ERG Theory & Multicultural Workplace

ERG Theory is an improvised version of Abraham Maslow’s (1908-1970)[1] famous model of Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow’s, 2008), created by Clayton Alderfer after prolonged research, which adds more flexibility in determining the needs of an individual, which it does by reorienting the elements from Maslow’s model into three segments like
Existence (E) – It involves physiological and safety needs.
Relatedness (R) – It contains social and external esteem needs.

Growth (G) – Self-actualization and internal esteem needs. (ERG, 2007).
Clayton’s model allows to set the order of needs according to the existing need structure of an employee, besides providing the scope to pursue different needs simultaneously. Accordingly, company can motivate any individual on any of the E, R or G needs – while looking after an individual’s E need (say, where an employee needs a safety measure), the company can look after the same individual’s R needs (like awarding her for her achievement) and G needs (inducting the individual in the think tank of the department).
Founded by Martin Fishbein in the 1970-s, this theory suggests that people “mould themselves to the world in accordance with their expectations/beliefs and evaluations”. This theory is very useful to explain social behaviors, achievement motivation and work motivation. (Expectancy, 2004)
This theory suggests that behavior or behavioral intentions or attitudes evolve out of expectancy and evaluation, where the expectancy is an idea about a situation or object and evaluation is one’s estimation about the impact of that idea/situation/object on any plane.
If the entire team of a workplace can adopt a vision in the light of the Expectancy Value Theory, where they would ‘expect’ that they are devoted to the collective goal. Once armed with this vision, the following areas of communication would definitely take a new turn as the outcome of reorientation of one’s approach to the world.
Intrapersonal communication: Here the evaluation system would work on a positive plane, like “I’m attached to an important organ of the society and thus I have more responsibility to meet its expectations”
Communication with clients: There will be more patience and interest in communication with the clients;
Team Communication: There would be less conflict of ego or other minor areas of personal interests, as the greater cause will influence all members to align their approach towards the perceived goal (achieving high standards of service)
The primary requirement of any training in this regard is to ensure that the managers can apply cultural competency. The needs in various sectors cannot be the same, and thus the training modules should be in accordance with the need of the workplace where it would be applied.

Example 1: Kwong’s Model. Training towards developing multicultural acumen, can always be customized from the general models as cited by the researcher Miu Ha Kwong, which has three parts like below:
A fundamental framework: This module should work towards developing the cultural sensitivity and awareness among the subjects. This part should emphasis on attitudinal and cultural development of the subjects, where personal development would include bicultural experiences and subjects’ proximity to other cultures, besides other developmental processes. This part should be guided by communication theories.
Essential Components: The second part should contain the essential components of culturally competent practice, besides delving deep into the elements required for such practice.
Assessment and Reorientation: The third part would deal with evaluation to increase the efficacy of application under the framework set by the company. It is here the subjects would review their ability and would try to refine it further.

Example 2: Grigg’s Model. Thomas S. Griggs from Visions Inc., an inveterate trainer, proposes a two-day training module by. Griggs takes the issue from the perspective of establishing learning environment and multicultural language and skills, where he briefs the training program with five points as mentioned below:
An adult learning model: This would incorporate cognitive, affective and behavioral aspects;
Introducing a common conceptual framework and language: This would be done to understand the complexities of work under situations that contain race/color, gender, class, age, religion, sexual orientation, ability, etc.
Providing opportunity to the participants to explore their own cultural identity, assumptions etc: This would facilitate all to highlight their own cultures before others.
Providing Guidelines for creating good atmosphere: This would enhance common understanding.
Applications Work sessions: This would meet specific objectives of the Diversity Committee and Senior Leadership (Griggs, 2005).

The quality of a modern day manager is measured by his/her ability to successfully guide, govern, handle and exploit a multicultural ambience or workplace to the maximum benefit for his/her company. For that matter, a methodical training is essential, where the managers should learn theories of communication and human behavior and should take lessons from case studies, besides applying the methods of unifying the employees or potential business prospects with the processes of his/her cherished goal or outcome. Therefore, imparting such training programs for their managers would be the right way for the companies who want attain success and maintain competitive advantage amid all situations.

References
ERG Theory (2007) Internet Center for Management and Business Administration,        Inc. [online] available from http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/erg/  [accessed 19 June 2008] Expectancy Value Theory (2008) [online] available from     http://www.tcw.utwente.nl/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20clusters/Public%20Rela      tions%2C%20Advertising%2C%20Marketing%20and%20Consumer%20Behavio            r/Expectancy_Value_Theory.doc/ [accessed 20 June 2008]

Toiiiiiiiiiiiwo social psychological theories of aggression

Bandura’s Social Learning Theory suggests that acts of aggression are learnt through the observation of role models. His original “Bobo Doll” study showed that when exposed to aggressive behavior small children copied this behavior, not just by being physically aggressive but even copying the verbally aggressive behavior. However this study focuses on children who are supposed to learn in this manner, this doesn’t demonstrate that this would also be true in older children or adults who already have a set moral compass that would interfere with copying aggressive behaviors.
However Bandura’s later study showed that if children saw someone get punished for aggressive behavior they were less likely to be aggressive themselves when they were allowed to play with the bobo doll but if they saw someone get rewarded for this aggressive behavior then they were much more likely to act aggressively themselves, this shows that vicarious reinforcement is important to the learning of aggression through the social learning theory, as receiving direct positive reinforcement leads to people having high self efficacy making them very likely to repeat the aggressive behaviour that they were rewarded for.
In terms of aggression this reward could come in many forms such as acceptance from a violent gang they want to be a part of or just attention from a parent or teacher. Moreover, Walter and Thomas’ study in 1963 further supported this theory as the results of the study demonstrated that aggressive behavior was a result of imitation of role models. However, the social learning theory does not explain what triggers aggression. Additionally, the study emphasizes nurture and learning through observation – ignoring nature and biological explanations.

On the other hand, Zimbardo’s theory of Deindividuation suggests that aggressive behavior occurs in groups as a person’s normal constraints become weakened when they are part of a group as they take of the identity of the crowd as they feel that when part of a group their own actions are no longer bad making aggressive behaviour easier as they do not seem it as themselves carrying out the aggressive behaviour but the group as a whole as they become faceless, just part of the group not an individual.
Commonly members of violent or aggressive groups have a reduced private self awareness as they have some kind of tie to the rest of the group that makes them become a faceless member of the crowd, examples of this are common items of clothing in gangs and at football matches as supporters wear the same clothing and are all sat together. Zimbardo formed this theory around his Stanford Prison experiment where when the guards were giving a common uniform they became much more aggressive in their behaviour towards the prisoners as they became “guards” so felt that as a guard behaviour they would normally not see as acceptable suddenly became the appropriate response to their own frustrations.
However in contrast with this the prisoners were all deindividuated but apart from one small failed act of rebellion they did not become aggressive, in fact they became more obedient and passive, this suggests the Deindividuation of an individual as part of a group only leads to aggressive behaviour if aggression is what is expected of the group such as violence being the expected behaviour from teenage gangs.
Like Bandura’s Social Learning Theory, this doesn’t explain what causes aggression but this does suggest that in some causes individuals themselves do not feel any kind of cue for the aggression they demonstrate but act in that way because the rest of the group does explaining how large scale acts of aggression can commonly occur as it could only require a small number of people to actually have a cue such as frustration to trigger the aggressive behaviour.

Ptlls Level 3 Theory Assessment 1

UNIT 1 PTLLS LEVEL 3 THEORY ASSESSMENT (1) / JOHN A F BRADY @ MERCIA 2011 Describe what your role, responsibilities and boundaries would be as a teacher in terms of the teaching / training cycle. The role of the teacher is to facilitate the learning aims of the taught group on behalf of them and their service provider. Examples of overall learning aims include the passing of knowledge-based examinations, the demonstration of a skill or competency and, in some cases, a combination of all such elements.
The teacher’s responsibilities are a set of specific actions grouped to achieve desired learning outcomes. These responsibilities cover two distinct areas, namely the pastoral and the pedagogic. The former includes student health & safety and behaviour management, the latter teaching methods and student engagement. In this context, the term ‘boundaries’ describes the social contract between the service provider, teacher and learner group. Boundaries are concerned, for example, with service limits and the establishment and policing of codes of conduct.
The teaching/training cycle is comprised of five activities, namely:- (i) the identification of needs, (ii) lesson planning and design, (iii) teaching the lesson and the facilitation of learning, (iv) assessing learner achievements, and (v) evaluating the contribution made of the teaching methods used. Identifying needs combines data collected before student induction, e. g. returned application forms and observations made at induction, e. g. during ice-breaker activity. My specialism of teaching adults English as a foreign language needs to ascertain a student’s ability to listen, read, talk and write.

My role here includes assessing whether a student’s subject ability is appropriate or would be better addressed in a ‘special needs’ context. My understanding of the material and institutional teaching environments will also inform how best to cater for students with mobility issues/learning difficulties. Design and planning concerns the pedagogic and the pastoral. For the former, a series of lesson plans need to be devised to enable students to learn the syllabus content required by the awarding authority.
Pastoral activities include social and institutional induction, e. g. ice-breakers, site-tours, H&S and other professional/legal requirements. A lesson is taught by the teacher and learnt by the student. A teaching responsibility is to gain insight into student ways of learning and to adjustdelivery to further facilitate learning. Consideration of inclusivity, diversity, behaviour and student inter-action will also improve teaching/learning performance. Assessing adults learning English as a foreign language is a challenge.
The teacher needs to use proceedures as laid down but remain flexible enough to guage nuances between those whose vocal skills may disguise poor written skills vice versa. Assessment must be systematic, collated and intelligible to others. Evaluation likewise should be systematic and collated with clearly defined outcomes. Student feedback, CPD and self assessment are critical for the improvement of teaching performance and learning outcomes. (Recommended 300 – 500, actual 429 words,excluding titles)

Ethical Theories Persuasive Essay

Ethical Theories ETH/316 April 9, 2013 Ethical Theories Introduction Ethics is system of moral principles, the way individuals conduct themselves with respect to the right and wrong of their actions and to the good and bad of any motives and ends of such actions. Ethics are instilled in individuals since they were children by parents, teachers, and loved ones. This paper will show the similarities and differences between virtue theory, utilitarianism, and deontological ethics. Similarities and Differences Understanding the similarities between virtue theory, utilitarianism, and deontological ethics, they first must be defined.
Boylan (2009) stated, “Virtue ethics is also sometimes called agent based or character ethics. It takes the viewpoint that in living your life you should try to cultivate excellence in all that you do and all that others do” (p. 133). Individuals who judge others by his or her character rather than his or her actions, exemplifies the virtue theory of ethics. Utilitarianism is defined as a theory that an action is morally right when that action is for the greater good of a group rather than just an individual (Boylan, 2009).
Utilitarianism theory is based upon creating the greatest good for a number of people. An individual can be overlooked in order to achieve a greater goal for all individuals involved. Deontology ethics is a moral theory that suggests that an individual’s duty to do a certain task because the action, itself, is right, and not through any other sorts of calculations—such as the consequences of the action (Boylan, 2009). Basically the theory suggests that individuals have a moral obligation to follow certain rules that are deemed unbreakable.

Virtue theory determines the good and bad traits of a person over a long period of time. Utilitarianism theory also finds the good in a person – provides guidance for behavior and enables people to know what differentiates as a good moral choice. Deontology recommends an action based upon principle. Utilitarianism is the end justifies the mean while deontology is the end does not justify the means. Virtue theory is a broad term that relates to the individuals character and virtue in morals rather than doing their duty or acting to bring about good choices. Personal Experience
From the time we are able to walk and talk we are given rules from our parents. Those rules are not given as punishment, but to guide us in life to know what is right from wrong. We are taught morals on how to act, how to treat others, not to lie or be disrespectful. We are taught virtues that were instilled in our parents from their parents and passed on from generation to generation in hopes that we learn from their past mistakes. They place values in us that we will grow up to do the right things in life and teach others and to lead by example. Conclusion
Ethics is something everyone learns from a young age and individuals either grow with it or they choose to follow another path in life that may not be as good as it should have been. Ethics is learned it is not something that is already in place. Some people go above and beyond, why others falter. People all have a choice in life as the path they travel down. Every individual should instill some form of ethics within them so the world could be a better place to live in. Reference Boylan, M. (2009). Basic Ethics: Basic ethics in action (2nd ed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Theories of Aging

For this part of the assignment I am going to be describing two theories of ageing. Firstly I will be describing the Disengagement theory and then the Activity theory. I will then be comparing the similarities and differences between the two, and also writing up two case studies of older people and explain the development that occurs in older life, relating back to the theories I will have discussed. Firstly the theory of Social Disengagement, disengagement means a person’s withdrawal from involvement with anything.
The theory was first put forward by two authors Cumming and Henry in 1961 who believed that it was natural for the elderly to withdraw from social involvement with others, due to having restricted opportunities to interact with other people. There are many issues that limit social interaction which results in disengagement. Some of these may be things like retirement, ill health, mobility, travel or technology.
The theory of disengagement was widely accepted as other theorists such as Bromley (1974) agreed with the theory arguing that “although some individuals fight the process all the way, disengagement of some sort is bound to come, simply because old people have neither the physical not the mental resources they had when they were young. ” Secondly the Activity theory, this theory argues that older people need to stay mentally and socially active to limit the risks of disengagement.

Being active in older life can help people to overcome many of the problems and issues they will have to endure throughout the older lifestage. Being active can include taking part in sports and activities, joining clubs and groups to go on trips, outings, holidays and even simple things like continuing with hobbies such as gardening or walking the dog. Being active is very important for many reasons when a person is in the later years of life. It is believed that it’s not enough to simple provide facilities for older people they must be educated to make use of them and encouraged to abandon fixed habits.
The main argument for the activity theory is that disengagement can ultimately result in loss of physical and mental skills due to lack of practice. My first case study is of a man named Howard Lane, he died aged 75 years old and had been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s 9 years earlier. Over the 9 years his condition seriously deteriorated. Howard had had a very active life with various jobs such as a Clerk of Works at Par Docks, a mental nurse and other physically demanding roles. He had been married for 52 years and had two grown up children, a daughter Jennie who had two children and a son Richard who had four children.
Howard was a very involved grandparent throughout the whole of his grandchildren’s lives until his condition deteriorated so badly he couldn’t even tell who they were anymore. As Howard reached retirement he remained a very engaged active person despite the label he was now given as being ‘old. ’ He very much fitted the role within the activity theory, regularly exercising, seeing his family, keeping in contact with them in a number of ways. He and his wife had a particular passion for ballroom dancing… they had won competitions!
He had a very healthy appetite, and had never smoked or drank at all throughout his life. Although Howard had always been healthy and had no previous health issues and had stayed active throughout his final lifestage he still developed the disease Alzheimer’s. As the illness progressed Howard gradually changed as a person. He became forgetful, got confused easily, and as he began to seriously deteriorate he became violent at times, physically incapable of doing things for himself, he would forget things that had happened and who people were.
Further into his illness Howard became more and more disengaged. His whole life had changed due to the process of ageing along with the unfortunate illness he had. Not only had the disengagement affected Howard as a person it was also affecting a lot around him. Firstly the most obvious effect it was having was on Howard’s family. They began to be constantly worry about him therefore would be constantly in contact asking him if he was ok. It also put a large amount of stress on his wife Vera, and because she was in her older age as well she found it very hard to deal with the stress she was under.
By the time Howard was the age of 71 Vera had no other option but to put Howard in a nursing home so he could receive the care that he needed. Due to Howard’s illness Vera had now become disengaged, she had spent all of her time looking after her husband, worrying about him and visiting him constantly. Another major factor that affected Vera’s stress was the fees she had to pay at the nursing home. She was very worried about the scale of the costs and was worried about having to sell her home.
She had gradually lost contact with her friends and had no time for any personal hobbies or even time to properly look after herself and because of this Vera had become stressed and run down and was finding caring for Howard very hard to cope with. Her biggest worry and fear constantly being how she would cope with it if Howard died. Bereavement is usually hard to cope with for the elderly especially disengaged people, they are likely to feel more isolated and alone and this is what Vera was frightened of. In actual fact Vera died suddenly in December 2003, shortly followed by Howard June 2004.
By this time Howard had no understanding of anyone around him as he had little response to anything, therefore he did not grieve for his wife as he didn’t even understand that she was gone. Their family described it as a blessing because in this way Vera never had to cope with the bereavement of losing her partner and neither did he. Overall retirement did have a positive effect on Vera and Howard to begin with. They had more freedom to be active, pursue their hobbies, spend time together, and with their loved ones.
However old age brought ill health which caused Vera and Howard to disengage and become isolated from others which continued to bring ill health and stress. My second case study is about a woman named Ruth Cohen. Ruth Cohen is an 84 year old woman, she had previously been a teacher for nearly 40 years. Ruth has one son of 60 who has two daughters Lisa and Issie, Lisa has a son of 17. Ruth is a very old woman and has a number of health problems including arthritis, high blood pressure, and sight and hearing problems.
However Ruth has lead a very healthy and active retirement. Since Ruth has retired she has done voluntary work for a number of charities and her local church as she is a very religious woman. Even in her late 70’s Ruth attends church every Sunday and helped to run the local Sunday school. She regularly met her friends from church to go out for tea. She tries to visit her children and grandchild as much as she can however due to her eyesight she cannot drive anymore so her only way of seeing them is to get the bus.
In her old age, Ruth despite still being so active has become quite frail and is frightened easily therefore tries to avoid going to places with people she doesn’t know, she tends to stay in her own village, go to the same shops and see the same people every day. Ruth was married for 60 years to James, unfortunately 14 years ago James passed away due to a heart attack. Ruth obviously had a hard time with the loss of her husband of 60 years however because of the lifestyle Ruth led she managed to carry on with her life and avoided becoming disengaged and easily accepted the support and help of ther whereas a lot of people cannot do so so easily. Because of Ruth’s personality and the way she was her family didn’t feel like they had to constantly worry about her and they knew she would be getting on fine without their constant care. However Ruth is getting rather old now so they do visit more frequently and her granddaughter Issie bought her a dog to keep her company and occupied. As Ruth entered her 80’s the physical ageing process could no longer be avoided and began to take over her life.
She became very weak and could only walk with a Zimmer frame, she became increasingly isolated in her home due to mobility issues and although people did visit she began to feel lonely and depressed. This case study is perfect evidence of the disengagement theory. Although Ruth remained active and dealt with the bereavement she endured and her health issues it was inevitable that age caught up on her, she lead a fulfilling retirement and kept up all of her routines and hobbies as long as she physically could but eventually her mobility limited her life and effected her emotionally as well as physically.

Bowlby’s Theory of Maternal Deprivation

In this essay I intend to analyse the attachment theory of well-known British psychiatrist Dr John Bowlby. I will examine both the primary and secondary research behind the theory and look at some of the arguments against it before going on to explore the impact Bowlby’s research has had on the early years setting. Edward John Mostyn Bowlby was born in London on February 26th 1907 to a fairly upper-middle class family. His parents were of the belief that too much parental affection would in fact spoil a child and therefore spent very little time with him, as little as one hour per day.
His primary care-giver was the family nanny until, when he was four years old, the nanny left. Bowlby later described this as being: “as tragic as the loss of a mother” (www. mentalhelp. net/poc/view_doc. php? type=doc;id=10104;cn=28) He was then sent away to boarding school at the age of seven. It is therefore entirely comprehensible that he became increasingly sensitive to children’s suffering and how it appeared to be connected to their future mental health. Bowlby began his study at Trinity College Cambridge where he studied psychology.
He excelled academically and spent time working with delinquent children. He then went on to study medicine at University College Hospital and enrolled in the Institute of Psychoanalysis. Upon his graduation he began working at Maudesley Hospital as a psychoanalyst. It was while studying medicine that he volunteered in a children’s residential home and began to develop his interest in children who appeared to him to be emotionally disturbed. While working in the residential home he encountered two particular children who intrigued him.

The first of these was a very isolated, affectionless teenager who had no permanent, stable mother figure and the second was a young boy of seven or eight who followed Bowlby around constantly. This led him to speculate that there was a possible link between a child’s mental health problems and their early childhood experiences. It was generally believed by many early theorists that the need to make a bond with a mother or mother substitute was part of our ‘biological inheritance’ and Bowlby’s experience and observations lead him to whole-heartedly agree.
The resulting body of work and research carried out by Bowlby became known as the attachment theory. It was his firm belief that babies are ‘biologically programmed’ to be dependant on their mother. He went so far as to say that there was a ‘critical period’ in a child’s life from birth to age three where the child would be irreparably damaged psychologically by a prolonged absence from the mother. He referred to this absence as ‘maternal deprivation’. He wrote in his book, first published in 1953; Prolonged breaks (in the mother-child relationship) during the first three years of life leave a characteristic impression on the child’s personality. Such children appear emotionally withdrawn and isolated and consequently have no friendships worth the name” (pg 39, Bowlby J. Child Care and the Growth of Love, 1974) While working at the Child Guidance Clinic in London in the 30s and 40s Bowlby began to suspect that not only was a child’s mental health affected by the lack of bond with their mother but there may well be a correlation between delinquent behaviour in children and ‘maternal deprivation’.
This led him to carry out his own study between 1936 and 1939 to try and prove this to be the case. The resulting scientific paper was published in 1946 and entitled 44 Juvenile Thieves. The study involved Bowlby selecting 88 children from the clinic. Of this group of children 44 had been referred to him for theft and 44 had been referred due to emotional problems. Half the children in each group were aged between five and eleven years of age and the other half were between twelve and sixteen. There were thirty-one boys and thirteen girls in the first group and thirty-four boys and ten girls in the second.
The two groups were roughly matched for age and IQ. On arrival at the clinic, each child had their IQ tested by a psychologist and at the same time a parent was interviewed by a social worker to establish and record details of the child’s early life. Bowlby, the psychiatrist at the clinic, then conducted an initial interview with the child and parent. The 3 professionals then met to compare notes. Bowlby then went on to conduct a series of further interviews with the child and/or parent over the next few onths to gather more in-depth information about the history of the child, specifically in their early years. Bowlby considered his findings to be entirely conclusive. Of the 44 thieves Bowlby diagnosed 32% as ‘affectionless psychopaths’. He described this condition as involving a lack of emotional development in the children, leading to a lack of concern for others, a lack of guilt and an inability to form meaningful and/or lasting relationships. Bowlby concluded that this condition was the precise reason why these children were capable of stealing.
His speculation was further strengthened when he discovered that 86% of the children with affectionless psychopathy had experienced a long period of maternal deprivation in the first five years of their lives. They had spent the majority of their early years either in institutions or in hospital with little or no visitation from their parents. Interviews also showed that the majority of these children had been undemonstrative and unresponsive since approximately two years of age. Only 17% of the thieves who were not diagnosed as affectionless psychopaths had experienced maternal deprivation in the early years.
Of the second group not one child proved to be affectionless and only two of them had experienced prolonged maternal separation. Bowlby concluded in the resulting paper; “There is a very strong case indeed for believing that prolonged separation of a child from his mother (or mother substitute) during the first five years of life stands foremost among the causes of delinquent character development” [Bowlby J. pg 41] Many have however argued that Bowlby’s findings were not reliable. It has been suggested that as the study was carried out retrospectively this may have tainted the results.
It is possible that the parents or the children had not recalled events accurately or indeed that they had not responded truthfully to questioning in order to put themselves in a better light. Michael Rutter suggested in 1981 that some of the children in the study had never had a mother figure at all so their delinquency was not due to maternal deprivation but rather to ‘privation’ of any sort of loving attachment. Bowlby looked at research done by others which could support his own findings. He examined both animal studies done by Hinde and Harlow and Lorenz as well as child studies.
He noted in particular the work of Rene Spitz and Katharine Wolf. Spitz and Wolf had observed 123 babies during the first few years of their lives while they were being looked after by their own mothers who were in prison. When the babies were between 6-8 months old their mothers were moved elsewhere within the prison for a period of three months and the babies were cared for by others inmates. Spitz and Wolf noted that the babies lost their appetite, cried more often and failed to thrive during this period of separation. Once the babies were returned to their mothers their behaviour returned to what it had been previous to the separation.
These results certainly appeared to support Bowlby’s hypothesis however others disagreed. In Czechoslovakia in 1972 Koluchova wrote of twin boys who had suffered extreme deprivation. Their mother had died soon after the boys were born and their father struggled to cope on his own. At eleven months of age the boys were taken into care and were considered to be normal, healthy children. A few months later their father remarried and at the age of eighteen months the twins returned to their fathers care. Unfortunately the father worked away from home a great deal and their step-mother treated the boys horribly.
They were beaten, given very little food, made to sleep on a plastic sheet on the floor and sometimes locked away in the cellar. This continued for five and a half years and when the boys were examined at the age of seven they were found to be severely mentally and physically retarded. The twins were hospitalised until they were able to be placed in a special school for mentally disturbed children. They coped well with their schooling and went on to be fostered by a very affectionate, kind lady and in her care they blossomed.
By the age of 15 the boys IQ was normal for their age and their emotional health had improved immensely. Koluchova’s work would appear to demonstrate that it is in fact possible for a child to recover from maternal deprivation in their early years if they are given the love, support and security required later in their childhood and that the results of maternal deprivation need not be permanent. Schaffer and Emerson also disputed Bowlby’s findings and argued that, although an infant needed to form a bond, children could form multiple attachments and they could benefit greatly from the attention of the extended family.
They performed a study in Glasgow in 1964 where they observed 60 children from birth – eighteen months. They met with the mothers once a month and interviewed them to ascertain who the infant was smiling at, who they responded to etc. They found that many of the infants were forming numerous attachments. Twenty of the children studied were not attached to their mothers but to another adult, in some cases the father and in others another family member or even a neighbour. Schaffer states; “There is, we must conclude, nothing to indicate any biological need for an exclusive primary bond” [Davenport G.
C. pg 38] In 1950 the World Health Organisation, who had been following Bowlby’s work closely, commissioned him to write a report on the mental health of homeless children in post-war Europe. While researching the report Bowlby visited several countries and met with many childcare professionals and experts giving him the opportunity to look further into his theory on attachment and the importance of a strong bond between mother and child. His findings supported his thinking entirely and the report was written in six months and published in 1951, entitled Maternal Care and Mental Health.
Bowlby went on to publish further papers and books and his findings and research on attachment and the mother child bond has had a profound impact on childcare in general and that of the early years setting. As Juliet Mickleburgh states in her article Attachment Theory and the Key Person Approach “Bowlby’s research is recognised as the foundation for our understanding of the centrality of making secure attachments in infancy. ” [Juliet Mickleburgh, www. eyfs. info] There have been numerous changes to childcare practice since the 1940s and Bowlby’s influence must be acknowledged.
It can be no coincidence that ‘family allowance’ was introduced in 1946 in the UK, the same year 44 Juvenile Thieves was published, making it affordable for mothers to stay at home with their children. Bowlby made a plea for reforms in the care of young children in hospital and advocated ‘rooming in’ where the baby stays with mother from birth in the maternity ward. Although some children’s hospitals were already extending visitation rights of parents many more followed their lead after the publication of Bowlby’s W. H. O report, ensuring that the mother/child bond remained as strong as possible.
In the early years setting we have witnessed the implementation of the ‘Key Person Approach’ pioneered by Elinor Goldschmied. This approach recognises that an infant will be comforted by a secure relationship with one specific adult. We can now see this in practice in the nursery, each child has their own ‘Key Worker’ who has the duty of monitoring the child’s needs and development. This approach also accepts the need for parents and early years practitioners to work together rather than independently and the key worker regularly liaises with the parents regarding their child.
Parents are also encouraged to become actively involved with the life of the nursery and to work in partnership with the nursery staff to provide their child with a positive, stable and stimulating learning environment. In my view as a parent and an early years practitioner I believe that Bowlby’s research has benefitted both children and families immensely. As a mother I feel that society supports my right to be at home with my children until they go to school and that I am the child’s most vital resource in their early years, not only for nourishment but for their emotional development.
To echo the words of John Major, Bowlby laid the foundation for mothers in the 21st century to go ‘back to basics’. As a practitioner I believe that the implementation of the ‘key person approach’ can be immensely beneficial for both the child and the parent. The child knows that there is always someone there to whom they can turn if necessary and the parent knows that there will always be someone looking out for their child in the setting and that he/she is being given the attention and care of a trained adult in their absence.
I have witnessed first-hand in the nursery how a child who is upset by the departure of their mother can be comforted by the attention of their key worker. I have also observed how the key workers are constantly monitoring the children to pinpoint any needs, to witness the achievement of developmental milestones and to document this for the parents in the form of the Personal Learning Plan, a written and photographic record of the child’s achievements within the setting.
In conclusion, although there have been arguments against Bowlby’s research methods many professionals agreed with his findings regarding the importance of a secure attachment in the early years. These findings, and undoubtedly those of others in the field, have led to positive reforms in childcare. As we progress through the 21st century women are feeling the need, either for financial reasons or the belief that they too have the right to work, I find myself asking will society continue to regard the bond between a mother and her child as paramount or will ‘maternal deprivation’ increase and society as a whole be damaged as a result?
Bibliography www. mentalhelp. net/poc/view_doc. php? type=doc;id=10104;cn=28 Bowlby J. 1953. Child Care and the Growth of Love, 2nd ed, England, Pelican Books Davenport G. C 1994. An Introduction to Child Development, 2nd ed, London, Collins Educational www. eyfs. info/articles/article. php? Attachment-Theory-and-the-Key-Person-Approach-66 .

Muted Group Theory and Walt Disney’s “The Little Mermaid”

When Walt Disney released its adaptation of Hans Christian Andersen’s “The Little Mermaid,” it had become a box-office hit.  Yet, the movie captured the attention not just of young girls back in the late 1980s, but sociologists and anthropologists as well since the movie became a perfect example of what they had termed as the “muted group theory.”  In this paper, the concept of the muted group theory as proposed by Cheris Kramarae will be discussed as well as supporting evidence seen in society in general and in the movie of Walt Disney’s “The Little Mermaid.”
Kramarae’s Muted Group Theory
According to Chris Kramarae, language is something that was constructed by man.  The words and thoughts of women are ignored in our society.  Because of this, it is difficult for women to express their experiences as opposed to men.  Kramarae further stated that language does not serve all its speakers in an equal manner regardless of the culture because women are not as free as men to say what they want when they want and where they want. Men have dominant control of society and how the members of society should express themselves.

As such, different terms are used to describe tasks done by both males and females even when they are doing the exact same thing.  It is also because of this that most sexual suggestions that are considered degrading are usually referring to women than to men (Anderson & Haddad, 2005; Eckert & McConnell-Ginet, 1992; Epstein, 1986; Griffin, 2003; Prentice, 2005; West, 1983).  In order for women to express themselves to others, they must do so as to how males express themselves (Epstein, 1986; Griffin, 2003; Rogers. 1978; Stets & Burke, 1996).
The concept that women are a muted group was first proposed by Edwin Ardener.  Edwin Ardener was an anthropologist who discovered that a group becomes mute due to the lack of power that is experienced in a group with a low status.  Ardener called the theory the muted group theory because these muted groups are likened to black holes since they are muffled, overlooked and invisible (Griffin, 2003; Prentice, 2005; Rogers, 1978).
Muted Group Theory in Today’s Society
Although today’s society stresses equality between the male and female genders, various sociologists, linguistics and anthropologists have gathered substantial evidence to show that the muted group theory proposed by both Ardener and Kramarae is still evident.
In a classroom which is composed of both male and female, female students tend not to speak as confidently as their male classmates. They also speak in classless frequently than males.  In events that the females do participate in class, they do not talk as loud or as candidly as males do.
This is because it is the social norm that females should be polite and restrained while the males are assertive and vocal (Anderson & Haddad, 2005; Canada & Pringle, 1995; Epstein, 1986; Walker, Ilardi, McMahon & Fennel, 1996).  Because of this norm instilled in women at an early age, women more often avoid confrontations and direct disagreements even after completing their academic degrees (Eckert & McConnell-Ginet, 1992).
In the workplace, women tend to be subordinate to men.  For example, women in the military are not deployed in combat as often as men.  In the academic community, most of the academic departments and schools of knowledge recognize the contributions of men rather than women (Eckert & McConnell-Ginet, 1992; Walker, Ilardi, McMahon & Fennel, 1996).  Also, what many would be considered as a powerful speech when used by man will not to be as effective if the same speech is delivered by a woman (Eckert & McConnell-Ginet, 1992; Epstein, 1986; West, 1983).
In the study of cultures and societies, research would only focus on the information given by male informants and would ignore the information received from female informants since the researchers assume that women are less articulate than men, causing anthropologists not to be able to understand women.  As a result, interest in female roles and status had slowly diminished since many researchers view males were more important in society than females (Ardener, 1985; Prentice, 2005; Rogers, 1978).
Muted Group Theory in “The Little Mermaid”
When Kramarae began her research on the muted group theory, she used cartoons as the basis of her study (Griffin, 2003).  For this paper, the cartoon that was selected is Walt Disney’s adaptation of Hans Christian Andersen’s “The Little Mermaid.”
This paper will be focusing on one scene in the movie which is that between Ariel, the mermaid who wanted to become a human more than anything in the world, and Ursula, the sea witch.  After an argument with her father, Ariel visits Ursula in her lair under the impression that she could be able to give her the very thing her heart desired: to become human and to be with the human Prince Eric.
Ursula told her that she is will be able to make her into a human being for three days.  In order for her to be able to remain human permanently, she would have to be kissed by the prince as a symbol of his true love for her.  If she fails, she would go back to being a mermaid.  As payment for this, Ursula demanded Ariel her voice (Clements & Musker, 1989).
As previously mentioned, one of the premises of Kramarae on the muted group theory, in order for a woman to be able to express herself, she must do so the way how men express themselves (Epstein, 1986; Griffin, 2003; Rogers. 1978).  This is clearly explained by the character of Ursula:
The men up there don’t like a lot of blabbers.  They think a girl who gossips is a bore.  Yes, on land it’s much preferred for ladies not to say a word and after all, dear, what is idle prattle for?  Come on, they’re not all that impressed with the conversation.  True gentlemen avoid it when they can. But they dote and swoon and fawn on a lady who’s withdrawn. It’s she who holds her tongue who gets her man (Menken & Ashman, 1989).
Here, Ursula had advised Ariel what a human woman should be like.  Since Ariel mentioned that she would want to remain human and the only way to get that is for the prince to fall in love with her, the only way for her to do so is to act like a proper human woman would.
Indeed, the accepted norms in human societies are based on the activities, values and expressions of males.  Hence, the means of how women interact with others are considered to be improper (Eckert & McConnell-Ginet, 1992; Stets & Burke, 1996).
In the movie, Ariel has been known for her beautiful singing voice.  This made Ariel more superior than anyone in the kingdom.  It was because of her voice that she is not only the favorite of King Triton among his daughters but also the reason why in spite of her age, she is looked up upon by her siblings (Clements & Musker, 1989).  Ariel’s ability to sing can be likened to the way how a woman would express herself in society.
The ability for a woman to express herself as a woman would give her a separate identity and thus give her a superiority that may rival that of a man, or even surpass it.  Furthermore, her ability to save Eric’s life during the storm shows how a woman could be able to surpass the capabilities of a man given the opportunity.
By stripping her of her ability to sing, Ariel is also stripped of the very thing that would set her apart from everyone else, her ability to sing.  This is the very thing reason why women are considered a muted group by many sociologists and anthropologists.  The act of a man listening to a woman would mean that the man would be denouncing their dominant position in society because men view discussions initiated by women as not to have any importance (Dras, 1986; Epstein, 1986; Griffin, 2003).
For this reason, the cultural establishment had prejudged and excluded art, poetry, plays and films created by women (Ardener, 1985; Epstein, 1986; Griffin, 2003) since it is a way for women to express themselves through various forms.  Also, since she had been used to swimming, being given legs made her vulnerable since she is not able to do things on her own.  As such, the roles of Eric and Ariel have become reverse with Ariel becoming dependent to Eric to teach her how to walk, showing his dominance over her.
Conclusion
Initially, the muted group theory would appear to be sexist in nature since it puts females at a disadvantage in society.  Given the premises proposed by both Ardener and Kramarae, however, the muted group theory sheds light on the reason why society even today still refers to women as the “inferior sex.”  The muted group theory had proposed that the gender difference experienced in society particularly in how women express themselves lies on the fact that society is a patriarchal society, meaning that society’s norms and values are based on the norms and values of the male gender.  Movies such as Walt Disney’s “The Little Mermaid” have shown that in spite of the ability of the female gender to express itself, society prohibits them to do so.
References

Anderson, D. M. & Haddad, C. J. (March 2005). Gender, voice, and learning in online course environment. Journal of asynchronous learning networks, 9(1), 3-14. Ardener, S. (October 1985).
The social anthropology of women and feminist anthropology. Anthropology Today, 1(5), 24-26. Canada, K & Pringle, R. (July 1995).
The role of gender in college classroom interactions: a social context approach. Sociology of education, 68(3), 161-186. Clements, R. & Musker, J. (Directors). (1989).
Walt Disney’s the little mermaid [Motion picture]. United States: Walt Disney Pictures. Drass, K. A. (December 1986).
The effect of gender identity on the conversation. Social psychology quarterly, 49(4), 294-301. Eckert, P. & McConnell-Ginet, S. (1992).
Think practically and look locally: Language and gender as community-based practice. Annual review of anthropology, 21, 461-490. Epstein, C. F. (Winter 1986).
Symbolic segregation: similarities and differences in the language and non-verbal communication of women and men. Sociological forum, 1(1), 27-49. Griffin, E. (2003).
A first look at communication theory, 5th Ed.  New York: McGraw-Hill. Menken, A. & Ashman, H. (1989).
Poor Unfortunate Souls [Recorded by Pat Carroll]. On Walt Disney’s the little mermaid: an original Walt Disney records soundtrack. California: Walt Disney Records. Prentice, C. (2005).
Third-party candidates in political debates: muted groups struggling to express themselves. Speaker and gavel, 42, 1-12. Rogers, S. C. (January 1978).
Woman’s place: a critical review of anthropological theory. Comparative studies in society and history, 20(1), 123-162. Stets, J. E. & Burke, P. J. (September 1996).
Gender, control, and interaction. Social psychology quarterly, 59(3), 193-220. Walker, H. A., Ilardi, B. C., McMahon, A. M. & Fennell, M. L. (September 1996).
Gender, Interaction and Leadership. Social psychology.

Learning Theory and Behaviorism

Learning Theory and BehaviorismOctober 16, 2012 Wundt’s Structuralism: • Goal was to analyze the structure of conscious experience into its elements and components and their associative relationships. It was a form of metal chemistry • Developed of the technique introspection, which requires trained introspectionists to look inward and describe/analyze the contents of their experience to a stimulus word • Edward Titchner brought structuralism to the U. S. Cornell university listing 1000’s of elements of consciousness William James: • James studied with Wundt, but rejected a static description of the elements of the mind. James thought the mind and consciousness to be adaptive function that envolved just as any other adaptive function • Therefore, proper study of the mind is to relate its characteristics to purposeful, adaptive behavior. • Hence the rise of functionalism. James was professor of psychology at Harvard Principles of Psychology: • James wrote this Titles were stream of thought, memory, reasoning, emotion, will, effects of experience Edward Thorndike: • In the late 1800s at Harvard, drawing from James and functionalism and also Darwin’s ideas of evolution of species and their adaption to environment, he studied the progress cats made in solving a puzzle by learning a desired that is instrumental in bringing about desired outcome • Notion of stimulus-response (reflexive vs. rational) was already firmly in the thinking of leading philosophers at the time, in the field of education Ivan Pavlov: In 1904, Pavlov received the Nobel prize for his work on the chemistry of digestive juices in saliva • His work with dogs required gathering large amounts of saliva for chemical analyses. Done through a tube surgically implanted in dog’s salivary gland and then simulating salvation with dried meat powder Unconditional…. • Dried meat powder is an unconditional stimulus 9UCS) in that it always triggers the response of salivating. We call the response unconditional response (UCR).
Needs no learning • Many pleasure, pain, and emotional responses and tastes and smells are unconditional Psychic Reflex: • Pavlov and associates observed that dogs would often begin salivating before they were harnessed and before the meat powder • Pavlov switched his path of study this psychic reflex • Studies are among the most famous in psychology. Type of learning he describes is known as “classical condition” or “glandular conditioning” Conditional…. Stimulus in effect becomes a signal that the dog will be harnessed, presented with the meant, and will be salivating. • The dog must perceive this connection. Its meaning and power as a signal depends on its reliability. Its meaning and power are conditional on its place in time and its frequency in the sequence, becoming conditional stimulus (CS). The psychic reflex becomes a Conditional response. Prior to perception of a connection to the UCS, all events are neutral in meaning with respect to UCS.
Conditioning involves responding to a CS with a CR in anticipation of the occurrence of the UCS-UCR pair. Learning: • Conditional response (CR) is the learned response to the conditional stimulus (CS) which gained meaning to the extent it anticipates the UCS-UCR pain. The CR is potentially a adaptive response, a preparatory response • The UCS-UCR pair do not re-occur, then the power of the CS to trigger a CR is weakened. The CS no linger bring about the CR-extinction. Higher order conditioning: The CS must occur fairly closely in time to the UCS-UCR pain- interstimulus interval (CS & UCS) • However once a CS has gained the power to anticipate the UCS, other neutral stimuli close in time to the CS will become conditioned. A CS signal the next CS, which signals the next CS and so on until the original CS signals the UCS-UCR pain-higher order conditioning. Historical context: • The pressure of universal education brought pressures for psychologists and educators to study the processes of learning • Alfred Binet (advocate from France) developed a test to measure abilities so as to place students in the proper grade.

Concepts of ‘intelligence’ and IQ soon followed • Darwin’s theory of evolution suggests that as a species of human beings evolved from lower forms of animal life. Though the gap between animals and human life remained wide in terms of language, thought, and civilization, question was just how intelligent are animals, are they closer to humans are intelligent than animals lower • Industrial revolution; post revolutionary Russia and USA saw an ability to take classless societies and make it a brighter and stronger future, training an efficient workforce.
John B. Watson: 1878-1958 • Studied animal intelligence. He sought to move psychology more toward the empirical, deterministic physical sciences • Empirical, means of the senses of implying data used in the science is observable, public, and objectively measured. Determinism implies a search for theories of cause and effect, identification of Aristotle’s immediate cause Behaviorists in control: • Reshaping human society in the US and Soviet Union Philosophical behaviorism: belief that consciousness was an epiphenomenon • Methodological behaviors: belief that observable objective measures of behavior are better over introspective self-report Operant Conditioning: • Skinner says the probability of a response to the correct stimulus is more or less equal to that of any other response to other available stimuli. If the response to a stimulus brings about desired consequence, then the sequence of stimulus-response more likely repeated. Trial and error is as en equal probability for all possible responses on Trial 1 Terms: • Reinforcer: sequence of stimulus-response consequence; makes stronger the bond between the stimulus and the response • Operant or instrumental response: behavior which bring about the consequence • Skinner prefers to understand reinforcement as that which changes the probability of the response to the stimulus Reinforcer vs. Reinforcement: Reinforce is an event, a consequence that follows the response to a stimulus and is perceived to be connected to the response • Reinforcement is a state of being that arises from the act of consuming or enjoying • Positive reinforce is a positive rewarding consequence to response to a stimulus; all is good and you’ll do it again • Negative reinforer is a painful consequence to the response to a stimulus; decreases probability of the response to that stimulus • In negative reinforcement sequence is stimulus, response, negative reinforcerm escape response(which removes negative reinforce) positive reinforce.
Total package: negative reinforcement. Probability of an escape/avoidance response is increased and the 1st response is decreased. Primary and secondary reinforcer: • Primary: natural; one that does not have to be learned.
Satisfy biological needs like hunger, thirst • Secondary: consequence whose value must be learned through experience; come through socialization and subsequent learning • Primary positive reinforcer: satisfies a natural need (food if you’re hungry, water if thirsty) • Primary negative reinforcer: causes physical pain and discomfort (injury, illness) • Secondary positive reinforcer: satisfies social and psychological needs (good grade, smile, kiss) • Secondary negative reinforcer: socially punishing (failing grade, public slander, rejection letter) Classical and instrumental combined: A primary positive reinforcer=unconditional stimulus that follows some behavioral conditional response to conditional stimulus. • Conditional stimulus is a secondary positive reinforcer Contingency: • connection between a stimulus, response, and a consequence. One perceives the stimulus and performs the response expected • extinction: when stimulus no longer elicits a response b/c reinforcer no longer appears • superstition: one perceives a contingency when in fact there is none • helplessness: perceiving no contingency between a stimulus and a response nd any desirable consequence, making no response • fixed ratio: pattern is predictable • variable ratio: pattern is random Resistance to extinction: • skinner defines strength of learning as how resistance the acquired response to a stimulus is to extinction • variable ratio schedule maintains responding far longer than fixed ratio • fixed interval schedule gives reinforcer tot the last response as a certain interval of time elapses Psychological and emotional disorders A behavioral analysis of psychological & emotional disorders includes the assumption that the symptoms (inappropriate behaviors, thoughts, or emotions) are acquired in a learning environment (i. e. not due to genetics or physiological dysfunctions or unconscious conflicts). • Behavior therapy tries to extinguish the inappropriate responses to stimuli & train appropriate responses. Behavioral analysis of a phobia • Phobia = learned, “acquired fear” o Intense fear or anxiety reaction to an event, classically conditioned by exposure to frightening, threatening, or painful stimulus. Instrumentally conditioned escape/avoidance behavior that takes very few trials, maybe only one trial to learn Obsessive compulsive disorder • Obsessive state = intense drive state, often accompanied by images, thoughts, memories, desires, etc. related to drive state an identity • Compulsive = behavior that corrects for or deals w/ the threat to the driving identity. Ritualized by repetition & success at keeping anxiety at bay. • Compulsive behavior may originate in two ways: o 1.
Person once praised for something & now seeks praise to maintain good feeling o 2. Person once punished for something & thus becomes anxious when this event occurs and does whatever to avoid punishment Behavioral analysis of anxiety and conflict • The conflict of drives, stimuli, responses & consequences will result in indecision, inefficiency, & anxiety. Dollard & miller list the following: • An approach-approach conflict: where two mutually exclusive positive consequences follow a response to two similar stimuli.
The greater the emotional importance of the choice & the greater the finality (or temporal impact) of the choice, the greater the conflict: o Choosing whom to marry vs. choosing which friend to call o Choosing a book to read vs. choosing a film to watch on a weekend night o Choosing a car/house to buy vs. choosing a brand of frozen pizza to buy in the store • An avoidance-avoidance conflict: where two mutually exclusive negative consequences follow a response to two similar stimuli. Resolved in a manner similar to approach-approach. Choosing to cope with knee pain or having knee surgery o Choosing to write a paper or study for a test o Choosing any math course • An approach-avoidance conflict: where two aspects of the “same” stimulus are in contradiction, one positive, one negative. o Enjoying the company of a friend, who also tends to get loud & obnoxious at parties. The conflict arises when the friend asks you to go to the party with her/him. o Contemplating a trip to Europe, but you have a fear of flying Behavioral analysis of anxiety & conflict The tension in approach-avoidance conflict in interpersonal relationships often forces a person to create a “safe-zone” in which, on the one hand, the person is not so far away from the other such that one needs to approach, but yet, on the other hand, the person is not so close that one needs to avoid the other. • Often the zone is defined or verbalized in terms of emotional involvement, interpersonal distance, intimacy, time together, mode of communication, etc. “were just friends…” meaning not lovers, cousins, or strangers. The safe zone evolves. It is negotiated b/t the two persons in the relationship to their mutual satisfaction, though true mutuality is often difficult to achieve. Also, conditions may change it over time, especially due to factors such as distance, other relationships, new info, etc. Depression • Result of a generalized learned helplessness. • Helplessness learned when most instrumental escape or avoidance responses to a primary or secondary negative reinforce fail to bring about relief through a cessation of the punishment, discomfort.
Inactivity/apathy describe lack of instrumental responses; pain, numbness, sadness are the classically conditioned emotional responses. Dissociative disorder • Dissociative disorders, such as dissociative identity disorder (split personality) involves learning a new repertory of behaviors, thoughts, & emotions that are appropriate (and therefore reinforced) in a new environment along side of a previously learned repertory of behaviors, thoughts and emotions that are appropriate in a different prior environment • Prior environment associated w/ punishment
Schizophrenia • double bind theory of schizophrenia: child raised in a home environment of confusing/contradictory messages from at least one volatile, toxic parent. The child’s behavior is not predictably right/good, wrong/bad. The child grows up never sure or relaxed, but stressed and anxious. Child emerges chronic mistrust of his or her ability to behave, think, etc. he/she learns to behave as if disconnected from reality B. F. Skinner • wrote beyond freedom and dignity – we’re already living in a behavioral society.

Learning Theories Amongst Young Adults

Introduction The concept of ‘learning’ has been embedded In each and every one of us from the daddy were born. Since, the beginning of man, learning has been incorporated Into our very nature whether we are conscious of It or not; from learning how to control fire to noticing how that fire provides us with warmth and security to ward of wild animals. Learning as defined by the Merriam-Webster dictionary is the activity or process of gaining knowledge or skill by studying, practicing, being taught, or experiencing something’.
Over the years, psychologists have come up with different theories on how we learn. Marketers have taken these theories and applied them to gain a better understanding of how consumers learn and behave, in order to develop better marketing strategies to satisfy the needs and wants of consumers. This is commonly known today as consumer behavior. The rapid increases of millennial consumers over the years have Intrigued marketers to further understand and analyses this new breed of consumers. Hence, to understand their behaviors Is to understand how they learn and process Information.
There are many ways to learn and along with that, many different learning theories. In this research, I will be focusing on three mall learning theories related to young adult learning and what are the implications of these theories to marketing. Learning Theories of Young Adults & How Marketers Apply Them To analyses how young adults learn, we have to first understand the term young adult’. In actuality, there is no definition to the term; however it is widely used these days to describe an individual who lies within the transition period between the adolescence to adulthood period.

The term is also typically used to better categorize his segment of individuals in researches, studies and even marketing. According to Erosion’s Stages of Development, the young adult stage ranges between the ages of 18-35 years (Erikson, 1968). Due to the advancements of this ever-changing society, learning today Is not the same as It was 20-30 years ago. The exposure to technology from an early age has altered the way these ‘dealt natives’ think and process information compared to previous generations before them (Presents, 2001 Thus, the towards understanding how young adults’ learn. Knowledge is perception – Socrates.
Learning is no longer Just a passive assimilation of knowledge (Pigged, 1968), which is passed down from teacher to student. As Benjamin Franklin once said, “Tell me and I forget, teach me and I may remember, involve me and I learn”. The conventional student-teacher or teach me’ methods of learning can no longer be applied to the young adults of this generation. Instead, the use of a more active learning method such as cognitive learning is more relevant today. Cognitive learning is a theory that defines learning as a behavioral change based on the acquisition of information bout the environment’ (Mossy, 2009).
There are three main branches of cognitive learning; the iconic rote learning, vicarious learning and reasoning or analogy learning. Iconic rote learning The first area of cognitive learning we will be looking at is Iconic rote learning. Iconic rote learning is defined as learning the association between two or more concepts in absence of conditioning (Neal, Sequester, Hawkins, 2002). The essence of this concept is repetition, where the intended concept is repeated over again to engage the attention of the intended target.
On the surface, this concept might seem similar to hat of the classical conditioning method which also involves repetition. However, this concept differs from classical conditioning because of the absence of a stimulus- response mechanism, a direct reinforcement or reward involved. The aim of iconic learning is Just to boost the attention and promote awareness off concept to associate its key attributes. Young adults today are faced with a “continuous partial attention” syndrome, where there is an overload of information from the use of technology (Coleman, 2013).
It is difficult to teach a young adult today in a classroom, specially with the use of smoothness, laptops and gadgets, while simultaneously trying to receive information from the speaker or teacher. Moreover, young adults have the tendency to be distracted by the thought of needing to check their text messages or notifications from social-media circles. This attachment to technology is the reason why the transfer of an intended information or concept, has to be extensively repeated to obtain the constant attention or awareness of the intended person, in order for learning to occur.
Herbert Simon, a Nobel-winning economist rote “Hence a wealth of information creates a poverty of attention”. Therefore, marketers who understand this theory, apply it to their marketing strategies to attract the attention of young adult consumers. Advertisers use mediums such as television commercials, Youth ads, and print media to create a link between the brand and its key benefits to consumers through iconic rote learning. For example, the extensive repetition and occurrences of a Cataracts advertisement, associates the brand to premium coffee.
Once consumers have made the connection between Cataracts and premium coffee, consumers will cognitive processing. The presence of these commercials can even be made on digital platforms such as tablets and smoothness through downloaded APS (applications). Hence, with the right amount of exposure and occurrence, marketers will be able to capitalize on the ‘distraction’ of technology to learning and use it to their advantage when marketing young adults through infiltrating popular internet mediums such as Backbone and Youth. Vicarious learning Vicarious learning, also known as observational learning (sometimes called modeling or imitation) is simple learning by observing others and copying their behavior Fletcher and Gorton, 2007). Often used in conjunction with Bandanna’s social learning theory, made famous by the ‘Boob doll’ experiment; considers that children learn complex social behaviors by copying the behaviors of adults. Later on, Bandeau acknowledged that learners also play an active role in the learning process by only choosing models which are consistent with their own personal beliefs and values which produce desired outcomes (Bandeau, 1989).
Androgyny, also known as the study of how adults learn, was made popular by Malcolm Knowles who believed that adults are self-directed, goal-orientated and bring life experiences and knowledge to their learning experience (Knowles, 1989). Hence, it is clear that Bandanna’s theory not only applies to only children but to young adults as well because they only model those who align with their own prior beliefs and knowledge, to reach a desired goal or outcome. Thus, marketers who understand these learning theories apply them to their marketing strategies to reach young adult consumers.
For instance, popular Swedish retailers H&M use David Beckman (a famous footballer and celebrity) as their brand ambassador and spokesperson for their clothing line. Young adults who identify and look to Beckman as their role model will tend to imitate him; including what he wears in this case. Analytical or reasoning learning Analytical or reasoning learning can be defined as “an inference process that allows consumers to use an existing knowledge base to understand a new situation or object” (Hawkins and Motherboards, 2010).
In analytical learning, critical reasoning based on existing understanding and knowledge is used together with new information or concepts in the learning process. This is common in young adults as they incorporate life experiences and pre-existent knowledge to their learning experience, as mentioned earlier based on the androgyny study (Knowles, 1989). Simply put, this theory of learning helps young adults use a pre-existing knowledge of something that they familiar with, to learn something that which they are not familiar with.
Typically, high-involvement products involve more reasoning thinking because consumers are motivated to learn about products that they are interested Marketers who understand this theory use it to reach young adult consumers. An example of this is the purchase of high-involvement products such as smoothness. Users in Malaysia were between the ages of 25 to 34 (Enterprise News, 2011), hence falling within the young adult category (Erikson, 1968).
The consumer behaviorism model suggests that a typical consumer goes through four stages before purchasing a product; recognition, searching for information, evaluation of alternatives and finally, the purchase decision (Kettle and Keller, 2012). Therefore, in the purchase of a smartened, young adults in Malaysia use analytical or reasoning learning to acquire as much information about the smartened when comparing between brands and prices.
Hence, marketers in the smartened industry, should market their smoothness based on emphasizing on the unique specifications and restorability of price in order to gain a comparative advantage over competitor brands. If the product attributes align with a previous knowledge or experience, then the young adult will be motivated to learn more about the smartened and eventually decide to purchase it. Conclusion Young adults have become the main target market of marketers. Hence, it is critical to understand how they think, behave and learn.
In this assignment I highlighted who young adult are and analyses the different cognitive approaches to learning when it comes to young adults which include; iconic rote, vicarious and analytical learning. These learning theories have a direct impact on the decision-making process of young adult consumers in purchasing items. I have also given real life examples which illustrated and describe the appropriate marketing strategies to not only reach but significantly affect and influence the way young adults purchase products.

Political Theory and the Great Gatsby

In his article “‘A New World, Material Without Being Real’: Fitzgerald’s Critique of Capitalism in The Great Gatsby,” Ross Posnock establishes Fitzgerald’s interest in Marxism by placing him as a Nietzschean Marxist and contemporizing him with Georg Lukacs’s History and Class Consciousness, printed in 1923, and with Marx’s theories by extension, attempting to “demonstrate how deeply Marx’s critique is assimilated into the novel’s imaginative life,” although he is careful to point out that Fitzgerald “does not share their abhorrence of capitalism” [201].
Posnock offers a close reading of material objects and Gatsby’s subsequent mystification with them to analyze the conflict between the individual and society, Nietzsche and Marx. I would suggest a revision to Posnock’s analysis of The Great Gatsby, reidentifying the material world Posnock places as “Gatsby’s” as that of the Buchanans, with Gatsby an implicit imposter.
As Habermas summarizes, Nietzsche’s theory of knowledge is replaced by a perspectival theory of the affects whose highest principle is “that every belief, every taking-for-true, is necessarily false because there is no true world” [Habermas 122]. In analyzing the material acquisitions of Gatsby, Posnock seems to demonstrate how Gatsby attempts to create himself, to make his world real, through the material values of the Buchanans.

Yet his past and his characteristics, his “old sport” catchphrase, are all a smokescreen diverting us from knowing the true character of Gatsby. Nietzsche would seem to offer the explanation that there is no real Gatsby. Coppola similarly provides a material reading of Gatsby in the opening sequence of his screenplay, as he moves the audience from Gatsby’s cars to his concert Steinway, crystal decanters, a toilet set of pure dull gold, rows and rows of fine suits (plus one military uniform), and an emerald ring [Coppola 1-3].
Posnock and Coppola seem to see a system of material enclosure created by the Tom Buchanans of the world, the American aristocracy, complete with moral values. The system has created the parameters by which Gatsby may define himself, by his possessions. Reexaminations of Marxism, such as the thought of Jurgen Habermas, investigates the social and cultural implications about which Marx wrote, allowing for deeper analysis than Posnock’s superficial offering.
If my understanding is correct, in Legitimation Crisis, Habermas looks at socio-cultural crisis tendencies and how they reflect political and economic systems crises, saying that input crises of the socio-cultural system are output crises of economic and political systems, or that the crises of the political and economic systems manifest themselves through the socio-cultural system. Thus, the crisis of an impostor illegally climbing the class hierarchy, acquiring power and influence, manifests itself socially, in the conflict between Tom and Gatsby for Daisy’s love.
But this social crisis has political and economic consequences as well, reflected through our narrator. According to Habermas, “In advanced capitalism, [changes in the socio-cultural system] are becoming apparent at the level of cultural tradition (moral systems, world views) as well as at the level of structural change … and core components of the bourgeois ideology become questionable (endangering civil and familial-professional privatism)” [48-49]. The socio-cultural system lagged behind while the economic system moved from traditional to liberal capitalism (laissez-faire capitalism).
As the economic system moved into advanced capitalism with the power of the Progressives (beginning with Theodore Roosevelt), the socio-cultural system caught up as well, forcing changes in input from the political system. Consequently, the political system has interfered more with civic privatism, including the New Deal and Lyndon Johnson’s “Great Society” programs, in a search to build new, satisfactory normative structures while older but imperative normative structures, like education, have lagged behind, jeopardizing the economic system.
The Great Gatsby is set at the socio-cultural junction that Habermas describes. Essentially, our nation was coming of age, and the booming period of the 1920s could be interpreted as a dysfunctional attempt to enjoy the newly-available economic riches. In terms of Gatsby, the conflict between Gatsby and Buchanan really focuses on Nick Carraway, our narrator. In the same way that Gatsby has already chosen to define himself via the social norms established, Nick must now also decide how to define himself as he claims his voice as narrator.
According to Judith Butler, who is interpreting Lacan, “Entrance into language comes at a price: the norms that govern the inception of the speaking subject differentiate the subject from the unspeakable, that is, produce an unspeakability as the condition of subject formation” [Butler 135]. We encounter Nick after his coming of age, marked by his 30th birthday on the evening of Tom and Gatsby’s confrontation, a day when “the transition from libertine to prig was so complete” [Fitzgerald 137], after he is allowed a voice.
In fact, Carraway is only offered the opportunity to speak by his laissez-faire reaction to the moral dilemma. According to Butler: Although psychoanalysis refers to this inception of the subject as taking place in infancy, this primary relation to speech, the subject’s entry into language by way of the originary ‘bar’ is reinvoked in political life when the question of being able to speak is once again a condition of the subject’s survival.
The question of the ‘cost’ of this survival is not simply that an unconscious is produced that cannot be fully assimilated to the ego, or that a ‘real’ is produced that can never be presented within language. The condition for the subject’s survival is precisely the foreclosure of what threatens the subject most fundamentally; thus, the ‘bar’ produces the threat and defends against it at the same time [135]. The conflict of The Great Gatsby, if we apply Butler, focuses on Nick Carraway through the threat of Jay Gatsby’s impediment on social hierarchy.
The foreclosure of the threat, the execution of Gatsby, presents the ‘bar’, the moral dilemma to which Nick must react. According to Saussure, “The social uses of language owe their specifically social value to the fact that they tend to be organized in systems of difference … which reproduce … the system of social difference. … To speak is to appropriate one or another of the expressive styles already constituted in and through usage and objectively marked by their position in a hierarchy of styles which expresses the hierarchy of corresponding social groups” [Butler 157].
As Butler points out, Saussure is rehabilitating the base/superstructure model through the relationship of language and the social system [Butler 157]. The fight of Gatsby is really over cultural norms, and how Nick reacts in the last chapter is essential to the American future, in terms of Habermas, but also presents the threat of Nick being cast into the realm of the unspeakable. In his final encounter with Jordan Baker, Nick learns that turning 30, with the “portentous menacing road of a new decade” before him [Fitzgerald 143], comes final responsibility in speaking.
When he says to her, “I’m thirty. … I’m five years too old to lie to myself and call it honor” [Fitzgerald 186], Nick realizes he insults Jordan, casting her into the unspeakable by citing their age difference: “She didn’t answer. Angry, and half in love with her, and tremendously sorry, I turned away” [Fitzgerald 186]. Not knowing exactly how he feels about Jordan and speaking without knowing, Nick comes to understanding the importance of speech through the guilt and shame he feels.
That his ambivalent feelings toward Jordan, being half in love with her, mirror his feelings toward Gatsby, the contradictions that Donaldson points out would indicate that Nick comes to an informed decision about Gatsby before telling the story. At some point between Nick telling Gatsby “They’re a rotten crowd. … You’re worth the whole damn bunch put together” [Fitzgerald 162] and telling the reader, “I disapproved of him from beginning to end” [Fitzgerald 162], one sentence later, Nick came to a moral understanding with socio-cultural and political implications.