into a progressive and prosperous nation-state in the ASEAN region, thanks to its dynamic, committed and dedicated collective leadership.
Since 1986, the policy of “openness” or “doi moi” has been relentlessly pursued resulting in the process a happy balance between industrial development and growth and complex luxuriant agricultural rice production and distribution. The cities I saw are mushrooming with finely designed sky rises and multicolored residential houses displaying a distinct Vietnamese architectural style. I took a glimpse of the ancient looking Roman Catholic churches along the long route which are visible signs of the policy of religious toleration.
Much to my astonishment I have not seen unsightly enclaves of slums, impoverished beggars roving the shady lanes, truant street children, tricycles and pedicabs. How I wish and hope our new crop of leaders could emulate the simplistic ways of President Ho Chi Minh! When he became President, he never lived in the fabulously built Palace for the French Governor General, but instead stayed in the gardener’s tiny cottage on stilts just a stone’s throw away from a nearby pond. He bore the title and position with utmost simplicity and decorum. He had a Gandhi-like deportment, bordering on the ways of a Buddhist ascetic.
In his calculus of personal values on food habits, attire, and lodging, he was a man of simple tastes. He knew the delights of excellent cuisine, considering his work experience at the famous Carlton Restaurant. Still, his preference went to ordinary or common man’s fare. His beloved countrymen owe an inestimable debt of gratitude to their nationalist patriotic icon. He died at the age of 79. Although he never lived to see a unified Vietnam, his legacy in the form and substance of extraordinary gifts and major achievements shall live forever.

At War’s End: An Elegy

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War

Algerian War

Algerian War.
Most of the African countries have at one time of another been engaged into warfare, either as a struggle for liberation from the colonialism or as a response from the bad governance which has characterized most parts of this continent. I believe that some of these struggles are justified since they led to liberation of the masses. For example the fight to draw away the colonialist was a noble cause since it brought independence in this region. The colonial powers were only up to satisfy their greedy appetite for resources from Africa leaving the continent bare with depleted resources.

They were determined to milk Africa dry and perhaps this explains why they clung to the colonies for so long such that they had to be thrown away either through armed struggles or through international pressure. Some of the colonies were determined to make African countries their overseas territories so that they can continue oppressing the Africans. One such rule was the French government which wanted to extend their unwelcome stay in Algeria culminating into a struggle which had massive effects some of which are still felt today.

One of the countries in Africa where the struggle for independence was quite remarkable and will for ever be in the history books is Algeria. In this paper I will attempt to explore the causes of this war that brought hope to the Algerian people and changed the course of their history forever. I will explain the course of the war analyzing the events which took place, and finally look at the effects of this struggle both in Algeria and France. (Windrow, M and Chappell 1997 5) This country was colonized by the French who occupied it for since early 1830s. They ruled this country for close to one hundred and fifty years.
By 1954 the Algerians had become tired, weary and fed up by this occupation. They have had enough and they were ready to liberate themselves. In 1954 they waged a war which went down to the history as one of the fiercest in the history of independence struggle. This was the climax of their aggression and humiliation they had undergone for the last one hundred years. They were so determined such that nothing would have turned them back. The forces were ready, they enjoyed massive support form the international bodies more so from their Arab neighbor who also wanted to see one of their neighbor redeemed from the chains of colonization.
This conflict erupted exactly fifty years ago, despite being an independence struggle; a war is a war, something which leads to loss of life and destruction of property. It was an ugly war that dominated the world press to almost the same extent as other wars that have been fought in the world in the recent past. (Windrow, M and Chappell, M 1997 p3) The war ended with a win for the French side but the situation in Algeria had changed, despite the win they had to grant the people of Algeria the freedom they had been yearning.
A question crops up, what could have happened if the Algerians won the war? Would they have tried to extend their territory beyond the curved borders? These are pertinent issues whose answers can not be direct. For one it would have been almost impossible for the Algerian freedom fighters to win given the level of the armies for the two sides. The French ha d a well coordinated force while Algerians only depended on militias who were not properly coordinated. Again the issue of weapons comes up; the French had access to modern and sophisticated weapons which Algerians could only have dreamed of.
This war had many unique features; it was a three- and finally four-edged struggle between the French government, the European colonists and the Algerian nationalists and finally Charles de Gaulle. All these parties to the contest were pursuing different interests. The war left Algeria deeply bruised as a nation. It had some serious implication that no one could have imagined, its effect were not only felt in this North African country but also way back in France. (Shields,J 2007 27) Causes of the War
To understand the real causes of this conflict it is important that we try to get a real situation of Algeria at that moment and in the past. This information will shed some light on why the Algerian people wanted to be free. Windrow and Chappell argue that the conflict was purely economical and social “some seventy five percent of the Muslims population were illiterate and they suffered chronic unemployment”p3. Therefore for these people to be liberated from the serious problems they were facing they had to get rid of the forces which they felt that were undermining their efforts to lead a better life.
By the time the war was erupting Algeria had been under French occupation for close to a century where the territory was being reoffered to as a French overseas province. Windrow and Cappell observed that only a small percentage of the Muslims population in this country enjoyed the French citizenry rights where one was privileged to own property. By this time the Muslims population had rose to eight millions. This population could not have survived under the conditions that prevailed in Algeria where the economy was not performing well and then their condition was not all that good.
This level of poverty which has been described as abject greatly contributed to this conflict. I believe that when a society is subjected to conditions which are inhuman they will rise up and demand what is rightfully theirs. This is exactly what happened in Algeria. The people were generally tired of being subjected to suffering by foreigners, they wanted to live a decent life, though they wanted to solve things in a peaceful manner conflict could not have been avoided since the French government was adamant and they wanted to continue with the occupation of this resource rich country.
(Shields, J 2007 28) The Algerians were dissatisfied with the treatment by the French government as second class citizens. They felt that this being country and they had every right to live in it and more so like any other person. In my research I have gathered that this is a problem that existed in all the African colonies where African faced serious discrimination. They were treated badly and subjected to unimaginable sufferings. Most of these people did not enjoy the privileges which the other races were entitled to.
They were regarded as low class who should be civilized though the process of assimilation. When people are treated in such a horrible manner as happened in Algeria, eventually they will be fed with the situation and demand what is rightfully their. This is what the Algerians did; they were tired of such an environment where they could not enjoy full rights like anybody else. They had to look for a way to solve their problem, they did not foresee a situation where for the French colonial government would grant them independence through a silver platter.
They were determined to go all the way and ensure their freedom. Algerians were determined to pursue their independence; it is in this struggle that nationalism and its elements are shown. The Algerian War was started mainly revolting Algerian mobilization which sought freedom on the premises of bad polices which segregated the people especially those cultures which did not speak in French. (Nehma, A and Zeleza, P 2008 56) During the Second World War, Algerians were actively involved both local and those of the European descent, they fought for France.
In return they were supposed to be handsomely rewarded for their efforts. This is a promise that the French government never kept. These world war soldiers were disoriented since when the colonial government did not keep its promise. They felt betrayed; they had to find alternatives so that they can survive the hard time that ensued. They were easy target for the recruits because of their hostility to the government that never kept its promise. These soldiers were actively involved in the freedom struggle for Algeria, perhaps to punish the French colonial government for neglecting them.
This something that happened all over the continent, Africans were enrolled to fight for foreign countries and in the return they were to get some favors from the colonial governments. In Kenya the freedom fighters who were popularly known as the Mau Mau were mostly soldiers who had been recruited to fight for British overseas. On return they were supposed to be given land. Just like the French counterparts in Algeria the British colonial government did not honor its promise. The soldiers formed the group to fight for the freedom in that country and also to teach the colonial government a lesson (Windrow, M and Chappell 1997 5)
My argument is that nationalism played a big role in the struggle for independence in this country. The Algerians were motivated by their desire to maintain cultural freedom and also reversion of the state to the rightful owners, who were the Algerian people. When the French people set their foot in this land they were determined to get this country. they used all manner of tactics to subject the indigenous people to their rule. Rapes,killings and many other barbaric acts were committed to the Algerians in the name of conquered the country. The French army burned harvests emptied granaries and many other unfortunate things.
This caused great resentment between the two groups, this hate grew reaching climax during the freedom struggle. Algerian resistance was vigorous though it was only for a short time; they were not prepared to fight foreign forces who wanted to take what is rightfully theirs. When it came to the freedom struggle they had learnt their lessons and were more determined than ever to ensure they were left free to rule their country as they wished. From the resistance which was mounted during the colonization period an insurgency which will later come to liberate the country was born.
There arose some cultural tension between the Muslims and the French people a type of resentment that lasted until this period and later came to yield to the type of aggression witnessed during the independence war. (Nehma, A and Zeleza, P 2008 58) Course of the war In the wee hours of 1st November 1954 the group called National Liberation Front was ready to start the liberation struggle, they launched massive attacks in different areas of Algeria They targeted the military and police posts, public areas among other crucial areas controlled by the colonial government.
The group called on all the Muslims in Algeria to rise up against a regime that was oppressive and bring back sanity own their country where all people especially the indigenous Africans could be treated with respect. What would have happened if the people of Algeria did not rally behind this call to liberate themselves? I believe that the colonial government was very much determined to retain this country. Once it is rich in oil resources among other minerals. Therefore by granting independence or ceasing power would transfer control of these resources to the Africans.
Settlers would not have liked the idea since they had grown to, like the country and what they were getting from here. (Williams, N et al 2007 78) The government responded with massive force against this insurgency from the people who were labeled as terrorists. Would people who were fighting to liberate the masses be labeled as terrorist? In my opinion the FLA fighters were not terrorists rather they were group of people who were responding to an oppressive regime. Many leaders have been labeled as terrorists but times have proved them right.
One such leaders was the former freedom fighter from South Africa who later became the President and one of the most popular and respected men in the world. Nelson Mandela was a terrorist according to the apartheid rulers of South Africa but to his people he was a hero. The same case applies the freedom fighter in Algeria the French government declared these people as terror agents but to the Algerians they were heroes who can be relied on to make their motherland free once more. (Williams, N et al 2007 79)
As the FLN spread their activities across the country, many European farmers in the country side were forced to sell their farms and belonging and shifted to the capital where they sought refuge. Here they pressured the government to take a stern action against the militias. The colons started organizing their own form of retaliation where they grouped some militias whom would attack the FLN members allover the country especially in Algiers. The Europeans called on the government to declare a state of emergency so that it can deal with the situation properly.
(Williams, N et al 2007 78) The war took an ugly twist when the FLN fighters started to attack the civilians. This happened way back in August 1955,a great massacre of the civilian was reported near Phillippeville,the attack was carried out by the freedom fighters. Intially the group had an operation tactic where it was only targeting the military and government properties. Now with the direct target of the people they were supposed to be fighting for complicated the matter. Perhaps this happens in every war. The civilians who in most cases are innocent get bruised.
This killing was largely condemned and it prompted the French government to step up its effort on the war. Innocent lives had been lost including those who were not involved inn the war, the children and women. In response to this attack the government claimed to have killed more than one thousand guerillas. FLN gave some conflicting reports by claiming that more than twelve thousand Muslims died on retaliatory attacks coming from the French colonial government and the colon vigilante groups. (Alexandar, M and Keiger, J 2002 78)
By 1956 it is estimated that the French government had already commission more than 400,000 troops to help crush the resistance that was mounting in this colony. They realized that it would not be an easy task to fight the groups that were coming up more so when they were using guerilla tactic and applying terrorism methods to fight the French government and its supporters. In the freedom fight there were Algerians who supporting the government . There were close to one hundred and eighty Muslim Algerians who were in the French forces and most of them were fighting as volunteers.
In my opinion I believe that these people were supporting the government because they wanted the status quo to remain. They were already benefiting from the system and changes where freedom will be granted their normal lives will be affected. Most of these volunteers have been assimilated into the French system and have been accorded full French citizenship. To them they were fighting for their country but to the rest of the Algerians they were traitors, who had betrayed the noble cause to liberate the country. In 1956 and 1957 the violence escalated, it took a complete new dimension where the civilians were not spared by two warring sides.
The military arm of the FLN used the tactics of hit and run where they recorded huge success. They avoided direct attacks or confrontation with the French troops. I believe that the group did this to avoid a situation where they would be overwhelmed by the French might. It is a known fact that the French troops had superior weapons than the militia groups. The war was proving to be complicated affairs for the French troops since the adoption of the hit and run tactics. It was becoming hard for the forces to get them since they were mixing with the civilians once they have launched an attack.
This tactic has been used by many fighters who believe that the enemy has the power and the might to defeat them. To their advantage they rely on the expertise of their fighter’s training them on the tactics which can be described as terrorist like where they attack the enemy in the areas where attacks are least expected. Kidnapping was also used, those commonly targeted were the collaborators especially the officials and those civilian who refused to support the revolutionary movement were not spared either, they were murdered. (Alexandar, M and Keiger, J 2002 79)
The fact that the revolutionary group was forcing people to support them clearly shows that not all the Algerians supported the war as a means to get what they wanted. They are those who believed that there are other avenues which could have been employed and the ugly situation that prevailed at the moment could have been avoided. To some extent I tend to agree with this group which preferred peaceful means to the struggle against freedom, may be the destruction that was being witnessed at this moment would have been avoided. So many lives had been lost and yet freedom had not come by this year.
Would it have been possible for the French government to enter into the negotiation with the so called militias? Perhaps this seemed like a mirage but eventually this happened later. The use of coercive methods on the fellow countrymen shows that the group had not inspired the whole Muslim population to rally behind them in the course. The group continued to gain ground by having control over region which were previously government controlled. In these regions they instituted some temporary authorities where they were able to collect taxes and also recruit fighters. The groups had to do this so that it can get some revenue to support itself .
This was very vital for their survival. (Alistair, H 2006 18) French troops were forced to go back to the drawing board and come up with the new methods of fighting. In 1957 French General instituted a system where the country was divided into the sectors. Each sector was allocated a troop which had a role of suppressing the rebels’ activities. This method proved to be effective since the revolutionaries activities were greatly reduced in some of the areas. Barriers were also placed in the borders so that the fighters who were coming from the neighboring countries could not gain access.
Morocco and Tunisia being close neighbors to this North African country were hosting some of the fighters and even helping the revolutionary groups’ finacially. This type of help has been common in every part of Africa. There are wars which are financed by the neighboring countries when they have some vested interest. For these two countries they were obliged to help since a friendly Muslim community needed liberation. (Alistair, H 2006 18) The French military started to ruthlessly attack those areas that they thought had been supporting the rebels.
They applied the principle of collective responsibility where all the villages cooperating with guerillas in any way whether sheltering or paying taxes to them were bombed. Those villages which were unreachable remote areas were raided through the air. A supervisory system where these villages were put on all time surveillance was instituted. This was to prevent the villagers from helping the rebels inn whatever way. There were areas especially in the mountainous region of Algeria where close to two million people were removed and transferred to the plains.
This shows the determination these forces had to completely finish the revolutionary movement. If the French government was so determined to see to it that resistance has been crashed would they have used less time and resources negotiating with the so called rebel group? I believe this is an option that they were not ready to explore since they wanted to continue calling the shots in this country and again they would have been seen as a weak country entering into negotiation with a weak group-so they thought. In my observation France was afraid of repeating the same mistake as was in the Indochina war.
They did not want to be seen as a though they were losing their grip and hence their position in the world political arena. They had to fight this war till the end and losing to them was not an option. (Yasher,F 1989 98) Back home in France there was a feeling that the situation has to be brought in to contol. Many were calling for the return of Charles de Guella return to power so that he can sort out the situation to the favor of his motherland and avoid a humiliation that will bruise the image of this mighty nation. (Hurd,E 2007 55).
Charles was seen as the only figure that would rally the nation and give it the proper direction. Indeed his return was greeted by many as a good sign where the hostilities would be ended. His return was perhaps greeted with almost the same jubilation Americas president elect Barrack Obama got when he was elected the forty forth occupant of the white house. The Muslims in Algeria were now tired of this warfare which had destroyed most of what they had. They wanted a break from this ugly situation. And the man occupying the top seat in France was the solution to their problem.
(Yasher, F 1989 98) By the 1958 the rebels had been pushed to the wall, the French army was gaining grounds. They had won the military control in almost all the regions in the country. In the preceding year’s pressure was mounting on France to grant Algeria its independence. Charles was determined towards this course but he was getting some opposition from the settlers who felt that he had betrayed them. They even attempted unsuccessfully to topple him. Talks with rebels were instituted paving way for a free nation. The aftermath
Algeria’s people dream to be an independent nation was finally granted. But I would ask was it worth this much? Many people had died in the course of this war. Both sides suffered heavy casualties. This is a situation that could have been avoided if men and women had let reason to prevail but man being a selfish animal who is determined to destroy had to do all that he can to ensure he is not humiliated. France was fighting for her position in the global politics,on the same hand Algeria was fighting for recogniton in the world map as a sovereign nation.
Their course was the same only that one was being denied by the other a chance to fulfill its course. (Hurd,E 2007 55) One conflict gave rise to another,it is funny how we solve one problem and in the process antoher crops. No wonder one philosopher said “ man lives to solve problems without them life has no meaning”. The problem in Algeria was deepened by the crisis which engulfed the movement that was very vocal in the freedom struggle. Ahmed Bella was becoming very popular and in the process he wa challenging the leadership of the prime minsiter Ben Khedda.
He later came to be elected the premier in an electionwhich was described as one sided. He announced that Algeria was not going to support any side as far as the world politics were concerned. He made friendship with Kennedy,Castro and many other leaders. This was in the an aim of consolidating his power and at the same time make Algeria a daring to those countries who could have provided aid. In an African style he did not last long he was desposed and put in a house arrest. This dispostiton was masterminded by the elements who were not happy with the Algeria’s progress.
They are the vestigial elements that were left by the colonialist. Most of the problems being experienced in this nation can be traced way back to the algerian war and colonisation. The determination of the FLN government to hold on power and the oppositon mounting fromm the muslim fundamentalst groups have made this nation to be at war. (Hurd,E 2007 55) William ,N et al(2007) describe the Algerian war as nastier than the vietnam independence war(p44). Algeria as a french department had a lot instake. It was home to milions of settlers from europe who wanted to protect their intersts at all the cost.
They felt betrayed by the man many thought would bring a solution to the algerian problem. They were not ready to enter in to the negotiation or yield to any demands made by the Algerians. French government which has beeen described in many occasssions as half hearted reform did not convinvce the people of Algeria otherwise. The analysis of the situation indicate that algerians were more determined than ever,the repression directed to them by the french forces only gave them more energy to continue with the struggle. The situation in Algeria threatened to break France as anation .
A couple was planned where a regime that was seen as incapable of handling the situation was to be replaced. The situation was saved by Charles de Guella who was called upon to rescue the nation. French positon in the global positon was in an all time low. (William ,N et al 2007She has been humiliated again,she was losing her colonies in a very horrible way. Her ego had been seriously bruised. This greatly affectred the nation pride,even Charles government was not soared either despite his popularity. He was facing more problem than one could have imagined.
He was losing colonies,immigration and unemployment was rising. Voilent strikes broke out in paris,this was a common thing from know on. These events can be traced back to the aftermath of the Algerian war which left the nation image seruios injured. Perhaps this was more serios than the defeat frace suffered during the Pro-Russian wars. (Hurd,E 2007 55) Conclusion The Algerian war represents the African struggle from the oppressive colonial regime but a question crops up when I look at the situation in most of the African countries.
Some of them are in a bad shape than they were during the colonial time. What happened in this countries is that colonialist were subsituted by dictatorship. A good example is Zimbabwe,the county is on its knees due to the years of misrule,many other nations are in the near blink not because of the foreign domination but from the mismanagement which has characterized these nations for along time. It is high time that africa as a continent wake up to reality,rise up and embrace the true democracy. the one which will end the civil war in algeria and many other parts of Africa.
The solutions lie within,pressure from the outside world can only bring temporary solution but the bigger picture lies within the continent to come up with solution that will bring conflicts to an end. The solidarity exprewssed by the people of algeria and the determination to gain independence should serve as an example to all those nations experiencing chaos.
Work cited
Windrow,M and Chappell,M. Algerian War 1954-62,Osprey Publishing co. (1997).
Shields, J. The extreme Right in France,Routledge(2007).
Nehma,A and Zeleza,P. The Roots of African Conflicts,The cause and Costs,Ohio University Press(2008).
Williams,N,Berry,O ,Fallon,S and Catherine,N. Algerian War,Lonely Planet(2007).
Alexander,M and Keiger,J. France and Algerian War,Taylor and Francis (2002).
Alistair,H. A savage War of Peace:Algeria 1954-1962,New York Books(2006).
Yashir,F. The Mediterrenen:Prospects of a New Intergration,New York,United Nations University Press(1989).
Hurd,E. The Politics of Secularism in international Relations,Princetown,Princetown University Press.

Algerian War

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Charlie Wilson’s War

Charlie Wilson’s War.
For the second portion of my summer assignment I watched Charlie Wilson’s War. Throughout the movie the various governments affected many of the individuals. The movie is set in the cold war where the United states would not openly oppose the USSR. When the United States took action against the Soviets it had to be done covertly. Charlie Wilson was a U. S. Congressman who decided to help the Afghans in there battle against the Soviets.
During the movie Charlie tells of how he originally became interested in politics, When he was a boy his twisted neighbor Charles Hazard, an elected city official, poisoned his dog Teddy. To get back at Mr. Hazard, Charlie went out and got a farming drivers permit and drove voters out to the polls, saying before they went to vote, “Not to influence your vote, but Charles Hazard poisoned my dog. ” It was at this moment that Charlie decided that he wanted to be involved in the government, because through the democratic process he was able to get what he wanted.
When faced with the conundrum of how to transport all of the weapons into Afghanistan Charlie asked the President of Pakistan to get involved. The Pakistani president would have not have had to do this step of being a “middle-man” if the US would have declared war with the USSR, but because of the necessity of covert operations the president of Pakistan had to become involved and risk his country to help the United States and Afghanistan.

For Charlie to convince the chairman of the committee overseeing covert operations in the area to vote in his favor he said that he must get a blind pakistani girl out of jail, the girl was put in there because she was raped, and there were not enough witnesses to prove her innocence. The chairman said that if the President of Pakistan released her then he would vote in Charlie’s favor. Because of Pakistan’s Policies the girl was put in jail because she was not able to provide a description of her attacker. Also many Sheep herds were killed by the Soviets Helicopter Pilots.

Charlie Wilson’s War

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What Affect has the outward movement of retailing office

What Affect has the outward movement of retailing office.
a. ) The Retail Revolution that has been occurring in waves since the 1970’s was such a shift in the way in which our services are provided that consequences for surrounding areas were inevitable. With the first wave of decentralisation of the inner city areas supermarket food industries left to edge-of-city sites causing much strain on the need for corner shops which in comparison to the mega-stores were of low variety and unattractive to shoppers.
This coupled with the fact that the residents of rural areas were increasingly becoming more mobile meant that there was an overall decline in general store and corner shops in many rural areas that neighboured large cities. With a decline in services available close by there are always going to be people who lose out. For instance older residents that perhaps have lived in these villages for a long time may not be car owners. Consequently these people will decide to move to a place that has the services they require close by and there will be a decline in population.
Any area in a cycle of declining population and loss of services often continues to do so until the process of dilapidation is out of control. We saw this process in Caistor, a rural settlement outside of Grimsby, where the introduction of a Morison’s Super store 7 miles away had caused great decline. Also a Tescos 10 miles away from Caistor provided a bus service to and from the village meaning the rate of decline is intense. Evidence we found showed that for a town of population of 3,500 the village still had adequate services.

However, the roots of the village were of a prestigious schooling reputation, which had fuelled much growth in the area at one time. Now the supermarkets have a firm hold in the neighbouring area the growth has subsided to what we see today. Many stores closed down, being converted back into residences in many cases. Only some specialist functions survived. Mainly those that rely on the village image to sell their product, for example Sandham’s Wine cellars. Large losses in services and shops have clearly occurred though and from the looks of the village it will have difficulty in attracting outside investment.
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This is a common problem in rural areas today, the problem has spiralled into disrepair and only a large cash injection to make the area seem more attractive will solve the problem. In more suburban areas including rural areas that have become suburbanised due to urban sprawl another consequence of decentralisation is apparent. Along the edge of Leeds places like Moortown and Headingly we noticed that District centres were catering for their local communities. In Moortown there was a clear Jewish presence in the area and in Headingly a student orientated district centre.
Both examples of how the change in retail provision is affecting change. People can afford to be more demanding and to go farther afield to find what they want so retailers are responding by getting closer to the communities they cater for. b. ) Inner city areas in light of the mass decentralisation have understandably tended to decline with the closure of smaller shops drawing the public away from the city centre and many traditional high street areas have become very run down places. This has caused somewhat of a response from city planners who finally admit that decentralisation is a bad thing and doesn’t simply relieve congestion.
The American response to the decline of their inner city areas was to convert the CBD to specialist shopping areas that offer something the out of town malls and plazas do not. Many schemes including the adaptation of high rise foundations to custom shopping centres have been paid for in order to rescue America’s city centres from desertion. In Britain however, city centres have declined still, but not nearly as much as America due to planning controls put in place and less suburbanisation.
Still the major movements of decentralisation have created a pull factor away from the city centre and high street units. There were five main changes to the high street: 1. ) Large companies having standard image, large stores were broken into smaller units and a core and frame of the CBD itself was emerging, where it was clear that in the frame area refurbishment of shop fronts and insides was no longer economically viable 2. ) Functions became more varied with an increasing number of personal consumer services, financial, household, medical, leisure, and government services. . )
The perception of the high street as the focus for the community has become less strong 4. ) Land rental price increases and there was increasing competition for non-retail investors to maximise profits through office blocks etc 5. ) The highs street’s position in the urban structure is under threat as retailing diversifies in character and location Another affect that the changes have brought about, are the planning responses in Britain. We saw how America specialised its CBD in order to make it more attractive again.
British city councils have taken action to combat the decentralisation and many schemes have been tried, some worked, others failed, in any case the answer usually requires a large monetary input. In Leeds for example full pedestrianisation of large blocks has made for more pleasant shopping environment attracting shoppers making the land more desirable for retailers again. Attractive indoor centres are an extension of this with places like the Trinity centre, which have clearly had large investment and the heritage based Granary Wharf and Corn Exchange that link a tourist attraction in to bring in the shoppers.
Mass shop front refurbishment like that of the Victorian quarter, which has also been roofed over, attract prestigious shops into the area and breathe life into the city centre again. The costs involved for these type of schemes are no doubt enormous and one can only expect to see retail prices rising as a result. But Leeds is just one example of where the schemes have worked, many other British cities to this day are suffering the affects of decentralisation brought about by the Retail Revolution.

What Affect has the outward movement of retailing office

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The Concept of Total War

The Concept of Total War.
The period between 1914-1918, or most commonly known as World War I, is historically significant. Aside from its unforgettable aftermath wherein a number of casualties and various war damages were recorded, World War I also paved the way for the emergence of the concept of total war. It is through this total war that the series of wars that followed within the international system based their strategies and learning experiences making the subsequent conflicts a lot worse. Total War, according to Stephen Badsey, is considered as the “organization of entire societies for war in social, economic, and even spiritual sense” (Badsey n. ). It is a war strategy wherein combatants forcibly involved properties, lands, and attenuate the vulnerable civilians or non-combatants in their struggle against the enemies instead of just focusing on conquering their military targets. Basically, it is an armed force waged using all national power, human strength and material goods, considering that the traditional presence of big battalions are insufficient without the “Home Front” support (Kiraly 15). This movement showed tremendous effects in the country’s populace and showed social changes.
The economy of states involved in total war is strictly controlled to monitor and regulate the flow of money and where finances are utilized. Moreover, through the influence of media and nationalistic propaganda, the citizens are moved to strengthen their support for the total war (Schmiechen 459). As stated earlier, the First World War gauged the intensity of the wars after it. Because of the tragedy caused by World War I, many citizens became very suspicious and fearful of their surroundings and the eventualities around them.
The American public is no exemption to this escalating fear and apprehension with the actions and decisions done by their country either domestically or internationally. Post – World War I As eventful as the World War I, the Great Depression of 1929 – 1933 sson took place. It was also known as the Global Economic Slump wherein the Wall Street stock market crash affected the American financial system (Baylis & Smith 57). Because of this economic depression, many Americans feared a massive social consequence manifested in a surge of unemployment.

Unemployment was perceived as USA’s primary enemy because it resulted to a number of impoverished families suffering because of the collapse in the market (Baylis & Smith 59). Different reactions emerged during this period including the government’s economic response by pursuing protectionism and avoid importing products from other countries. The period of depression ended with the emergence of World War II. Supposedly, the years 1939-1945 should relieve the American society from the economic slump it previously experienced, however, circumstances worsen as conflict escalates among the involved factions in the war.
One of the domestic enemies America experienced during this period was the massive influx of immigrants from different parts of Europe. This is a manifestation of the escalating civil war among the different Western countries. As a response to this, US modified its migration quota system to filter out desirable citizens to enter their land. Immigrants from Great Britain and Ireland were awarded generous qoutas as compared to Russians and Italians as they were affiliated with the emerging powerful satellite group, the Soviet Union, threatening the American democratic system (“Immigration Through Time”).
After World War II, the Cold War era, from 1945-1990 followed. It was a war between two “Superpowers,” the United States of America and the Soviet Union (Baylis & Smith 72). Many proxy wars in the Third World took place during this period, dragging countries all over the world in the war and dividing them between the two superpowers. The emerging power of USSR threatened the American society as the manifestation of communism is felt world wide and even domestically.
The eventualities during the Cuban missile crisis triggered greater military threat in the country as the Soviet Union is believed to be keeping weapons of mass destruction. America reacted in this situation by entering the global battlefield with the USSR and pursued an arms race (Baylis & Smith 81). By the end of the cold war period, USA emerged as the most powerful country and helped some European countries rehabilitate the damages of war. The country continued to emerge as a powerful country wherein they are perceived as primary trade partners world wide.
However, in the post 9/11 period, American society placed the blame to the Twin Tower tragedy to the terrorists who were considered as “the axis of evil” which includes some rogue states in West Asia (Chenoy 13). As a preemptive response by the present administration, they pursued counter-terrorism campaign and established the “coalition of the willing” to overcome acts of terrorism world wide (Schifferes n. p). The periods of conflict that America experienced over the years showed how the public is very much affected.
From the Great Depression and the fear of unemployment, World War II and the problem on undesirable immigrants, the Cold War era and the emergence of communism, and post 9/11 period with the threats of terrorism, the American public is imparted with so much problems and enemies both domestically and internationally which greatly affects the country’s internal affairs and national interest to pursue. It is, therefore, the responsibility of the government to ensure that the public interest is taken into consideration in their policy-making to assure the security and safety of their citizens.

The Concept of Total War

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