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Adr: Village Panchayat in India

Adr: Village Panchayat in India.
INTRODUCTION The present village Panchayat is a kind of local self-Government. The system has three objects. One is to make the villagers better habituated with the exercise of franchise. The second is to relieve the Government from the details of the local affairs. The third is to let the people manage their own affairs. The Panchayat system has been integral part of the Indian village system through ages. A village is self contained microcosm, a composite peasant society representing different communities and cultural hues.
It does not have irritant elements but represent an integrated culture, free to a greater extent from the penetrations of urban cultural patterns into the village life. The importance of village with its head man, called Gramani, could be traced to Rig Vedic times and this head man figures in later Vedic literature as one of the jewels or Ratnas of the administration. The Decimal system of classifications of village into units of 10, 20 or 100 or 1000 is well known. According to Vinaya, heads of the villages (Gramikas) are stated to be meeting in an assembly of their own.
Narada supervised the appointment of five officials in each village. The state took full responsibility of rural development, particularly by constructing roads, setting up of markets etc. There were also references to village elders — Gamma- vriddhas and Grama mahattaras – the prominent persons in the village being associated with village administration. An account of the Panchayat system comparing five persons (official and non official) in districts as well as in sub divisions is afforded by the inscriptions of the Gupta period.

At the districtlevels, the Vishayapati or its head had a non official advisory council representing different interest in the locality. These included the Nagara- sresthin- the chief banker representing the commercial interests; the Sarthavaha or carvan – the chief of the leader of the trading community; the Prathama kulika – the chief of the head of the families or the community head; and the Prathama kayastha – the chief scribe or the official administrator. The assistance of the council was sought in matters of alienation of lands and other allied matters of the community interest.
At the subdivision (Vithi) and village level, there was a council of non officials consisting of the Vithi- mahaattaras and the kutumbins, representing the elders and agricultural house holds, respectively. The kulikas represented the non official elements in an advisory capacity. At the village level, the Gramika or the head man and his council settled land disputes by fixing boundaries and they also mentioned law and order. His advisory council constitutes the mahattaras – the village elders and the Astha – kuladhikarans – the eight head of the families and other leading men of experience and status.
The village elders in southern India were known as Mahajans and they regulated the socio-economic life of the village and assisted equally in administration. The Panchayat system was prevalent in the urban context as well. The local body was called Uttarasabha, Goshthi, Panchakula and a board of Sauvayika. The Panchakula signified a body of five persons who were appointed by provincial head. They deliberated in the town hall called Mandapika. The committee looked after proper realization of grant and rent from the endowed property.
On May 15, 1989, Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi introduced a constitutional amendment bill in Lok Sabha. This was introduced to make Panchayat Raj in India a truly representative and effective system. The bill could not become law as it was not passed by Rajya Sabha. The bill was again introduced in the new parliament by Narasimha Rao government. This bill, the seventy third amendment act, 1992, passed by parliament, was bought into effect on April 24, 1993. Madhya Pradesh was the first state in the country to comply with the spirit and letter of the act. Presently, there are 2. 0 lakhs village Panchayats, 5500 Samities and 375 zila parishads. These institutions have been granted statutory authority in many states for raising funds through taxation, cess, land and fairs. The 11th Five Year Plan has ambitious plans for Panchayati system reforms. These bodies will take into account local aspirations, resources and would recommend programmes and methodologies to match them. The concept of Panchayati Raj is nothing new. It was the dream of Gandhi, the father of the nation, its need was stressed by Pandit Nehru, and it was repeatedly and forcefully advocated by Late Shri Jai Prakash Narayan.
But, unfortunately, for various reasons, not much headway could be made for the realization of this ideal. Ever since Late Shri Rajiv Gandhi came to the helm of affairs in the country he repeatedly stressed the importance of Panchayati Raj. He formed his views on the subject by under-taking whirlwind tours of rural India to familiarize himself with the realities of rural life, by holding frequent workshops of District magistrates all over the country, and thus assessing their views and understanding their difficulties.
As a result of this interaction with the people and the administrators, his views on Panchayati Raj gradually evolved, his thoughts ware clarified and he could from his own plan of Panchayati Raj and place it before the parliament with perfect self-confidence and case. He also sought to give it constitutional sanction by proposing to add a fresh chapter to the Indian constitution in the form of the 64thamendment, through the Bill which he moved in the parliament on the 15th of May, 1989.
As a result of his clarity of thought and powerful advocacy, the bill was passed with near unanimity, with only five M. P. ’s voting against it. Late Shri Gandhi forcefully and clearly unfolded the concept of Panchayati Raj, the urgent need of constitutional sanction for it, and the salient features of his scheme for making it a reality. He pointed out that Panchayati Raj means taking democracy to the gross roots, it means transfer of power, in the real sense of the word, to the people living even in remote villages and bringing even the weakest sections of society into the national mainstream.
He told the honorable members of parliament that, “Democracy was the greatest gift of our freedom struggle to the people of India. Independence made the nation free. Democracy made our people free. A free people are a people who are governed by their will and ruled with their consent. A free people are a people who participate in decisions affecting their lives and their destinies”. Gandhiji believed that democratic freedoms have to be founded in institutions of self-government in every village of India. He drew his inspiration and his vision from the Panchayats, the traditional ‘village republics’ of India.
Panditji established the institution of Panchayati Raj as the primary instrument for bringing development to the doorstep of rural India. Indiraji stressed the need for the people’s participation in the processes of economic and social transformation. ” Yet, there can be no denying the fact that in most parts of the country, elections to the Panchayats have been irregular. The Bill seeks to put an end to such delays and difficulties. The essence of democracy is elections. But elections to Panchayati Raj institutions have been most irregular and uncertain.
A mandatory provision in the constitution is therefore necessary. A statutory provision in the state law does not quite have the same sanctity. The Bill provides for regular periodic elections of Panchayati Raj institutions. In the absence of any compelling provision to reconstitute Panchayats within a reasonable period of time, by democratic elections, suspended Panchayats have remained suspended for years and dissolved Panchayats have remained dissolved for up to a decade or even more. Their existence has depended less on the mandate of the people then on the whim of state Governments.
The bill leaves it to the state to determine the grounds and conditions on which Panchayats may be suspended or dissolved. The state Legislatures are to specify the grounds on which the Governor may suspend or dissolve a Panchayat. That is a matter for the Governor, acting in accordance with the constitution on the advice of the state Government. But dissolved Panchayats must be reconstituted within a reasonable period of time. It is the people who will determine, within a matter of months, the shape of the reconstituted Panchayat.
The Bill will ensure that Panchayati Raj has a democratic character similar to the Lok Sabha and the state Assemblies and Constitutional protection for their functioning as representative institutions of the people. “The single greatest event in the evolution of democracy in India was the enactment of the Constitution which established democracy in Parliament and in the state Legislature. The historic, revolutionary Panchayati Raj Bill takes the place alongside that great event as the enshrinement in the constitution of democracy at the grassroots”.
Once democracy is accorded to the Panchayats the same sanctity as is enjoyed by parliament and the state Legislature, the doors will be opened for the participation in democratic institution to about seven lakh elected representatives. In this way the power-broker, the middlemen, the vested interests will be eliminated. For the minutest municipal function the people have to run around finding persons with the right connections who would intercede for them with the distant source of power.
The system has been captured by the power-brokers who have established their vice-like grip on it, only because democracy has not functioned at the grass-roots. Once the people have their own elected representatives from electorates as small as a hundred persons, the source of power will lie only as far away as the Panchayat Ghar, not in some distant state capital or even the more distant capital of the country. There will be direct elections to Panchayats at all levels. Every voter will have his own representative in the Gram Panchayat, the mid-level Panchayat. The representative will be responsible to small and recognized electorate. It hey fulfill the mandate of the people the re-elected; otherwise the people will throw them out of office, power of the vote. In establishing the institutions of democracy in Parliament and in the state Legislature, our founding fathers gave particular recognition to the disabilities suffered by the Scheduled Castes and tribes. Provision was made for the reservation of seats for the total electorate. This is a principle which has not been incorporated in most of the Panchayati Raj legislations enacted by the state Legislatures. The democratic rights of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes cannot be secured by good intentions alone.
It has to be secured in the first instance, by reservation in Panchayati Raj Institutions on the same basis as reservations are given in the Lok Sabha and the state Assemblies. The Bill makes it mandatory for the state legislatures to ensure reservation for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes in proportion to their population in the relevant Panchayat area. Also, there will be reservations in Panchayats at all levels of 30% of the seats for women. The presence of women in large numbers in the Panchayats will not only make the Panchayats more representative but will also make them more efficient, honest, disciplined and responsible.
It is the strength of moral character which women will bring to the Panchayats. The Panchayats will have the power and authority to draw of plans within the framework of guidelines and conditions to be laid draw by the state Government. These plans will constitute the basic inputs for the planning process of higher levels. This will ensure that the voice of the people, their needs, their aspirations, their priorities become the building blocks of the edifice of planning. The second major responsibility of the Panchayats will be the implementation of development schemes assigned to them by the state Governments.
These schemes should cover the major economic concerns of rural India, commencing with agriculture and land improvement and going on to irrigation. They must comprise the diversification of the rural economy into animal husbandry, dairying, poultry and fisheries. They must incorporate industrial activity in rural India. They must look to the day-to-day concerns of rural India, housing, drinking water, fuel and fodder. The panchayats will also have the major responsibility for the administration of poverty-alleviation programmes.
They would have to look to the education and culture, to health and family welfare, and to women and child development. Social welfare programmes for the weaker and handicapped sections would be the responsibility of the Panchayats. It is also proposed to give to the Panchayats the responsibility for the public distribution system which is so crucial to the survival of the weakest and the poorest, as also to the general health of the rural economy. In this way development will be taken to the grassroots in rural India.
The same concern must be extended to the growing urban and semi-urban population of the country. To this end, a new chapter has been added to the constitution. Urban Municipalities and corporations have been brought within the two major questions have been raised repeatedly. Most reservations become a parliament feature of the Indian economic, educational and political scene? Must social disability, with the attached stigma of being a Harijan and hence being disallowed to enter the places of worship etc. continue for all times, privileges as their counterpart in the rural areas?
Efforts have also been made to recast revamp and rejuvenate the cooperative movement, which Pundit Nehru always regarded as the essential compliment to Panchayati Raj. Our democracy has reached the stage where the full participation of the people brooks no further delay. Those who decry Panchayati Raj as an election stunt are only those whose feudal interest will be overthrown by the power reaching the people. The late Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi said, “We trust the people. We have faith in the people. It is the people who must determine their own destinies and the destiny of the nation.
To the people of India let us ensure maximum democracy and maximum devolution of power. Let there be an end to the power-brokers. Let us give power to the people. Salient features enumerated were: 1. Panchayats shall be constituted in every state at the village, intermediate and districtslevels. At intermediate level population should exceed 20 lakhs. 2. All the seats in a Panchayat shall be filled by persons chosen directly through the elections from the territorial constituencies in the Panchayat area. 3.
The legislature of state may, by law, provide for the representation of chairpersons of the Panchayats at various levels – district, intermediate and village. The chairpersons may or may not be chosen directly from election from territorial constituencies. They shall haveright to vote in Panchayat meetings. 4. There shall be proportionate representation according to the total population of Panchayat area reserved for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. One- third of the total number of seats shall be preserved for women. The office of the chairperson shall also be likewise be reserved. . Term of each Panchayat shall be 5 years unless it is dissolved earlier. This will apply to Panchayats constituted before the 73rd amendment act. 6. The legislature of a state may, by law, endow the Panchayats with the power to prepare plans for economic development and authorize them to levy, collect appropriate taxes, duties, tolls and fees and the power to provide for grants-in-aid from the consolidated fund of the state. 7. The governor of a state, after every 5 years, will constitute a finance commission to review and audit the financial position of the Panchayats.
He will also determine the principles for the distribution of the net proceeds of the taxes and tolls between the state and the Panchayats and will measure for the improvements of the financial positions of the Panchayats. 8. The governor shall appoint a state election commissioner whose tenure and service conditions will be decided by the state legislature. The state election commissioner will be responsible for the preparation of the electoral rolls and for the conduct of all elections. 9. The provisions mentioned above shall apply to union territories as well.
The administrators shall be empowered in the same manner as the governors of the state. 10. None of the afore-mentioned provisions would be applicable to scheduled and tribal areas, to the hills area of Manipur, to the states of Nagaland, Meghalaya and Mizoram, to the district of Darjeeling in west Bengal to the Darjeeling Gorkha hill council. 11. Finally, the 73rd Amendment Act provides for the addition of Eleventh schedule – Article 243 G. This includes 29 areas like agriculture, land improvement, minor irrigation, animal husbandry, women and child development etc. OLD SYSTEM OF THE VILLAGE PANCHAYAT AND ITS DECAY
In the pretty old time there were village Panchayats in India. They were very powerful organizations. They were virtually ruling over the village according to the customary laws. During the Mughal period the village Panchayats remained unaffected. Because the Mughal Emperors and the Mughal Chiefs were satisfied with the collection of revenue and taxes. They did not trouble about the local administration. But during the British period the Indian village Panchayats were completely inactive and runied. Because the British administration was very strong and was penetrating into every nook and corner of the country.
The British Government founded the system of union-president to know the view of the public. But the union presidents played into the hands of the thana officers. Hence the old panchayat system was completely ruined. Panchayati Raj in Pre British Period. The word panchayat is derived from the word pancha panchasvanusthitah, has references in to the existence of Grama Sanghas or rural communities. The institution of Panchayati Raj is as old as Indian civilization itself. It was in existence since ancient periods, having an effective control over civil and judicial matters in the village community.
The Rigveda, Manusamhita, Dharmashastras, Upanishads, Jatakas and others, refer extensively to local administration, i. e. the panchayat system of administration. In the Manusmriti and Shantiparva of Mahabharata, there are many references to the existence of Grama Sanghas or village councils. The earliest reference to panchayat is derived from the word Pancha, that refers to an institution of the five (pancha panchasvanusthitah) is found in the Shanti-Parva of Mahabaratha, pancha and panchavanustitah are semantically close to panchayat.
A description of these village councils are also found in Arthashastra of Kautilya who lived in 400 B. C. Arthashstra gives a comprehensive account of the system of village administration prevailing in his time. During this period, the village administration was carried under the supervision and control of Adyaksha or headman. There were other officials such as Samkhyaka [accountant], Anikitsaka [veterinary doctor], Jamgh karmika [village couriers], Chikitsaka [physitian]. The village headman was responsible for ensuring the collection of state dues and controlling the activities of the offenders.
In Ramayana of Valmiki, there are references to the Ganapada (village federation) which was perhaps a kind of federation of village republics. Self-governing village communities characterized by agrarian economies existed in India from the earliest times. It is mentioned in Rigveda that dates from approximately 200 B. C. The village was the basic unit of administration in the Vedic period. The most remarkable feature of the early Vedic polity consisted in the institution of popular assemblies of which two namely ‘Sabha’, and the ‘Samiti’ deserve special mention. A Samiti was the Vedic Folk Assembly that in some cases njoyed the right of electing a king while the Sabha exercised some judicial functions. Both the Samiti and Sabha enjoyed the rights to debate, a privilege unknown to the popular assemblies of other ancient people. The office of the village head man (Gramani) indicates the emergence of the village as a unit of administration. In the later Vedic period, the Samiti disappeared as a popular assembly while the Sabha sank into a narrow body corresponding to the kings Privy Council. In the course of time, village bodies took the form of panchayats that looked into the affairs of the village.
They had the powers to enforce law and order. Customs and religion elevated them to the sacred position of authority. Besides this there was also the existence of caste panchayats. This was the pattern in Indo Gangetic plains. In the south, the village panchayats generally had a village assembly whose executive body consisted of representatives of various groups and castes. These village bodies, both in the north and south India, had been the pivot of administration, the centre of social life and above all a focus of social solidarity. In the Mouryan period, the village was the basic unit of administration.
Villagers used to organize works of public utility and recreation, settle disputes, and act as trustees for the property of minors. But, they had not yet evolved regular councils. The village council appeared to have evolved into regular bodies in the Gupta period. They were known as Panchamandalas in central India and Gramajanapadas in Bihar. These bodies negotiated with the government for concessions and settlement of disputes. The inscription of Chola dynasty shows the construction and functions of the village assembly and their executive committees.
The village administrations were performed by the elected representatives forming village council. During the medieval and Moghal periods, village bodies were the pivot of administration. In the Moghal period, particularly in the regime of Sher Shah, the villages were governed by their own panchyats. Each panchayat comprised of village elders who looked after the interest of the people and administered justice and imposed punishment on defaulters. The head man of the village, a semi government official, acted as a coordinator between the village panchayat and the higher administrative hierarchy.
Akbar accepted this system and made it an indispensable part of civil administration. In this period, each village had its own panchayat of elders. It was autonomous in its own sphere and exercised powers of local taxation, administrative control, justice and punishment. The Moghals introduced elaborate administrative machinery with a hierarchy of officials, particularly in the field of revenue. The Moghal local administrative system lasted over centuries. It was with the collapse of the Moghal strong hold, the British established their hegemony in India. British Period
The British came to India as traders, and before long established an inroad into the cultural nexuses of the land. The primary focus of the British Raj was much to do with trade and little to do with governance and development. The local governments were hardly their first priority. In fact till the advent of the British rule in India, the rural republic had flourished and thrived. With the emergence of the British Raj in India, panchayats ceased to play a role that it once played. But, local self government as a representative institution was the creation of the British.
In the initial days, the interest of the British was limited to the creation of local bodies with nominated members. These bodies were built around trading centers. Thus in the year 1687, a municipal corporation came to be formed in Madras. Set up on the British model of town council, this body was empowered to levy taxes for building guild halls and schools. As time passed, similar bodies were set up in other major towns and this model became prevalent, helping the British widen their taxation power. This model continued to comprise nominated members with no elected elements what so ever.
It was Lord Mayo, the then viceroy of India (1869 to 1872), who felt the need to decentralize powers in order to bring about administrative efficiency and in the year 1870 introduced the concept of elected representatives in the urban municipalities. The revolt of 1857 that had put the imperial finances under considerable strain and it was found necessary to finance local service out of local taxation. Therefore it was out of fiscal compulsion that Lord Mayo’s resolution on decentralization came to be adopted. The Bengal Chowkidar Act of 1870
The Bengal Chowkidar Act of 1870 marked the beginning of the revival of the traditional village panchayati system in Bengal. The Chowkidar Act empowered district magistrates to set up panchayats of nominated members in the villages to collect taxes to pay the chowkidars or watchmen engaged by them. Ripon Resolution (1882) Lord Ripon made remarkable contribution to the development of Local Government. In 1882, he abandoned the existing system of local government by the officially nominated people. According to his local self government plan, the local boards were split into smaller units to achieve greater efficiency.
In order to ensure popular participation, he introduced an election system for the local boards. The government resolution of 18th May, 1882, stands as a landmark in the structural evolution of local governments. It provided for local boards consisting of a large majority of elected non-official members and presided over by a non-official chairperson. This is considered to be the Magna Carta of local democracy in India. This resolution proposed the establishment of rural local boards where 2/3rd of whose membership was composed of elected representatives.
He brought in the concept of self-government in urban municipalities. He is treated as the founding father of urban local government. Ripon’s resolutions followed a series of Committees, Commissions and Acts in this line. The Royal Commission on Decentralization in 1909 elaborated further the principles of Ripon resolution. But this remained merely on paper. Ripon’s scheme did not make much progress in the development of local self government institutions. Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms of 1919 In this backdrop, Montagu Chelmsford reforms were passed in the year 1919.
This reform transferred the subject of local government to the domain of provinces. The reform also recommended that as far as possible there should be a complete popular control in local bodies and the largest possible independence for them, of outside control. By 1925, eight provinces had passed village panchayat acts. However, these panchayats covered only a limited number of villages with limited functions. But this reform could not get much result as far as democratization of panchayats was concerned and lead to a lot of organizational and fiscal constraints. Government of India Act (1935)
This is considered as another important stage in the evolution of panchayats in British India. With popularly elected government in the provinces, almost all provincial administrations felt duty bound to enact legislations for further democratization of local self government institutions, including village panchayats. Although the popular government in the provinces governed by the Congress vacated office following the declaration of Second World War in 1939, the position as regards local government institutions remained unchanged till August 1947, when the country attained independence.
Even though the British government did not have interest in the village autonomy, they were forced to do so, in order to continue their rule in India and moreover to meet financial necessities. The Indian rural republic had flourished till the advent of British. It received a set back during the British rule. Self contained village communities and their panchayats ceased to get substance. They were replaced by formally constituted institutions of village administration. In the highly centralized system of British rule, village autonomy seems to have lost.
PANCHAYATI RAJ IN INDEPENDENT INDIA The task of strengthening panchayati raj system fell on the Indian government formed after independence. It was clear that India a country of villages had to strengthen village panchayats to strengthen democracy. Mahatma Gandhi who strongly believed in Ggrama Swaraj pleaded for the transfer of power to the rural masses. According to him the villages should govern themselves through elected panchayats to become self sufficient. But surprisingly, the draft Constitution prepared in 1948 had no place for Panchayati Raj Institutions.
Gandhi severely criticized this and called for immediate attention. It is thus, that panchayat finds a place in the Directive Principles of the State Policy. Article 40 of the Directive Principles of the State Policy states that ‘the states shall take steps to organize village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them function as units of self governments’. The most important aspect to strengthen grass root democracy was neglected by the Constitution makers as Directive Principle of State Policy is not legally binding on the governments.
The first organized effort to tackle the problem of rural India was made through Community Development Programme in 1952 and National Extension Service in 1953. The programme was based on an integrated approach to the various aspects of rural development. The objectives were to promote self help and self reliance among the rural people, to generate a process of integrated social, economic and cultural change with the aim of transforming social and political life of the villagers. Community Development Programme was launched in 55 selected blocks.
The programme was based on an integrated approach to the various aspects of rural development. The programme made provisions for appointing Block Development Officers [BDO] and Village Level Workers [V. L. W]. This programme was intended to bring socio economic development of the rural masses on democratic lines, but failed to take off along the expected lines due to the absence of an effective instrument for people’s participation. Balwantrai Mehta Committee Balwantrai Mehta Committee was the first Committee set up in 1957 to look into the problems of democratic decentralization in independent India.
The Committee was asked to report on community development projects. The Committee made far reaching recommendations in the direction of democratic decentralization and rural reconstruction. It pointed out that the community development program was not successful because it failed to evoke local initiative and that in the absence of local initiative and local interest, development would not be possible. The committee laid down five fundamental principles. 1. There should be three tier structures of local self government bodies from village to the district level and these bodies should be linked together. . There should be genuine transfer of power and responsibility to these bodies to enable them to discharge their responsibility. 3. Adequate resources should be transferred to these bodies to enable them to discharge their responsibilities. 4. All welfare and developmental schemes and programmes at all three levels should be channeled through these bodies, and 5. The three tier system should facilitate further devolution and disposal of power and responsibility in future.
The committee envisaged three tire system of panchayats known as Zilla Parishad, Panchayat Samiti and Gram Panchayat and recommended encouragement of peoples’ participation in community work, promotion of agriculture and animal husbandry, promoting the welfare of the weaker sections and women through the panchayats. For the first, time the Committee made recommendations for co-opting of two women who are interested to work for women and children. However, like the rest of the male members, women were not to be elected but were to be co-opted.
The recommendations of the Balwantrai Mehta Committee came into effect on 1st April 1958. Rajasthan was the first state to implement it on 2nd October 1959. By mid 1960s, panchayat had reached all parts of the country. More than 2,17,300 village panchayats covering over 96% of the 5,79,000 inhabited villages and 92% of rural population had been established. There was enthusiasm in rural India and people felt that they had a say in the affairs affecting their daily life. These were considered as the promising days of Panchayati Raj Institutions in India.
The report of the Ministry of Community Development had stated in 1964-65 that younger and better leadership was emerging through Panchayati Raj Institutions and there was a fairly high degree of satisfaction among the people with the working of the panchayats. The recommendations of Balwantrai Mehta Committee were implemented by many states in the country. Till the mid sixties, Panchayati Raj system flourished in India. But there was decline in Panchayati Raj Institutions after the mid sixties mainly because of centralized tendencies of functioning all over the country.
The elections were not held regularly and the participation of people weakened in these bodies. Inefficiency, corruption, favoritism, uncertainty and irregularity led to their decline. Most of the development programmes were kept out of their preview. Centrally sponsored schemes were initiated; parallel administrative bodies were created and government reduced funds considerably. During the period of national emergency, bureaucracy got the upper hand and these institutions lost their significance. The village panchayats were made subordinate units of government to implement its programmes.
Ashok Mehta Committee (1977) In this backdrop in 1977, the Janata government appointed a Committee with Ashok Mehta as chairman and was entrusted with the task of enquiring into the causes responsible for the poor performance of Panchayati Raj Institutions. It was also asked to suggest measures to strengthen Panchayati Raj Institutions. The committee suggested two tire system of Panchayati Raj consisting of Zilla Parishads at the district level and Mandal Panchayats at the grass root level as against three tier system suggested by the Balwantrai Mehta Committee.
The committee recommended constitutional protection to the Panchayati Raj Institutions and further decentralization of power at all levels. THE PRESENT SYSTEM OF VILLAGE PANCHAYAT The present system of village Panchayat has been introduced by the Government of India. It is according to the Directory Principles of the Indian Constitution. Accordingly, a Panchayat organized for every group of villages. This Panchayat consists of a President or Sarpanch, Vice-President or Naib-Sarpanch and some members. The Sarpanch is directly elected by the voters. The Government has assigned certain local taxes to Panchayat for its maintenance.
The Government bears the deficit. The Government does many of its welfare schemes through the village Panchayats. The Government is encouraging the Panchayats to work better. The best Panchayat is awarded a rich cash-prize to found an industry in the Panchayat area. These village Panchayat elect some Panchayat Committee. They are connected with adalat Panch and the Zilla Parishad. The Village Panchayats are elected once in every three years. DUTIES The Panchayat is to look after the village and its welfare. It works out the Government welfare schemes. It collects taxes from the villagers.
The village Panchayat has a Secretary to help the Panchayat in its work. The Secretary is a Government servant. The Panchayat manages some village institution. THREE TIER SYSTEM It envisages Panchayat at the village level, Panchayat Samitis at the block level & Zila Parishad at the district level. a. Village Panchayat •Consists of elected representatives of the people. •Membership varies from 5 – 31. •Seats reserved for SC, ST, women, etc. •Chairman is elected from among its members, known as ‘Sarpanch’. •The Panchayat is accountable for all its actions to the Gram Sabha, the general body of villagers. Gram Sabha consists of all the adults residing within the jurisdiction of the Panchayat. •It exercises general supervision over the working of the Panchayat & lays down necessary guidelines for its working. b. Block & Panchayat Samiti •The block, consisting of 20 – 60 villagers is administered through a Panchayat Samiti, consisting of indirectly elected members of village panchayat. •The chairman of Panchayat Samiti is called ‘Pradhan’. c. Zila Parishad •It is the top level of the 3 – tier structure. •Elect its chairman from amongst its members who is known as the District Collector CONCLUSION The system of Village Panchayat is a good thing.
It is an elected body. The villagers can vote out the Panchayat office-bearers if they do not work satisfactorily. But the villagers should co-operate with the Panchayat in working out all their welfare programmes. BIBLIOGRAPHY WEBSITES: www. greenwood. com www. wikipedia. com www. legalserviceindia. com www. westlaw. com BOOKS: •Law Relating to ARBITRATION and CONCILLITATION IN INDIA, by Dr. N. V. Paranjape •Law Relating to ARBITRATION and CONCILLITATION IN INDIA, Lexis Nexis •Law Relating to ARBITRATION and CONCILLITATION IN INDIA, by C. K Takwani •Law Relating to ARBITRATION and CONCILLITATION IN INDIA, by Avtar Singh

Adr: Village Panchayat in India

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A Deserted Village

A Deserted Village.
He stood there by the road after three long decades overlooking the land which he once called his evergreen village of Ago. Then, it was a haven of peace, now, only a hub for centralization and a fast moving life. A village which was once covered with a never ending evergreen canopy and vast stretches of lush green fields now stood there naked with a concrete Jungle of buildings and structures and barren fields. A tear rolled down Padres Bernadine old wrinkled scarred cheek seeing the fate of his village. He couldn’t console of something so dear that he had lost.
He started walking the winding road down the hill, towards his village, taking one agonizing step at a time. The padre could still vividly hear the shouts and cries of laughter of his childhood days that he spent with his friends playing and plucking fruits and all the adventurous exploits they enjoyed doing on this very hill and the assistant church bell chimes, reminding the village folk the time for prayer and the children as well, so as to be back home before the ” angelus” or else get ” Main’s adaptation” ( grandma’s shouting) or if worse ” matcher Dimmit” ( kneeling on salt).
The hill now deserted and the church bell not to be heard with all the hype and bizarre traffic noise. He stopped abruptly on his trail, not wanting to Journey further to the place which he dreaded the most now. Already maimed and not wanting to be more, he diverted and mapped his way onto the hillside, off the road to a special spot where he spent much of his quality time as a youth.

It overlooked the entire village, the church, the fields, a perfect panoramic view that would soothe a tense mind and soul. He sat there by himself on a rock, which was a tablet on which were the faint inscriptions of the past, the names of his peers and his, now worn out over the years.

A Deserted Village

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The Development of the Village of Meadowside

The Development of the Village of Meadowside.
The diagrams below show how an area called Meadows developed from a village into a suburb of the city of Fenton. Show – describe Called – named Area – village Developed – the development The diagrams below present how the development of the village named Meadows into a outskirt of the Fenton city. 2. The bar chart below shows the results of a survey conducted by a personnel department at a major company. The survey was carried out on two groups of workers: those aged from 18-30 and those aged 45-60, and shows factors affecting their work performance.
Show – present Results – outcomes Survey – study Conducted – implemented Major – large Workers – employees Aged form 18-30 – from 18-30 years of age Aged 45-60 – were 45-50 years old The chart below presents the outcomes of a study implemented by a large company which investigated the factors influencing their occupational function and divide the employees into two groups: those were from 18-30 years of age and 45-60 years old. The chart describes the findings of a survey conducted with an LILTS class which students were divided into two groups of males and females .
They asked them about how they do the housework. In total, men spend Just over two-and-a-half hours on household tasks whereas women spend slightly less than four hours. Women spend more than twice as much time doing kitchen tasks such as cooking and washing up as men (74 minutes for women as opposed to 30 minutes for men. Women are also more active in cleaning the house- it takes 58 minutes of their day compared to / with 13 minutes for men – and childcare, where women put in more than twice as much time as men.

On the other hand, men are more active in gardening and pet care, where they spend twice as long as women, and maintenance and DID, on which they spend 15 minutes more than women. Women account for almost all the time spent on washing and ironing clothes. This takes them 25 minutes, while / whereas men spend Just 2 minutes on this task. Overall the figures show that women spend more time on routine domestic chores than men, while / whereas men do more household maintenance, gardening and pet care.
The findings of a survey are described in percentage and by the housework task. As can De seen Trot ten can art, ten percentage AT Tamale students accounted auto 40 per cent who could not know how to wash clothes while the percentage of males were higher than 20 per cent. Almost all the students could not know how to cook such, the female students knew more doubly than the percentage of male students ( 40 per cent for females and 20 percent for males).
Beside that, a lot of female students ate fasted instead of cooking, and even more male ate fasted which were mainly. Many of male students knew how to iron their clothes,there were 60 per cent while the percentage of male students who could iron their clothes were 80 per cent,( almost three out of four do this) . The large of male students knew how how to use a vacuum cleaner, there were 80 per cent but not many female students knew how to use vacuum cleaner, the percentage were only 10 per cent.

The Development of the Village of Meadowside

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Investigate if small villages can become suburbanised over time, and what factors will affect this

Investigate if small villages can become suburbanised over time, and what factors will affect this.
Aim: In this piece of coursework, my aim is to investigate if small villages can become suburbanised over time, and what factors will affect this. For this investigation, we have chosen to look at Pirbright, a small village just outside of surrey.
Hypothesis: Is Pirbright a Suburbanised Village?
To prove the hypothesis I will need to find out:

* Where is Pirbright located?
* What is it like?
* How has it changed over the years?
* What are the reasons?
* What are the consequences of these changes for the long-term residents, the businesses and the new comers?
Methods Of Research:
In order to find answers to these questions and to prove the hypothesis I used various methods of research these will be:
Questionnaire – We made up our own questionnaires in groups of four. The reason we thought this would be a good idea was so that we could get opinions from people who have been living in Pirbright and learn more about these people. We surveyed 10 different people and we tried to ask various types of people such as pensioners, young students and adults. In order to do this we asked at different times of the day.
Walk To Investigate Services And Shops – We walked around Pirbright to investigate the different types of services they had to offer.
Walk To Investigate Land Use And Location – We also walked to and around Pirbright to investigate the uses of land and the layout of the village.
Environmental Quality Survey – This was a survey that had already been prepared for us. This helped us to decide whether or not the village was an attractive place to live. We completed the survey in different parts of the village.
Research – I will find out any other information from resources such as the Internet.
What is a Suburbanised Village?
A Suburbanised village is a village that people from nearby towns and cities have moved into, gradually changing the character of the village and making it more urbanised. A suburbanised village change its functions from being a rural agricultural village to being a suburb of a town. Suburbanised villages can sometimes also be called commuter settlements or dormitory towns, this is because the village is used by residents who live and stay there to travel to work in nearby towns or cities. Since the 1980’s people have been moving out of major cities such as London, -Reading and Guildford to get away from things such as crime, pollution and traffic congestion in cities. This is called counter urbanisation.
The characteristics of a suburbanised village are;
* Housing becomes more expensive leaving local people not being able to afford them. We would expect to find new houses built for newcomers, as well as old farmhouses that have been modernised for rich city commuters.
* The need for more houses and extra services is required to cater to the needs of the newer residents
* There are more newcomers than original residents; this can cause social problems within the village.
* Cars, noise and litter cause more pollution than before.
* The village is expanded to house more residents.
* More cars cause congestion.
* The village is forced to change to become more modern; this can also result in it becoming damaged.
* People move to rural villages that are commuting distance from their place of work, so a suburbanised village must have access to railway and motorway links.
* Newcomers will shop in cities and out of town shopping centres, so we would not expect to find medium or high order shops.
People move into villages for many different reasons, these are;
* People find towns and cities to be polluted, unattractive and very congested.
* Wealthy commuters can afford to buy bigger and more attractive houses in villages and since transport links have improved these people can still easily commute to work in the city.
* Retired people prefer to enjoy they leisure time in a peaceful and quieter environment.
* People find it to be safer in villages.
* There are newer houses being built, these sell for cheaper than they do in cities and towns.
How can location affect the sub urbanisation of a village?
The location of a village can be affected by its location. If a village were located near a large city, it would be easier to make use of the services provided in the city. This would be useful because there will be more services in the city such as hospitals, large shopping centres or a wider ranger of schools.
If a village were located far away from a city it would be harder for the village residents because they would have to do with the only services provided in the village as it would be hard to get to the city. This would be inconvenient because usually there are not many services in a village.
If a village were located near good roads that lead into the city it would be easier for people to get to the city, there probably would be a bus or some sort of public transport that would lead into the city.
If a village is isolated with poor transport links it would make access in and out of the village difficult. This not only means that if would be for village residents to get to a city but also that visitors would find the village hard to get to.
If a village is located on hilly land it would be difficult to build new buildings whereas if the village was built on flat land it would be easier to improve the village with new buildings and services.
Where is Pirbright?
The village that we are studying is called ‘Pirbright’ it is located in Surrey, southeast England (see map below). Pirbright is located near Guildford, Bracknell, Woking, Farnborough and Camberley. The roads that connect these towns to Pirbright are A322, A3214, A320 and A323. These roads are good for commuters because they can travel to and from work in different towns quite easily. If they do not have cars then there are good rail links into other close by towns. There is no train station in Pirbright however the closest one is in Basingstoke. It takes approximately one hour to travel from Pirbright into central London. From the map below I can see that Pirbright very close to London and also to other cities, where good jobs are available.
The land that Pirbright is built on is mainly countryside and there are many woodlands and open fields in and around the area. The land is mainly greenery and some areas are quite steep. The land is fertile, which makes it good for farming. There are also good communications in Pirbright.
Map 1: Southeast England
What is Pirbright like?
Pirbright is a very attractive, yet small village. The population is approximately 3644 people, this has changed drastically over the past hundred years when there was only a few hundred people living in Pirbright. It has a large green in the centre of the village (see picture 1). The grass is always short and well kept. There are no signs of vandalism or litter. Around the green there are a few phone boxes and three bus stops, one going towards Woking and the other two going towards Guildford. The bus stops are connections to Guilford, Woking and other surrounding towns.
There are a few shops around the green as well; these include a newsagent, a butcher, an antique shop and two pubs; The White Hart and The Royal Oak. There is a large pond and a children’s playground on the green as well. Pirbright formally contained a post office, which was then forced to shut down because of robbery. This shows that the crime rate in Pirbright has increased. A mobile library visits Pirbright once a week.
Picture 1: views of the green
The church in Pirbright is called St Michael’s church (see picture 2) and is around the green. There is only one school in Pirbright, Pirbright County Primary. It is only a primary school for five to eleven year olds. This means that when children are ready for high school they will have to travel to a nearby city or town. Most children travel to Guildford and Woking, as these are the closest and easiest to town to get to.
Picture 2: St Michael’s church
Many attractive houses surround the green (see picture 3). These houses are mainly built before the 1940s. The houses are bigger in comparison to the sizes of housing in London, and are also much cheaper. An average three-bedroom house would cost approximately �385,000.
The houses have extra garden space, bigger drive ways and more space to build extensions because the houses are spread out from each other.
Picture 3: Houses around the green
Below is a land-use map, to show the services available in Pirbright, and the ages of the houses.
People in Pirbright
We visited Pirbright on a typical mid-week afternoon to find out about the types of people that live there, we found out this information by asking people to fill out a questionnaire that we had designed. These are the results we came back with. I also did some extra research to find out facts and figures of Pirbright.
People’s opinions on Pirbright
WHAT LEISURE ACTIVITIES ARE THERE IN THE AREA
Tennis
Karate
Golf
Cricket
Bowles
Dance
WHAT DO YOU LIKE ABOUT PIRBRIGHT?
Quiet
Friendly People
Plenty For Children To Do
Peaceful Area
Countryside
Good Community
WHAT DO YOU DISLIKE ABOUT PIRBRIGHT?
Does Not Have a Post Office
Is Not Sociable
Services and Shops
WHAT SERVICES ARE USED IN THE AREA
WHO DO THEY CATER FOR?
Newsagent
Everyone in the village, most people use the newsagent everyday.
Pubs
Used mainly by adults, as a place to relax.
Antique Shop
Used by the wealthy residents, once only a few times a year.
Butcher
Used to provide food for all residents, used once a week.
Mobile Library
Used by anyone that wants it.
Public Transport
Used mainly by the retirees and students travelling to high school.
Public Park
Used by everyone in the village.
Village Hall
Used for meetings and clubs etc. dance clubs.
Comparing Pirbright in 1871 to Pirbright today
From the two maps I can see that Pirbright has drastically changed over the past 30 years. There was much more open space in 1871 but now a lot of that land has been used to build things such as houses and other services. The area that Pirbright occupies has expanded; more houses are being built so the village has had to expand to cater for the extra people. The land use has changed from mainly being farmland to having lots of houses and other buildings built on it. From the map of 1871 I can see that there were only a few houses whereas most of Pirbright is covered by houses now. More services have been added in Pirbright for example there used to be only one pub in 1871 but another one has been built now. Overall Pirbright has grown over the years and the open land has been used to build houses on.
Conclusion
After analysing the statistics and information about Pirbright I have come to a conclusion that all the evidence shows that Pirbright has become a suburbanised village. In 1915, we would have expected people to have jobs such as farmers, woodcutters, small village owners, ground keepers for private estates, housemaids and stable workers. The sort of people that would want to live there now are upper-class people as they do not usually have to work, retired people as they do not have to work either and people whom do not want to live in London, but still be based near London. The facts that point to the conclusion that Pirbright has become suburbanised are:
* The population has greatly increased over time and is continuing to do so. Shown by the census figures.
* The village has become larger. Many of the old houses are in the centre of the village and the newer ones have been built on the outskirts. This proves that new houses are being built for commuters and other residents wishing to move to Pirbright. This is shown in the land use map.
* Most residents are middle ages and are high-skilled professionals – this proves that they are commuters as Pirbright does not offer and high-skilled professions. This is shown in the data that I collected on the field trip.
* The home of most residents are detached or semi-detached. This proves that they are expensive and can only be afforded by wealthy commuters.
* Most village residents own their own homes or are currently buying. This shows that the average Pirbright resident can afford houses; this is because mainly commuters live in Pirbright.
* More then half of the residents own their own car. This also proves that a lot of commuters live in Pirbright, as they need a car to travel to work.
* Most residents take their car to work, not public transport.
* Most of the residents have lived in the village for 30 to 40 years.
* The village is gradually becoming more modernised. The newcomers are transforming the village.
* There are no high order shops, meaning residents have to visit a town or city for shopping centres.
* Houses are becoming more expensive. The value is increasing as more people want to live in Pirbright and wealthy people can afford them.
All these facts that I have stated link back to my theory on suburbanised villages, Pirbright has successfully gained nearly all the characteristics of a suburbanised village. Pirbright has gone from being a unknown small hamlet, to becoming a modern and attractive growing villages used mainly by commuters and retired people. I have found the main reason people move from large towns and cities into Pirbright is because it is a quiet and peaceful area. The long term residence will live closer to the village centre and the newer residence will be living on the edge as this will be where the new houses will be built.
Evaluation
I feel that this piece of coursework has greatly widened my knowledge of suburbanised villages. I did not thoroughly understand it at the beginning however after undertaking the research about the changes in Pirbright I have come to understand how and why small villages change their function to become urbanised.
I feel I have done well in this coursework as I did a lot of research and used many new ICT skills that I have leant. I could improve the coursework by getting a broader range on data, I visited Pirbright on a working day therefore I did not get enough information about residents who may have been at work that day. To improve this now I would visit Pirbright on a weekend and carry out my research then.
However overall I believe I have created a good report on how and why Pirbright has become suburbanised.

Investigate if small villages can become suburbanised over time, and what factors will affect this

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Village Volvo

Village Volvo.
1. Describe Village Volvo’s service package. The service package consists of five points: supporting facility, facilitating goods, information, explicit services and implicit services. •Supporting facility: The car repair is based in a new Butler building in a suburban location with four work bays, an office, a waiting area and a storage room. Because of the location Village Volvo considers a shuttle service two or three times a day.
The waiting room is equipped with a television se, comfortable chairs, coffee, a soft-drink vending machine, magazines and the local newspaper. •Facilitating goods: Facilitating goods are on the one hand the parts which are used to replace worn-out parts of the cars and on the other hand goods which are provided in the waiting room like coffee, soft-drinks, magazines and the local newspaper. •Information: The client and the mechanic who will be working on the vehicle discuss the problems the client has noticed and sometimes they may take a short test drive.
Another source of information is the Customer Care Vehicle Dossier (CCVD) which is a continuing file of each vehicle the garage services. The CCVD can help the mechanic to diagnose problems and provides a convenient record if a vehicle is returned for warranty service on an earlier repair. •Explicit services: On the basis of 22 years of training and experience with the local Volvo dealer, they have earned a respected reputation and they offer any repair service on Volvo cars.

For services which are not part of Village Volvo the owners developed a network of other service providers who can satisfy the customers’ needs. Care is taken throughout the repair process to keep the car clean, and the inside is vacuumed as a courtesy before pickup. After the repairs are finished, the vehicle is taken for a short test drive. Another explicit service is the availability. They have set aside specific “drop in” times (3 to 5 PM Wednesdays and 8 to 10 AM Thursdays) each week when clients may drive in for quick routine services.
Between 7 and 8 AM and 5 and 6 PM the two owner-mechanics do not repair, because they want to be available for customer contact. •Implicit services: Implicit services include good attitude of mechanic, the comforts of the waiting area, and the convenience of the services offered. Mechanics take time to discuss problems with their clients; they even take a short test drive with the finished car and inform the customer about any other steps necessary whilst reparation. Although the customer will be consulted before any work other than the agreed-on job is done.

Village Volvo

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Maltese Village Cores

Maltese Village Cores.
THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MALTESE VILLAGE CORE [pic] Name: Daniel Cossai Class: F4 Matteo Ricci Table of Contents: ? Introduction p. 3 ? A typical Maltese village core p. 4-6 ? How is the village core being protected nowadays? p. 7-8 ? An example of a Maltese village core – Attard p. 9-10 ? Conclusion p. 11 ? References p. 12 Introduction In the Maltese Islands one can find around 67 villages all around the island.
Since Malta is quite populated some villages are close to each other, like the three villages of Attard, Balzan and Lija, and one might think that they are actually one village, while others are more isolated with surrounding rural areas. Villages vary from old and modern but they all have distinct features and characteristics and they are mainly built around the village core. In this project, the various characteristics of a typical Maltese village core are discussed followed by a detailed example of the old village of Attard. A typical Maltese village core
A typical Maltese village core usually has several characteristics which can be seen in most of the older villages, which are much more common than the more modern ones. The parish church The main focal point of any old village is the parish church which is mainly of the baroque style and occupies a central position. It is a grand style and the village church contrasts strikingly with the flat roof tops of the nearby houses and other buildings. Attard Parish Church The majority of the Maltese people are Roman Catholic and the church has always played an important role in the villagers’ lives.

In olden times when villagers worked in the nearby fields they would return home when the church clock struck 6 tolls of the ‘Ave Maria’. Nowadays after mass many people gather in the church parvis to talk about daily events. This is a typical scene in any village and shows the social aspect of the Maltese people. The village core comes to life during the feast of the patron saint. During this time the streets are decorated with flags, banners, garlands, flowers, multi-coloured lights and statues on wooden pedestals. There are kiosks selling traditional food, nougat and candy floss.
Brass bands entertain the crowds, together with fireworks in the main square. The procession with the saint’s statue passes through the narrow streets of the village core. The narrow streets Another particular feature of the old part of a village is the narrow, winding streets which normally lead to the church. These are usually quite narrow as cars and buses did not exist in the time in which they were built. It is said that the streets were winding as a way of defense against enemy attacks. Most streets in the village core have alleys. A narrow street in Attard
In these streets one can usually find several niches dedicated to saints. They were a form of beautiful and artistic decoration and showed the devotion which the Maltese had towards their religion. They also served as a point of easy reference to find a particular place in times when people were highly illiterate and could not read street names. An example of a niche in |ebbu[ The main buildings The buildings in the old village core are usually farmhouses or houses of character with a central courtyard, outer staircases and rubble-walled rooms.
Many of these are being renovated by expert architects to restore their natural beauty. Since they are built after the baroque or neolithic style these buildings are quite big with large doors and windows. A particular feature is the different door knobs which one can find at every door. Another reason for such large houses was that noble people used to live in the village core. Also, most extended families used to live in one house. In the village core one can also find various shops, like the grocer, butcher, baker and vegetable vendor. The most important buildings are also found in every typical village.
These may include the local council, the police station, the parish priest’s office, the parish hall, the cemetery, the school and the band and political clubs. Another characteristic feature is the village bar where men usually meet to have tea, eat ‘pastizzi’ or ‘]ob bi-ejt’, gossip or watch a football match. Other characteristics In the village core one can usually find several decorations including statues, fountains, street lamps and benches. Local activities are normally held in the village square. These are either held by the church or local council as an occasion for villagers to meet and have some fun.
Bazaars and car washes are often held as fund raising activities. In recent years some villages are becoming more innovative and organize unique activities, such as a chocolate or strawberry fair, to attract outsiders and tourists. How is the village core being protected nowadays? As the name implies the village core is the most important part of any society. All of the important buildings can be found there and it is also the place where the majority of people meet and socialise. Therefore it goes without saying that the village core must be an attractive and safe place to attend.
Local councils have the duty of ensuring a clean, safe environment and fight against vandalism to preserve the beauty of the village. A short interview with a representative of the Attard Local Council was held regarding the protection of the village. Interview: ? The village core is an important part of the village. Does this make it a main target for vandals? Yes, unfortunately, our village core has suffered from a lot of acts of vandalism. For example, the garden of Thomas Dingli, which can be found in the village square, has been vandalised several times. What does the council do the try and protect the village core from these acts of vandalism? Recently, we have asked the local police and wardens to increase their patrols, and to keep better watch over certain places especially the gardens and street decorations. We also do our best to repair any damage done as quickly as possible. ? Is the village core protected in any other way not related to vandalism? Yes, the village core is a very important part of the village because most people often gather here.
We are doing our best to keep the village core as Bring-In Sites – Attard Village Core clean as possible. For example, we have set up Bring-In Sites in the village core, so that people will recycle more for a cleaner environment, and at the same time avoid throwing away their litter outside. The Bulky Refuse removal truck comes around the village every day so that bulky items such as fridges do not end up thrown away in one of the gardens. Unfortunately, this has happened in the past.
Street sweepers are also employed so that the environment is as clean as possible. ? What about traffic? The streets in the village core are quite narrow. Are there any special rules which help to avoid pollution and damage to streets and buildings? Yes, like you said the streets are quite narrow and this makes it hard for large trucks to pass. They could easily hit the buildings and cause damage, plus they cause congestion of traffic. Signs are put up so that heavy vehicles cannot pass through the village core unless they need to render a service to a particular street.
The village core must not be used as a by-pass. This has also reduced the amount of pollution and hence we have a cleaner environment. An example of a Maltese village core – Attard The old village core of Attard is made up of the Church Square and several streets and alleys. These are Qormi Road, |ebbu[ Road, Valletta Road, Main Street, Church Street, Small Square Street, St. Dominic’s Street, St. Mary’s Street, and Thomas Dingli Street. The village core is the oldest part of Attard. It dates back to 3,000 years B. C.
The Parish church dedicated to The Assumption was built between 1613 and 1616. It was designed by the architect Thomas Dingli. Adjacent to the church is the Parish Hall where social functions take place. Attard Parish Church The architect Thomas Dingli is still remembered in Attard, and in 1998 a new village square was built and named after him. In the square one can find a small garden used as a relaxation area. There is also a monument which mentions the names of all the residents of Attard who died during World War II. Thomas Dingli Square
The Local Council is also found in the village core. It is in the same building as the local Police Station. On its wall, there is a mail box which dates back to the time of Queen Victoria. It is the only mail box remaining in Malta from the time of Queen Victoria. Attard Police Station Attard Local Council In front of the parish church one can find the parish priest’s office, where people go to get information relating to births and marriages, or talk to the parish priest. Nearby is the Stella Levantina Band Club.
Club members and musicians meet here throughout the year either to practice the band’s music in preparation for the village feast and other occasions, or else simply to talk with each other. As the feast starts approaching, the club becomes more crowded. The parish priest’s office In St. Dominic’s Street, there is a museum about the train’s history. In olden times the train used to pass from Attard on its way to Mdina. Recently, the Council has decorated all the streets in the village core with decorative street lanterns. Conclusion The village core is a very important part of every village because it is the centre of all activity.
It is vital for the local community and something which cannot be removed or easily changed, in fact certain old buildings cannot be modernized and have to keep their characteristics. This is ruled by the MEPA. As one can see from the characteristics mentioned in this project, living in the village core can be a different experience from living on the outskirts. Some people, especially the new generation, would prefer somewhere quieter and more modern buildings. In the future, every local council in the Maltese Islands should continue working on improving the situation of their village’s core.
Most localities are already protecting the core, but there can always be more room for improvement. For example, cameras can be installed near places in the village core which suffer from vandalism frequently. References: Alfie Guillaumier (2002): Bliet u Ir]ula Maltin. Malta: Klabb Kotba Maltin Magazine: }’Attard Magazine: Malta this Month (July 2002) Magazine: Grip (Issue 4) http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Attard http://www. attard. gov. mt/default. asp http://www. malteseislands. com/malteseislands. asp Attard Local Council

Maltese Village Cores

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Village

Village by the Sea

Village by the Sea.
Anyone who knows India knows how strong the vitality of spirit is here even under the worst circumstances. Continuing in this spirit, Anita Desai narrates, “I did not hide the pain, but I also wanted to communicate this capacity for enjoyment”. And this is what gives us ‘The Village By The Sea beautifully narrated by Anita Desai. It is the exemplary story of Thul, a small village north of Bombay along the coast where for centuries and centuries, life has been punctuated by the rhythms of small-scale agriculture and fishing.
And then suddenly, in the seventies, comes the wave of “progress” in the form of an industrial plant: a large pesticide factory. The initial suspicion turns to hope for a better life in spite of the obvious danger to health because the economic aspect of existence is too central to afford to challenge such a great opportunity. The story brings into contact with the humanity of its inhabitants through the story of Lila and Hari, brother and sister, who get used to helping themselves and become the bread earners for their family comprising of a mother corroded by mysterious illness and an alcoholic father, along with two other small sisters.
In the process they become witnesses of a literary radical change that has marked all over India in recent decades. The young Hari, comes to the city of dreams- Bombay to improve his condition and is faced with a new world. He gets engaged in the restaurant through the kind-hearted Jagu, who is also a poor fellow like him. The friendly Mr. Panwallah, a very kind and wealthy man helps him in all ways especially by teaching a craft that can improve the condition of his life and his family as also is the rich DeSilva, who, for no apparent reason, offer to accompany their mother in the hospital and to pay for the medicines.

It is also one of the recurrent violence of nature, the monsoons, which make life difficult for the people especially those living in shacks crowded together in large cities. In the last pages of this novel lies with a similar (albeit attenuated) sense of helplessness: no one can stop the environmental pollution and destruction of an entire area, which will surely bring with it a general crisis of local residents. It ‘a story that points out a little’ unusual India compared to what we are accustomed to imagine.
In all this the author exercises impressive description of solidarity between the rich and the poor, which touches lives in the pure realization that life is good. It’s a way of saying that with good will and good luck “there it can be done” and you can build a better future with the running wheel of destiny continuing to improve as also worsen things. Anita Desai joins the chorus of writers in the complaint of a collective drama often passed unnoticed by the rest of the world.
The trait is light and gentle, the characters do not cry, but the voice remains etched indelibly in the reader. What remains at the bottom is a strange sensation of the ongoing quest for survival. There is sweat and toil, there is suffering and there is joy. Everyone is determined by the karma and everything is as it should be. Everything appears inserted in the ongoing wheel of life, eternal change always equals to itself.

Village by the Sea

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Kampel Village

Kampel Village.
Research mainly depends on the sample chosen for the questionnaire. Quality of sample must be representative of the entire population. Our method of research was the face-to-face interview and direct observations. Each research has some limitations which are not in the hands of the researcher to control.
Our analysis may not be comprehensive as sample population size involved few families of Kampel village. Quantitative data may not be present in this research as our focus was on quality. Data collected during the interview were entered manually by one of the group members so they may have made some mistake.
Different age-group people have a different thought and each also has different thoughts. Old people may be intellectual. In the sample data, each age-group is represented by a single member so it may not be a good generalization for entire age-group. Each interviewee did not have an excellent educational background which in turn may have affected the data collected by us.

Women of the village were very reluctant to interact so the data were collected from male members of the family. Thus, the data collected mostly represents male point of view on the questions asked while interviewing. This shows that the village had a patriarchal society.
Families interviewed by us mostly lived in outskirts of the village so their knowledge about current facilities offered by the government may not be up to date. Interviewees belonged to different strata of society. People belonging to higher strata of the society may not have answered the government scheme correctly because they have money to fulfill their requirements. Poverty-stricken people may differ in their view or even be biased because they may not be able to avail to some facilities.
Questions involving a family’s reputation may not have been answered correctly. One question may be ‘whether polygamy was practiced any of their ancestral or family member?’. The main occupation of Kampel was agriculture. Agriculture requires laboring and spending time in the fields. The hectic schedule of the villagers may have affected the data collection implicitly. People of the village are careful about reporting anything against the fame of their village.
They would not speak anything against the fame of village to an outsider. So they may not have presented a clear idea of the village. For example, the data collected by us reports fewer crimes in the village but the police station in the village did have a crowd presence. So the biases of the respondent may have affected the data.
Face-to-face interview involves questioning some irrelevant questions so that interviewee may feel familiar and comfortable. This leads to wastage of time. Group members included non-Hindi speakers so this may have become hurdles for them in asking quality questions. Therefore research may be missing data. Having some previous knowledge about the village would help the researcher to choose and communicate to the better sample population. Lack of knowledge of the village may also affect the data collected.

Kampel Village

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Global Village

Global Village.
Global Village is a term closely associated with Marshall McLuhan,[1] popularized in his books The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man (1962) and Understanding Media (1964). McLuhan describes how the globe has been contracted into a village by electric technology[2] and the instantaneous movement of information from every quarter to every point at the same time [3]. In bringing all social and political functions together in a sudden implosion, electric speed has heightened human awareness of responsibility to an intense degree [4].
Today, the term “Global Village” is mostly used as a metaphor to describe the Internet and World Wide Web. [citation needed] On the Internet, physical distance is even less of a hindrance to the real-time communicative activities of people, and therefore social spheres are greatly expanded by the openness of the web and the ease at which people can search for online communities and interact with others that share the same interests and concerns. Therefore, this technology fosters the idea of a conglomerate yet unified global community. 5] Due to the enhanced speed of communication online and the ability of people to read about, spread, and react to global news very rapidly, McLuhan says this forces us to become more involved with one another from countries around the world and be more aware of our global responsibilities. Similarly, web-connected computers enable people to link their web sites together. This new reality has implications for forming new sociological structures within the context of culture. Criticisms
There is some disagreement in the consideration of the Internet as promoting the idea of a global village. Modern theorist Glenn Willmott says McLuhan’s idea of the Global Village is a cliched phrase that does not take into account the corruption of the Internet by government and corporate censorship and control over information on the web (news and entertainment information in particular). [7] The notion of the digital divide also signifies why the idea of global village is the problem is because we have more technical things these days.

The idea of a Global Village is problematic; not all people are connected to the Internet equally (notably the economically disadvantaged) and those that lack web access are excluded from global news and participating in online communities, then modern communication technology does not truly promote a Global Village as McLuhan described it for all people. Communication media can also be used to divide people within the sphere of online communities.
For example, scholars Marshall Van Alstyne and Erik Brynjolfsson offer a contrasting view in their paper, “Electronic Communities: Global Village or Cyberbalkans? ” [8] They say that although modern communication technologies have the potential to create the unified communities reminiscent of McLuhan’s idea of the Global Village, they also threaten to balkanize or fragment communities by allowing people to easily segregate themselves into geographic and special interest groups. From Global Village to Global Theater
No chapter in Understanding Media, or later books, contains the idea that the Global Village and the electronic media create unified communities. In fact, in an interview with Gerald Stearn [9], McLuhan says that it never occurred to him that uniformity and tranquillity were the properties of the Global Village. The Global Village insures maximal disagreement on all points because it creates more discontinuity and division and diversity under the increase of the village conditions. The Global Village is far more diverse, full of fighting.
After the publication of Understanding Media, McLuhan starts to use the term Global Theater to emphasise the changeover from consumer to producer, from acquisition to involvement, from job holding to role playing, stressing that there is no more community to clothe the naked specialist [10]. Global Village (Dubai) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Global Village is located in Dubailand, the world’s largest tourism, leisure and entertainment project. Global Village is the region’s first premier cultural, entertainment and shopping destination, celebrates diverse ultures, art, theater, commerce and cuisine from around the world and welcomes more than four million guests per year. Each season, Global Village delivers a wide variety of pioneering new shows and attractions in the heart of Dubailand. Covering an area of 17. 2 million sq. ft. The new Global Village at Dubailand will have extensive facilities and features. The construction of this project was started in 2003 and is now almost complete with two or three projects that are expected to be completed by 2011. Contents | |1 Description | |2 Entertainment and Activity Zone | |3 Guinness World Record Pavilion | |4 New Location | |5 2008-2009 season | |5. Pavilions participating in the 2008-2009 season | |5. 1. 1 Asia | |5. 1. 2 Eastern Asia | |5. 1. 3 Middle Eastern Asia | |5. 1. 4 Africa |
Description The Global village has seen a great success since it has been launched in 1996 and till today it is attracting millions of visitors each year. In the beginning, the global village was located in Dubai shopping festival but now Global village has moved towards its new location in Dubailand. Where it is attracting millions of visitors each year, The new location of Global village in Dubailand is almost completed with the remaining work is in final stages.
For each of the past ten years, the rapid growth of Global Village has put tremendous strain on its facilities and on the roads infrastructure around where it has been held. The Global Village is the perfect forum for the countries of the world to showcase their heritage, culture, architecture, arts and crafts, cuisine, merchandise and unique lifestyle. Participating countries have a choice of large and small pavilions, which they can design to their own specifications.
The Global village had made its first beginning on the Creekside in 1996, where we had a few kiosk opposite to the Dubai Municipality. Then it shifted to Oud Metha area near Wafi city complex there it stayed for 5 years but finally it could not accommodate the demand from both exhibitors and visitors and then it turned in Dubai shopping festival which has remained its home for past 3 years and ultimately Global village location has shifted Dubailand.
In the year 1996 there was a first event launched by global village,then in 1997, the Global Village hosted 18 country pavilions, which have risen to 30 countries during the 2005 event, which remained open for two and a half months from 12 January to 31st March 2005 and attracted a millions of visitor that year. During this year Global village added 15 more pavilions of Australia, Austria, Cambodia, Canada, Greece, Iraq, Japan, Nepal, New Zealand, Nigeria, Poland, Qatar, Kyrgyz Republic, Switzerland and United Kingdom. followed by 2006-2007 that hosted pavilions of 50 countries and attracted a record 4. million visitors. Shopping grew by 11 per cent, specific pavilion visits by 63 per cent and comparative shopping by 52 per cent over the previous season. According to a survey the total visitor spend amount reached to Dh600 million. Entertainment and Activity Zone The entertainment events will include the World Culture Stage, showcasing premiere entertainment from around the world. Featured on the lake will be the “Beach Adrenaline” Jet-Ski Show, which will provide nightly thrills with exciting stunts from a team of internationally awarded jet-ski champions.
Additionally, a Lantern Festival (Festival of Lights) an array of specially created Chinese lanterns will beautify the entire park including the entrances and canal to create a wonderful festive ambiance throughout the entire destination. Guinness World Record Pavilion This Pavilion is an innovative concept to feature past world records and a venue to bring in world records in different categories. Where a person can try to break the record for the loudest scream, the fastest text message, or the longest coin spin and many more. New Location
The new location of entertainment complex of the Global Village is located on the Emirates Road within the sprawling Dubailand. It is close to the residential development of Arabian Ranches on Exit 37. The Global Village is connected to all emirates of the UAE via an efficient road network. In addition to housing the pavilions of different countries, the Global Village accommodates restaurants, shuttle transport services and a massive parking area. Find Global Village just 10 minutes from the Dubai International Airport and 60 minutes from Abu Dhabi. 008-2009 season This New Year has plenty to offer at Global Village. Bringing a precious opportunity to witness one of the most spectacular international entertainment and cultural events this year, Dubai’s Global Village has opened its doors on November 12, 2008 and will remain open for a total of 102 days( closes on February 21st, 2009) just after the end of the Dubai Shopping Festival. In addition it has other attractions to offer its projected 5 million visitors, such as around 40 fun fair rides, Venetian gondolas, rowing boats and a World Culture Stage
Pavilions participating in the 2008-2009 season Asia • Pakistan • India • Nepal • Afghanistan • Iran Eastern Asia • China • Philippines • Vietnam • Thailand Middle Eastern Asia • UAE • Yemen • Bahrain • Saudi Arabia • Kuwait • Lebanon • Jordan • Syria • Palestine • Egypt • Morocco • Qatar • Oman Africa • Rwanda • Senegal This tourist attraction has high targets of over 20 million foot visitors to the Village by 2011, when the three permanent phases of the project are due to be completed.
Development of an area with 80 high street outlets and a state-of-the-art amusement park will be implemented after this season’s run of Global Village. The project will be finished in 2011, and plans include a 560 room 5 star hotel alongside a 3 star hotel, along with over 1,000 residential units. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________ The Global Village
The Global Village is a concept that has come of age and is here to stay. It is an international fair festooned with a carnival like atmosphere. Various countries participate and set up their respective pavilions designed to reflect their heritage and culture, Shops are allotted to each pavilion whereby, a country displays its ethnic crafts. Dancers from around the world showcase their talent around the pavilions. Global Village India promises to be a fantastic, mind blowing shopping extravaganza with lots of entertainment thrown in for the entire family.
It is a holistic package of entertainment, fun and frolic and shopping with an international flavor. Traditional crafts and folk dances of different countries are woven around the theme of culture and heritage. An ambience, Hitherto unknown, shall be created by marrying different cultures, crafts and cuisines of various countries. Imagine the incredible spectacle of Brazilian Samba dancers, Russian ballet and Egyptian Belly dancers performing alongside Bhangra and Dandia artistes. Handicrafts from countries as diverse as Kenya and Kuwait will be on display.
Bohemian crystal from the Czech Republic to exotic Egyptian bead necklaces will please even the most die hard buyers. Specially imparted fireworks will dazzle the night sky each day of the festival. This razzmatazz will definitely enthuse millions of visitors who flock to the Global Village. About India India is one of the fastest growing economies with a growth rate pegged at 8% per annum. It is a dream of every single exhibitor to reap the benefits of this growing economy. Delhi the capital city with a huge population of 13. 5 million is a bastion of high spending power.
Global Village will bring this kind of citizenry closer to realizing their dreams. Global Village India offers reasonable priced, limited liability opportunity to handicraft manufacturers, artisans and dealers to visit India, get a feel of opportunities on offer, interact with buyers and sell their wares. A festival of such an international flavor will be incomplete without cuisines from the world over. Italian, Chinese and Arabian delicacies along eith Indian gourmet delights will be irresistible. A carnival like atmosphere shall prevail .
Floats depicting cultures and traditions from different countries will go around the village all the time. An International standard Giant Wheel and other exciting rides will be specially imported from Europe to ensure that kids and teenagers have the time of their lives. What with the assortment of handicrafts and allied products available, the Global Village will be preferred destination for Delhi cities and its neighbours. This is the inaugural year of the Global Village. We shall strive to innovate ,adapt and incorporate all the new success in the years to come.

Global Village

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Total price (USD) $: 10.99

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Village

Service Package of Village Volvo

Service Package of Village Volvo.
The Village Volvo service package is a quality repair service for out-of-warranty Volvos at a reasonable price and its operation is designed to be of a custom car care service. Specific times weekly are specifically set for drivers to who wants to have routine quick check-up services such as tune-ups and oil changes while clients are encouraged to have scheduled appointments for diagnosis and repair of specific problems.
Mechanic will discuss problems that they have noticed in the clients’ car and occasionally take a short test drive with clients for better understanding of the area of concern. Village Volvo service package maintains a continuing file on each vehicles it services which provides a convenient record for any vehicle that is returned on warranty after service which also in a way reminds clients of the next scheduled appointment. Owners will be consulted before any work other than the agreed-job is done.
Waiting rooms are also available with the comfort of a home, equipped with a television set, comfortable chairs, coffee, a soft-drinks vending machine, magazines and local newspapers for clients who come in during the ‘drop-in’ times. Repairs that have been done and other problems that might need attention are then discussed with the clients, whereby these notes are brought to attention of the clients during pickup times. Besides that, parts that have been replaced are set aside for the inspection of the clients. Apart from the usual car services, cleanliness of the vehicle is also ensured before pickup.

Service Package of Village Volvo

Calculate the Price

Approximately 250 words

Total price (USD) $: 10.99