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Tuberculosis

?Tuberculosis: The Trials for the Development

?Tuberculosis: The Trials for the Development.
TAB infection may remain latent and not cause any symptoms, or become active. The occurrence of TAB can be increased due to epidemic diseases such as AIDS, that makes patients more vulnerable to TAB infection, this is mostly seen in sub-Sahara Africa (Mingling et al. 2011). Despite the seriousness of the Tuberculosis disease it is possible to make a full recovery from some types of TAB with the appropriate treatment. From the last 10 years a massive increase in developing new potential tuberculosis vaccines has been seen.
Most information about new vaccines and how they can reduce disease progression has been provided from some animal models, such as the mouse and Guiana pig, those two models have also given the information on the pathology of the disease (Rome et al. , 2005). However, not many things are given about the immunological level, specifically the nature of the T-cell response, which is necessary to confer long-lived resistance (Rome et al. , 2005) Robert Koch a German scientist was the developer of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was the one who discovered the first vaccine against tuberculosis (TAB) in 1882 (Daniel, 2005).
However the death of 123 selected cases made the people to believe that the new cure was a catastrophe (Daniel, 2005). Later on it was identified that the substance, which was used as vaccine therapy and created hype, was tuberculin (Daniel, 2005). Nowadays it is well known that TAB, is a very complicated disease. Furthermore, despite the best efforts of researchers those five decades using effective drug programs the perfect vaccine against TAB is not yet to be found (Taiga et al. , 2011).

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis as mentioned above is a composed by different organisms, which can cause human disease, it consists, Mycobacterium Trumann, Mycobacterium Doves, Mycobacterium Malcolm, Ana Mycobacterium cantata (Taiga et al. , 2011). Because of all the human tuberculosis deaths caused by Mycobacterium Bois in Europe the laboratory strain of Mycobacterium Bois led to the development of the BCC vaccine (Lawn and Zamia 2011). Moreover, BCC is the current tuberculosis vaccine, and it has shown that it has a steady protection against the childhood form of TAB particularly in meningitis.
The problem is that, the immunological memory that BCC makes has limited life and its effectiveness against an adult or an elder is significantly debatable (Lawn and Zamia 2011). Even though it has been in use for more than 85 years it is still unknown the reason that BCC works in some populations and in others it fails (Lawn and Zamia 2011). Main Body It is very challenging and difficult to develop a new vaccine against Mycobacterium Berlusconi because it has some special features (Connell, D. W et al. 2011) From years of studying this disease it has been observed that the amount of people who are infected with M. Tuberculosis and develop the disease is minor (approximately 10%), and this shows that most people are resistance to the attack of the TAB disease (Connell, D. W et al. , 2011) Nonetheless, most likely, the pathogen will not completely disappear even if the immune system worked with effective results to the primary infection. Thus, if in any case the immune system becomes weak the latent infection will probably be reactivated into active disease (Taiga et al. 2011).
The possible symptoms of tuberculosis are presented in Figure 1 . Figure 1 . Symptoms of Tuberculosis. The grey lines show the specific diseases and the colored lines represent overlapping. The fugue was copied and pasted from midis. Com. The Bacillus Cellmate-Gu©ring (BCC) is a worldwide used vaccine that was first introduced in 1921 and is the only vaccination available to affects against the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (Mingling et al. , 2011). The BCC vaccination is considered only when a baby is believed that is going to have an increased risk of being in contact with TAB.
This is more likely to happen to babies born in areas such as the inner city of London where the rates of tuberculosis are higher than anywhere else in the country (Mingling et al. , 2011). Other reasons that are considered for vaccination with BCC are for older children who arrive from countries with high levels of the TAB disease, or to children who came into close contact with a person that carries the respiratory TAB (Greenroom et al. , 2011) Moreover, BCC vaccination will not work inclemently Tort a person over ten age AT 35 Ana It Is rarely recommended to anyone over the age of 16.
However, it is sometimes considered for adults that may eave a risk of coming close to someone who is infected with TAB. The BCC vaccine works successfully (70-80%) in the most severe forms of TAB, like in tuberculosis meningitis in children (Greenroom et al. , 2012) The second most effective approach to eliminate tuberculosis that has been undergoing human trials over a decade, which showed to be safe and encouraging level of immune response in adults, was thought to be the recombinant Modified Vaccine virus Ankara (MBA). (Path et al. , 2012).
This vaccine expresses antigen AAA from MAT (MAFIA) and seemed to be well tolerated and enhanced to the frequency f antigen-specific FIN-y by generating T cells in adults, children and infants that have already been vaccinated with BCC (Scribal et al. , 2011), (Sander et al. , 2010),. It was also presented that from MAFIA the antigen specific T cells that were induced were highly fluctuation, and could express FIN-y, TNT-a, IL-2, MIPS-џ and IL-17 (De Cannas et al. , 2010) However, a recent attempt to find a new vaccine against tuberculosis has ended in failure and lead to a huge step backwards in the progression of the disease.
As the BBC article describes the MAFIA vaccine failed to protect infants that had already been injected with BCC. The trial was performed in South Africa and tested 2,794 healthy children in the age of 4-6 months old, whereas half of them had been injected with MAFIA and the rest with a placebo. As it was reported in the Lancet medical Journal the researchers found 32 cases with TAB in those who had been vaccinated and 39 cases were found in the group with the placebo. Statistically the results were non-significant since only 17% effectiveness it was presented which is relatively low.

?Tuberculosis: The Trials for the Development

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Categories
Tuberculosis

Concept Map Tuberculosis

Concept Map Tuberculosis.
Schiffman, George. (07, 2011). Tuberculosis. Retrieved from http://www. medicinenet. com/tuberculosis/page4. htm Tuberculosis. (01, 2013). Retrieved from http://www. mayoclinic. com/health/tuberculosis/DS00372/DSECTION=treatments-and-drugs Vyas, Jatin M. (11, 2012). Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Retrieved from http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001141/ Schiffman, George. (07, 2011).
Tuberculosis. Retrieved from http://www. medicinenet. com/tuberculosis/page4. htm Tuberculosis. (01, 2013). Retrieved from http://www. mayoclinic. com/health/tuberculosis/DS00372/DSECTION=treatments-and-drugs Vyas, Jatin M. (11, 2012). Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Retrieved from http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001141/ IMPLEMENTATION -Assess respiratory rate every 10-15 minutes Continuously note chest movement and use of accessory muscles during respiration -Auscultate breath sounds and note any areas with adventitious sounds, especially wet crackles -Document any respiratory secretions such as sputum: amount, character, and consistency -Keep patient in high Fowler’s position to allow optimum breathing -Check for obstructions or accumulation of sputum -Ask patient level of discomfort/pain on a scale of 1-10 -Record medication administrations and if therapeutic effects are occurring -Describe procedures and treatment expectations Encourage patient to follow drug regimens IMPLEMENTATION -Assess respiratory rate every 10-15 minutes -Continuously note chest movement and use of accessory muscles during respiration -Auscultate breath sounds and note any areas with adventitious sounds, especially wet crackles -Document any respiratory secretions such as sputum: amount, character, and consistency -Keep patient in high Fowler’s position to allow optimum breathing -Check for obstructions or accumulation of sputum -Ask patient level of discomfort/pain on a scale of 1-10 Record medication administrations and if therapeutic effects are occurring -Describe procedures and treatment expectations -Encourage patient to follow drug regimens PLANNING -Goals include treating any abnormal results such as dyspnea, abnormal breath sounds, irritability, and reducing or eliminating sputum levels -Give patient therapeutic effects regarding abnormalities found with little or no side effects -Help patient in making lifestyle changes that include making a safer work and home environment and getting the people who have the most contact with the patient treatment PLANNING Goals include treating any abnormal results such as dyspnea, abnormal breath sounds, irritability, and reducing or eliminating sputum levels -Give patient therapeutic effects regarding abnormalities found with little or no side effects -Help patient in making lifestyle changes that include making a safer work and home environment and getting the people who have the most contact with the patient treatment TUBERCULOSIS TUBERCULOSIS DIAGNOSIS Ineffective airway clearance related to poor cough effort as evidenced by abnormal breath sounds and dyspnea -Risk for infection related to settled secretions as evidenced by wet adventitious lung sounds such as crackles, and excessive sputum -Deficient knowledge related to condition, treatment plan, self-care and discharge needs as evidenced by questions/requests for information, statements about the problem, and the development of preventable complications DIAGNOSIS -Ineffective airway clearance related to poor cough effort as evidenced by abnormal breath sounds and dyspnea -Risk for infection related to settled ecretions as evidenced by wet adventitious lung sounds such as crackles, and excessive sputum -Deficient knowledge related to condition, treatment plan, self-care and discharge needs as evidenced by questions/requests for information, statements about the problem, and the development of preventable complications ASSESSMENT -Check for vitals; check for abnormal breath sounds, especially for wet crackles on inspiration -Assess for dyspnea, if using accessory muscles for respirations, or if the pt has elevated shoulders -Assess level, color, and consistency of any sputum Check for restlessness, irritability, or anxiousness -Report history of the patient, any existing illnesses such as pneumonia, cancer, family hx, workplace, home life, and lifestyle ASSESSMENT -Check for vitals; check for abnormal breath sounds, especially for wet crackles on inspiration -Assess for dyspnea, if using accessory muscles for respirations, or if the pt has elevated shoulders -Assess level, color, and consistency of any sputum -Check for restlessness, irritability, or anxiousness Report history of the patient, any existing illnesses such as pneumonia, cancer, family hx, workplace, home life, and lifestyle NURSING PROCESS NURSING PROCESS EVALUATION -Assess if medication and procedures are performing therapeutic effects -Check for levels of discomfort/pain on a scale of 1-10, make sure vitals and lab results are within normal ranges -Check if patient’s secretion amount diminished or stopped -Assess if patient’s restlessness and irritability was alleviated -Check if patient is continuously taking prescribed medications to prevent spread of disease EVALUATION Assess if medication and procedures are performing therapeutic effects -Check for levels of discomfort/pain on a scale of 1-10, make sure vitals and lab results are within normal ranges -Check if patient’s secretion amount diminished or stopped -Assess if patient’s restlessness and irritability was alleviated -Check if patient is continuously taking prescribed medications to prevent spread of disease ETIOLOGY -Caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. uberculosis) by breathing in air droplets from a cough or sneeze of an infected person, resulting in primary TB -Risk factors include those who life with others who have active TB, poor or homeless people, elderly, infants, nursing home residents, prison inmates, alcoholics, IV drug users, those with malnutrition, working in health care, workers in refugee camps -Factors that elevate chances include diabetes, kidney disease, cancer, chemotherapy, and certain types of drugs ETIOLOGY Caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) by breathing in air droplets from a cough or sneeze of an infected person, resulting in primary TB -Risk factors include those who life with others who have active TB, poor or homeless people, elderly, infants, nursing home residents, prison inmates, alcoholics, IV drug users, those with malnutrition, working in health care, workers in refugee camps -Factors that elevate chances include diabetes, kidney disease, cancer, chemotherapy, and certain types of drugs
PATHOGENESIS -Droplets of fluid containing tubercle bacilli are released into the air and are taken into the nasal passages and lungs of a susceptible person nearby -Once inhaled, tubercle bacilli reach alveoli where macrophages take them up; bacilli then multiply and spread through lymph vessels into the lymph nodes and finally to distant organs; can remain ‘alive’ or become ‘inactive’ -Immune system responds which causes damage to the tissues; cells attack the bacilli, thus killing the infection

PATHOGENESIS -Droplets of fluid containing tubercle bacilli are released into the air and are taken into the nasal passages and lungs of a susceptible person nearby -Once inhaled, tubercle bacilli reach alveoli where macrophages take them up; bacilli then multiply and spread through lymph vessels into the lymph nodes and finally to distant organs; can remain ‘alive’ or become ‘inactive’ -Immune system responds which causes damage to the tissues; cells attack the bacilli, thus killing the infection
SIGNS/SYMPTOMS -Common symptoms include unintentional weight loss, fatigue, fever, night sweats, chills, loss of appetite -Cough persisting three weeks or more, coughing up blood or sputum, or chest pain when breathing or coughing -If spread, TB of the spine leads to back pain and TB of the kidneys cause blood in the urine SIGNS/SYMPTOMS Common symptoms include unintentional weight loss, fatigue, fever, night sweats, chills, loss of appetite -Cough persisting three weeks or more, coughing up blood or sputum, or chest pain when breathing or coughing -If spread, TB of the spine leads to back pain and TB of the kidneys cause blood in the urine COMPLICATIONS -Medicines for TB can cause side effects such as liver problems, changes in vision, orange/brown colored tears or urine, rash -TB of the bones: joint destruction -TB of the brain: meningitis; swelling TB of liver or kidneys: impaired filtering of waste -TB of the heart: inflammation; fluid collections; impaired pumping abilities; cardiac tamponade COMPLICATIONS -Medicines for TB can cause side effects such as liver problems, changes in vision, orange/brown colored tears or urine, rash -TB of the bones: joint destruction -TB of the brain: meningitis; swelling -TB of liver or kidneys: impaired filtering of waste -TB of the heart: inflammation; fluid collections; impaired pumping abilities; cardiac tamponade TREATMENT/MANAGEMENT Patient recommended to stay in isolation and on bed rest until no longer contagious -Inactive TB: antibiotic called isoniazid (INH) is prescribed for six to twelve months; not prescribed to pregnant women; can cause liver damage and peripheral neuropathy -Active TB: INH is also prescribed along with rifampin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide; may also receive streptomycin; may be taken from months to years -Drug resistant TB: everything with active TB with several other drugs; longer treatment; may require surgery to remove damaged lung tissue TREATMENT/MANAGEMENT Patient recommended to stay in isolation and on bed rest until no longer contagious -Inactive TB: antibiotic called isoniazid (INH) is prescribed for six to twelve months; not prescribed to pregnant women; can cause liver damage and peripheral neuropathy -Active TB: INH is also prescribed along with rifampin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide; may also receive streptomycin; may be taken from months to years -Drug resistant TB: everything with active TB with several other drugs; longer treatment; may require surgery to remove damaged lung tissue

Concept Map Tuberculosis

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Total price (USD) $: 10.99