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Surrealism

Analysis of Surrealism

Analysis of Surrealism.
You will have every lesson for the next two weeks to complete this SAC. Your final piece of work is to be submitted, along with any hand-written notes you have taken, no later than Friday June 10th. PART 1: The Surrealist Movement Using the knowledge you have gained in class, as well as your own further research, discuss the historical context in which the Surrealist movement emerged and flourished. (hint. Analyses the relationship between The Surrealist Movement and the political, social and economic developments of the period.
Examine and discuss the work (in general) of The Surrealist Movement. Describe the aims, methods and achievements of the Surrealists throughout the early twentieth century. PART 2: A surrealist Artist Choose ONE (and only ONE) Surrealist Artist and profile them. How did they and their work personally contribute to The Surrealist Movement? Consider the response to or the effect of their work at the time it was produced. What impact did this work have on the society in which it was produced?
Are their works still significant today? Examine and discuss the work (in general) of your chosen Surrealist Artist. Describe the aims, methods and achievements of this artist throughout the early twentieth century. Identify to what extent the themes of disillusionment, loss of confidence, anxiety or a celebration of the modern or of a political belief are present in these works. PART 3: surrealist Art Choose ONE (and only ONE) piece of art (painting, sculpture etc. ) from your chosen Surrealist Artist. Into – include a copy of this piece, as well as the title, artist, materials (egg. Oil on canvas, iron sculpture etc. ) and year it was created. Give a detailed analysis of the subject of the piece of art. What statement was your chosen artist making by producing this work? How was it received by society at the time it was produced? Is it viewed differently today than what it was when it was first produced? Why/how? What impact did this work have on the society in which it was produced? Is the piece still significant today? Why/why not?

Analysis of Surrealism

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Surrealism

Surrealism.
Surrealism Surrealism started as a revolt against the intellect of Cubism, Formalist art, Art for Arts sake (Dada) and abstraction. It is an attitude to life and society rather than a style of art. It was a painting style that trapped the dream into physical existence. Individualism and isolation was a core value of the movement. They investigated the mind for artistic inspiration.
Origins of Surrealism: Andre Breton: Was dissatisfied with DADA Wanted a more organized and realistic He explored automatic righting and discussed the irrational and the accidental Hough process in painting He published a manifesto in 1924 (statement of ideas about the movement) Was based on Freud the idea of the conscious mind struggling against the irrational and the unconscious Implemented the idea that the individual is free to express their personal desires Definition of Surrealism: Thought is expressed with the absence of reason, aesthetic (visual), moral concerns.
Surrealism emphasizes words more than the image and was dominated by the written works and ideas. The influence of Sigmund Freud: Worked with Psychoanalysis, and how hypnosis allows an individual to remember motional experiences that have been forgotten. The importance of memories and experiences in the subconscious is core to Surrealism Hypnosis liberates the imagination Through the dream, reality is solved.

Political situation of the time: Breton was a communist The surrealists were anarchists like the Dadaists of WWW Surrealist thought that non-government was better(irrational vs. the rational) Russian revolution Tribal art Dada : chance, irrational, illogical Art of children and the mentally ill Freud and Jung (importance of dreams and the symbols used to understand dreams) Sub Themes:
The human condition: Surrealism deals with the subconscious, dreams and irrational thought Influence of technology- Meaning in media: Surrealism involves symbolism, meaning through the use of paint Reflection of society: comment on anti war etc Two Schools of Surrealism Bibliographic Surrealism Ray, Dali,Yves, Migrate Detailed Automatic Organic surrealism Mirror, Manson Recognizable objects in different contexts Images of the mind Precise reproduction Juxtaposition (placing next to each other) Transposed (placed over) Displaced(put out of place) Mutated (altered) Visual pun/ double meaning Hidden Meaning Chance Close to abstract

Surrealism

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Key Aspects of Surrealism Inaugurated by Max Ernst

Key Aspects of Surrealism Inaugurated by Max Ernst.
Key Aspects of Surrealism Inaugurated by Max Ernst Amrit Johal, 301102319 FPA 111: D109 (Anna-Marie) Research Essay, Fall 2010 Max Ernst, an inventive artist and one of the pioneers of the Surrealist movement, was able to project the ideas of Surrealism to his audience in a very efficient manner. Surrealism is a discipline, which allows one to think like a child and create art that brings you to a dream-like state.
Ernst was able to accomplish this by creating images one can only imagine seeing in a dream, such as his ‘Angel of Heart and Home’ series. As well as by piecing things together which would not typically be put together (collages), such as his Oedipus Rex. Ernst’s work, Oedipus Rex(1922) and L’ange du Foyer(1937), are crucial works of art for the Surrealist movement and inaugurated many of the important characteristics associated with Surrealist art. Surrealism Surrealism is a cultural movement and artistic style that emerged in 1924 in the hands of Andre Breton.
Surrealism style uses visual imagery from the subconscious mind to create art without the intention of logical comprehensibility. Breton defines Surrealism as a “psychic automatism in its pure state, by which one proposes to express – verbally, by means of the written word, or in any other manner – the actual reason, exempt from any aesthetic or moral concern” (Breton in Harrison, 2003, pg. 452). It is meant to bring the viewer to a dream like state, where a sense of freedom can be achieved, as it would in childhood.

Breton said that “the mind which plunges into Surrealism relives with glowing excitement the best part of its childhood…[it is] childhood where everything nevertheless conspires to bring about the effective, risk-free possession of oneself” (Breton in Harrison, 2003, pg. 452). He says that it is Surrealism that gives you a second chance to be like a child, it is another opportunity. Although Surrealism, in a sense, emerged from Dada, the two practices are different in many ways. Dada took an anti-art stance, avoiding repetition and therefore the creation of a style.
Although it did not seek a common style, Surrealism, however, had none of the nihilism of the earlier movement but was concerned with a redefinition of painting, with transgression rather than proscription (Rewald & Spies, 2005, pg. 11). Crevel describes Surrealism beautifully as being “for the mind a truly magnificent and almost unhoped for victory, to possess [a] new liberty, [a] leaping of the imagination […] smashing the bars of reason’s cage, and bird that it is, obedient to the voice of the wind” (Crevel in Spalding, 1979, pg. 28).
For Ernst, “the fundamental opposition between meditation and action coincides with the fundamental separation between the outer and inner worlds” (Ernst in Hofmann et al, 1973, pg. 23). It is here, Ernst believes, that the universal significance of Surrealism lies, and that no part in life is closed to it (Ernst in Hofmann et al, 1973, pg. 23). Ernst’s art showcased his fascination with Surrealism through his many great works of art including Oedipus Rex and L’ange du Foyer. Max Ernst Max Ernst was a German painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet.
A prolific artist, Ernst is considered to be one of the primary pioneers of the Dada movement and Surrealism. He was born in Bruhl, Germany. In 1909, he enrolled in the University at Bonn to study philosophy but soon abandoned these courses to pursue his interest in art. In 1913 he met Guillaume Apollinaire and Robert Delaunay and traveled to the Montparnasse Quarter in Paris, France where a gathering of artists from around the globe was taking place. In 1919 he visited Paul Klee and created his first paintings, block prints and collages, and experimented with mixed media.
During World War I he served in the German army and after the war, filled with new ideas, Max Ernst, Jean Arp and social activist Alfred Grunwald, formed the Cologne, Germany Dada group. Constantly experimenting, in 1925 he invented frottage, a technique using pencil rubbings of objects. Following the outbreak of World War II, Max Ernst was detained as an enemy alien but with the assistance of the American journalist Varian Fry in Marseille, he managed to escape the country with Peggy Guggenheim. They arrived in the United States in 1941.
Living in New York City, along with Marcel Duchamp and Marc Chagall, fellow avant-garde painters who had fled the War in Europe, Max Ernst helped inspire the use of Abstract expressionism among American painters (Camfield, 1993). Ernst turned away from the idea of the artist as creator as well as from the myth of ‘artistic talent. ’ For Ernst, the artist is only indirectly responsible for the creation of the work of art: “The old view of ‘talent’ […] has been thrown out, just as the adoration of the hero […] has been thrown out” (Spies, 2006, pg. 27). A sense of humor permeates his canvases and collages, none more so than in his renditions of natural phenomena. Interested in plants and in their life cycles, he permits his sense of the mythical to prevail. Trees gods, spirits and fantastic animals are everywhere in his canvases”(Stern, 2009).
Oedipus Rex Oedipus Rex was one of Ernst’s first paintings in which he was able to successfully transfer the techniques of combination, assemblage and collage to large-scale painting. The picture is given the impression of a collage by the use of hard outlines and the dry appearance of the paint (Bischoff, 2003, pg. 3). Gimferrer notes that Ernst was able to expound the conception, mechanics and techniques of collage. His collages were able to sustain the principle of the union of two dissociated situations in the strictly Dadaist or Surrealist manner. This technique seems to stem from Max Ernst and is “applied to the very nucleus of consciousness [and] to the notion of personal identity” (Gimferrer, 1983, pg. 5-6). The spatial situation of Oedipus Rex is, to some extent, unclear due to the initial context of the picture. Here objects differing in scale are arranged in a setting indicated by architectonic elements.
A device for marking chicks is pierced through a hand extended through a window and through the nut it is holding. The nut, which has been cracked open, resembles an eye, bringing to mind Luis Bunuel’s film Un Chien Andalou. Two birds are to be seen looking out of a hole in the stage in the foreground, prevented from withdrawing their head by palings and length of string (or halter) tied to the horns of one of them (Bischoff, 2003, pg. 23). Bischoff claims, “the desire for forbidden fruit (indicated by the hand which has reached for the nut) and curiosity (for the birds have put their head through the opening in rder to see something) are immediately punished” (Bischoff, 2003, pg. 23). Schneede, on the other hand, understands Oedipus Rex as being “held in check by a halter […] and by palings. ” He says that “living creatures exist […] in a rigid state of suspended animation [and that] the saw cleaves no trace of cut marks behind” (Schneede, 1972, pg. 50). Moreover, Schneede agrees with Bischoff, in that the cleaved nut resembles an eye, anticipating the opening sequence of Bunuel’s film, Un Chien Andalou.
There are numerous allusions to the Oedipus legend of classical antiquity, says Bischoff, a myth, which has retained its validity throughout the history of mankind, for the motifs of vision, blindness and piercing, are all present (Bischoff, 2003, pg. 23). Although there are many understandings of this work of art, it can still be difficult to understand the meaning of it to the extent the Ernst had intended. For Spies, pictures such as Oedipus Rex compel us to search in vain for some key that might help us to explain them. And that in doing so, we get no closer to the meaning.
He goes on to say that “it is important to recognize that even precise knowledge of the sources Ernst made use of for his collages and paintings does not help us understand them, for he cut away and obscured the meaning of the original image in the course of making his own work” (Rewald & Spies, 2005, pg. 4). L’ange du Foyer Max Ernst’s L’ange du Foyer is another one of his ground breaking pieces in which a “gigantic bird-like or dragon-like creature [is] launching into a terrible jump over a plain” (Bischoff, 2003, pg. 60). The smaller secondary figure is trying to hold the monster back.
The painting projects a vivid sense of danger and total destructiveness. “The monster’s violent nature is perfectly clear from its menacing claws, its fluttering garments in glowing colours, its expansive gestures, with its raised left hand making some kind of magical sign, and it’s enraged stomping in front of a low-lying horizon” (Rewald & Spies, 2005, pg. 28). The gesture of the outstretched arms is more expansive but does not seem so menacing, inasmuch as it does not threaten to burst the boundaries of the picture. The monster appears not to be acting so much as reacting to something.
A number of details that Rewald pointed out are as follows: “On the creatures right foot in the Munich picture is a house slipper – an allusion to the title L’ange du Foyer (Fire Side Angle), whereas in the large canvas it is a horses hoof, suggesting the devil. His right hand, lacking the long claws of the other beast, still has some resemblance to human anatomy. His left arm, by contrast, appears to dissolve into vegetable forms. The fluttering drapery on this arm can be interpreted as an object: it calls to mind a blood red executioners ax. And the monster’s grimace is hideously repulsive.
Thus, terror is not entirely banished from the smaller picture” (Rewald & Spies, 2005, pg. 29). Attached to an arm and a leg of the beast in the painting is a small, no less monstrous creature that seems more amphibian. Rewald describes the creature as having a “gaping birds beak and long frog legs,” she says that “it combines irreconcilable elements [of] air and water” (Rewald & Spies, 2005, pg. 29). In addition, the obviously female creature exudes a crude eroticism: her thick thighs are spread far apart, exposing a button-like sex organ.
And according to Rewald, it is impossible to overlook her obscene gesture, which has infuriated the trampling beast and caused him to leap so high (Rewald & Spies, 2005, pg. 29). Despite the individual differences, says Bischoff, all the themes and subjects of Max Ernst’s work had a political dimension (Bischoff, 2003, pg. 57), none more so than his L’ange du Foyer. This painting consisted of three versions, called the ‘Angel of Heart and Home’ series. The ‘Angel of Heart and Home’ is an ironic title, Ernst says, for a kind of “juggernaut, which crushes and destroys all that comes in its path.
That was my impression at the time of what would probably happen in the world, and I was right (about WWII)” (Ernst in Schneede, 1972, pg. 154). The monster is seen as being driven solely by an instinct for power, he represents a variety of governmental, military, and ecclesiastical authorities, crushing and killing everything that stands in his way, especially women. In 1938, Ernst gave the picture, for a time, the title ‘The Triumph of Surrealism,’ “a despairing reference to the fact that the Surrealists with their Communist ideas had been unable to do anything to resist Fascism” (Schneed, 1972, pg. 54). Ernst’s additions to Surrealism Max Ernst, a primary pioneer of the Dada movement and Surrealism has, through his art, brought us to a dream-like state time and time again. Surrealism is meant to bring us to our inner child, and exercise our imaginations. In practicing this discipline, Ernst was able to eliminate the notion of artist as creator as well as the idea of ‘artistic talent. ’ Through experimentation and his skillfulness, he was able to deliver us many great works of art, including Oedipus Rex and L’ange du Foyer.
Oedipus Rex was the first time Ernst was able to transfer the technique of collage to a large-scale painting, and through this work he permeated the idea that the desire for the ‘forbidden fruit’ or curiosity is, many times, immediately punished (Bischoff, 2003). With L’ange du Foyer, Ernst deliberately made a reference to war, projecting a vivid sense of danger and destructiveness. He was able to bring his ideas on war to a surreal, phantasmagorical state. Oedipus Rex(1922) and L’ange du Foyer(1937) are a couple of the most important additions to the Surrealist movement. Ernst, through these works, was able to establish many significant elements linked to Surrealism including the use of collage and bringing the audience to a dream like state with his overtly spine-chilling creations.
References Bischoff, U. (2003). Max Ernst : 1891-1976 Beyond Painting. (J. Harrison, Trans. ) Koln, Germany: Taschen. Camfield, W. A. (1993). Max Ernst: Dada and the Dawn of Surrealisn. Munich: Prestel. Gimferrer, P. (1983). Max Ernst. New York: Rizzoli International Publications Inc. Harrison, C. (2003). Art in Theory 1900-2000. US: Wiley-Blackwell. Hofmann, W. , Schmied, W. & Spies, W. (1973). Max Ernst, Inside the Sight. Houton, Texas: Institute for the Arts, Rice University. Rewald, S. , & Spies, W. (2005). Max Ernst : A Retrospective. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Schneede, U. M. (1972). The essential Max Ernst. (R. W. Last, Trans. ) London: Thames and Hudson. Spalding, J. J. (1979). Max Ernst: from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Jimmy Ernst. Clagary, Alberta: Glenbow Museum. Spies, W. (2006). Max Ernst: Life and Work. London: Thames and Hudson. Stern, F. (2009, January). Surrealism: The Alternate Reality. CPI. Q (Canadian Periodicals) .

Key Aspects of Surrealism Inaugurated by Max Ernst

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Dadaism And Surrealism

Dadaism And Surrealism.
Introduction: The 19th. Century was an era of invention and discovery. The horrors of the First World War led to widespread social trauma. People found consolation in art and literature, and used it as a way to express their outrage caused by the war. People demented a form of expression that was honest, realistic, and critical of political and social behaviors. This Disillusionment following the war manifested itself in a number of ways, sparking artistic, literary, philosophical, musical, and cultural movements.
In contrast to pre-war artistic movements, such as Impressionism, post- ar art became bleak and cynical, changing the rules, abandoning tradition. Literature mirrored the artistic movements in exposing the atrocities committed during the world war. Some people were revolted by nationalism and what it had caused; so, they began to work towards a more internationalist world through organizations such as the League of Nations. Pacifism became increasingly popular. Others had the opposite reaction, feeling that only military strength could be relied on.
Dadaism Dada or Dadaism was a post-World War I cultural movement in visual art as well as literature (mainly poetry), theatre and graphic design. The movement was originated in Zurich and Trace in 1916. This movement was a protest against the barbarism of the War. Its works were characterized by a deliberate irrationality and the rejection of the prevailing standards of art. There was also a rejection of war politics and social organization. Characteristics: Dada artworks allow the viewer to interpret artworks in a variety of ways.

It was an artistic revolt and protest against traditional beliefs of a pro-war society, and also fought against sexism/racism to a lesser degree. It was an anti-war movement created by artists around Europe as a way to express he troubles and traumas within societies affected by the war itself. Influences by Futurism, Cubism and Expressionism Collage Technique of cutting pieces of paper items and including items such as transportation tickets, maps, plastic wrappers, etc. To portray aspects of everyday life.
Photometer Dadaists used scissors and glue rather than paintbrushes and paints to express their views of modern life through images presented by the media. Photometer utilized actual or reproductions of real photographs printed in the press. Key figures: Tristan Tsar (1896 – 1963) was a Romania avian-garden poet, essayist and reference artist. Also active as a Journalist, playwright, literary and art critic, composer and film director, he was known best for being one of the founders and central figures of the anti-establishment Dada movement. Hannah Hooch (1889 – 1978) was a German Dada artist.
She was one of the originators of photometer. Francis Pica (1879 – 1953) was a French painter, poet, and typographic, associated with Cubism, Abstract art, Dada and Surrealism. Surrealism Surrealism is a cultural and artistic movement that began in the sass’s in Paris. It is best known for its visual artworks and writings. The movement spread around the globe, eventually affecting the visual arts, literature, film, and music of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice, philosophy, and social theory. The aim was to “resolve the previously contradictory conditions of dream and reality. Artists developed painting techniques that allowed the unconscious to express itself. The goal of Surrealist artists was not to produce lifelike replications of people or objects, nor were these artists concerned with creating works of delightful abstract beauty to delight the eyes. They were instead focused upon using all forms of art as a meaner to express the real functioning of the human mind. Fraud’s work with free association, dream analysis, and the unconscious was of utmost importance to the Surrealists in developing methods to liberate imagination.
Surrealism in all its forms is highly concerned with dreams and the subconscious mind. Surrealist art does not shy away from shocking, sexual or violent imagery; artists within this school actively sought to push the boundaries of what was considered socially acceptable and artistically valid. Surrealist literature Lit©return contained automatism works and accounts of dreams. Examples of Surrealist literature are Artist’s El Pees-Nerds (1926), Argon’s Urine’s Count (1927), P©retest’s Death to the Pigs (1929), Creel’s Mr.. Knife Miss Fork (1931), Shades Headway’s the Blind Owl (1937), and Bretons Sure la route De San Romano (1948).
Surrealist films Early films by Surrealists include: Un Chine Nodal by Luis Bundle and Salvador Dali (1929) L’?GE door by Bundle and Dali (1930) Music by Surrealists Jazz and blues music were very important during this movement Key figures: Salvador Dali was an Spanish painter and filmmaker whose melting clocks and five- egged stick animals are easily recognized throughout the world. Like the other Surrealists, Dali sought to explore the nature of the artist’s true self by embracing the marvelous, irrational, subconscious areas of the mind.
The Persistence of Memory is a painting by the famous Spanish surrealist artist Salvador Dali. The original title of this painting is “La persistence De la memoriam” and it depicts a fetus-like head lying on the ground, like a fish that was washed ashore and now decaying after a lost struggle gasping for air. There are four watches in this painting, three of which appear to be molten, as if made out of cheese. The only watch whose structure doesn’t appear to be malformed – unlike other watches it is orange in color – is sitting on a desk-like object.
The ants seem to have found a point of interest in the centre of the orange watch. It possibly derives its meaning from Sigmund Fraud’s work on psychoanalysis because Dali painted it during his psychoanalytical era of painting. Interpretation 1: The persistence of memory meaning theme: the drooping backstretches possibly suggest the irrelevance of time during sleep. In other words, when we are asleep, or not conscious, the time does not persist, but memories do. Interpretation 2: Yet another interpretation of this painting may, through the use of symbolism, suggest Einstein theory that time is relative and is not fixed.
Conclusion Art movements are born out of the need for people to express their reactions to social, political and religious changes. Whether they accept them or openly disdain them the goals are equal in velocity: To promote their perspective of current changes. In most situations, new movements will gradually appear on the art scene. As the movement grows it will offer the artists an opportunity to explore new philosophies hill extending an invitation for them to enlist among the ranks, adopt some of the ideas or continue to remain loyal to their current trend.
The new movement will no doubt meet with resistance from critics and patrons alike, who usually perceive the new movement as nothing more than an unsolicited crusade with little or no hope of survival. The artists, on the other hand, adamant that the message conveyed through their art is critical, will continue to push forward with their movement until it gains acceptance or has reached its apex and has nothing new to offer in the way of ideas.

Dadaism And Surrealism

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Realism vs. Surrealism

Realism vs. Surrealism.
Why is he so important? What makes is death so significant? ” Realism vs.. Surrealism Books are a major piece in the puzzle of life. When books, a source that points out a society’s imperfections, are taken away, humanity is lost. In Ray Bradbury scientific novel Fahrenheit 451 , firemen are the people to start fires, rather than extinguish them, as they do in the modern world. They also investigate homes that are reported to be sheltering books.
Owning books and reading books is against the law in this eating, and if any are found during the investigation, the owner is arrested and the books are burned. Captain Beauty, the leader of the firemen, is portrayed as a mysterious and suspicious man, who goes around quoting books during the day, and burning them at night. Later on in the story it was made clear that Captain Beauty has read books in his lifetime; however he turned away from them because he was required to think on his own.
Ray Bradbury created this character to show that the awareness of imperfections in society can, in some case, lead to the missing desire to use the knowledge. Beauty is the type of person, who after learning the truth and reality, returns to the unreality he was used to. This relates to Plat’s Allegory of the Cave. The cave that Plato thought of was set up with prisoners chained up, facing a wall that projects shadows originating from puppets behind the prisoners on a platform. Beneath the platform and behind the prisoners is an opening which leads into the real world.

The essence of the philosophy is that a prisoner is let go into the real world with the knowledge they have, such as the puppets’ shadows. For example, if a prisoner saw a go in the real world, he would think that it is fake, because he accepted the reality of the shadow of the dog projected on the cave wall. The slave then realizes, the images shown in the cave are an unreality. Once they are exposed to the truth they cannot return to the life they once knew. The character Beauty was a representation of a prisoner or slave chained up in the cave.
Beauty became free, and he started reading books and questioning society, representing the transition from the cave to the real world. The moment he was exposed to the truth, he did not enjoy it, because he had o think on his own. Beauty then returned to the life he knows is a lie. Despite the fact that Beauty returned to the cave, he read the books so intuitively that he was able to quote them and give them some significance to his life. When Montage felt sick, Beauty visited him because he knew Montage had stolen a book from the reported house they investigated the previous night. He lectured Montage on how nothing valuable comes from books.
For example, during the lecture Beauty says “Well, Montage, take my word for it, I’ve had to read a few in my time, to know what I was about, and the books say thing! Nothing you can teach or believe” (62). By saying this to Montage, Beauty is trying to prevent him from “leaving the cave” or learning that humanity has many imperfections. Beauty feared that if Montage learns the truth about the society they live in, he will also be cowardly to make a difference and return to the unreality as Beauty has done. Despite the fact that Beauty returned to the false world, his ‘contaminated’ mind could not forget the lessons he had learned from books.
Beauty’s character served a purpose to demonstrate that there is a restriction towards what en can do; however, with all the knowledge of humanity Beauty has acquired, he chooses not to do anything. Beauty served as a very significant character throughout the novel. He is a combination of Montage, someone who wanted to learn about the imperfections, and Mildred, a shallow and a cowardly person. He is similar to Montage in the sense that he read books, and questioned society. Montage, however, wanted to make a difference, so he came up with a plan. “If you thought it would be a plan worth trying, I’d have to take you word it would help” (86).
Montage thought of a plan to sabotage he lives of the firemen by planting books in their houses, having them arrested, and as a result their houses would be burned. They would be left with nothing and they would be in Jail. This would give Montage and his helper, Faber, time to plant more books in other civilian homes. Beauty displayed many of the qualities that Montage possessed, despite the fact that Montage was proactive to solve problems. Beauty is similar to Mildred because he learned all this valuable information, yet he threw it away, because he did not want to burden himself with thinking about the books and hat they truly meant.
When Montage shows Mildred, his wife, all of the books he has been hiding, he asks her to read them with him. As they are reading Mildred, who is too confused and frustrated, shouts “What does it mean? It doesn’t mean anything! ” (68). Mildred did not understand why she had to think about the book, and Beauty returned to the cave’ for the same reason. He did not want to go through the tedious process of thinking about what the books mean. Despite the frustration, when Beauty quotes the books throughout the novel, it indicates he received meeting from books; however, it was not enough for him to completely leave the cave.
With Beauty being aware of the knowledge he has, but refusing to make a change, his death is instantly made significant. Before his death he quotes the famous line from the Shakespearian tragedy Julius Caesar “There is no terror, Cassias, in your threats, for I am arm’s so strong in honesty that they pass me as an idle wind, which I respect not! ” (119). Beauty says this to Montage, while he is pointing a flamethrower directly at Beauty, to show him that he is not scared to die. In that same vein, when Montage kills Beauty, before him is the path he must take to make a difference; however, without the obstacle: Beauty.
Montage is no longer surrounded with the constant reminder that books and independent thoughts are useless. Later on in the novel, a terrifying realization dawns over Montage; that Beauty wanted to purposefully die. He says “Beauty wanted to die,” as he comes up with an explanation for Beauty’s unusual wish. Beats desire to die, was because he was not satisfied with what his life has become. He had gone through the trouble of escaping the cave, reading the kooks and trying to understand their content. Unfortunately, Beauty was unwilling to think on his own, therefore he returned to the unrealistic life.
While seconds away from his death, Beauty sees an image of what he could have become if he put aside his frustration with comprehending the books ; Montage, a person who chooses to use the knowledge he has gained. Both firemen started out the same way. They both loved their Job, but one day they started questioning society which led them to reading books. Montage, however, wanted to make a differ Renee and learn to understand the world that was hidden away from him, while Beauty returned to the cave because it was the easier life to live.
Ray Bradbury novel Fahrenheit 451 follows the framework of Plat’s Allegory of the Cave, and although many characters have to partake in the Journey of leaving the cave, a single character Beauty, has a unique participation in the Journey of exiting the cave. When Beauty is introduced in the setting quoting books, his character’s demeanor takes an unexpected turn. He is perceived as a tough and loyal fireman; however, no one knows that in the past, he was a law-breaker.
Beauty was curious to discover the content of those mysterious books and he read many attentively, and received enough knowledge to quote them in any type of circumstance. He became too frustrated with comprehending the books which led to his willing transition from reality to unreality. Ray Bradbury created this character to show the ignorance of humanity when one must think independently. Captain Beauty was important to the novel because he was a controversy between Mildred, a shallow prisoner, and Montage, a prisoner trying to escape. Without the combination of the two, there would to be any balance.
Captain Beauty’s death, allowed Montage to continue his Journey with the eradication of his main obstacle. It also was significant because it revealed to the reader that Captain Beauty was miserable living in the fake world when he had already been exposed to the true imperfections of society, and he could not live with himself that he sacrificed a chance to make a change, the way Montage has. Without books, the imperfections of society are not pointed out and many people gain the courage to understand the truth rather than accepting the reality that is presented to them.

Realism vs. Surrealism

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Surrealism and Film

Surrealism and Film.
Abstract
This essay has been written to explore the metaphor behind the surrealist film Un Chien Andalou. Harper and Stone (2007) have stated that this ‘…revealed the cinema as the true metaphor of the dream state…’ Harper and Stone (2007:8). This essay will be discussed in conjunction with the Surrealist movement, a brief overview of scholars work to date shall then be given, the film will then be introduced, then the directors intentions shall be discussed. From here the metaphor of the dream, state shall then be examined and then a brief outline of Freud shall be given.
Once each of these factors have been discussed conclusions shall be drawn regarding the statement that the surrealist film Un Chien Andalou ‘… revealed the cinema as the true metaphor of the dream state…’ Harper and Stone (2007:8).

1. Introduction
This essay has been written to explore the metaphor behind the surrealist film Un Chien Andalou. Since the surrealism movement started in the 1920s, many have noted the similarities between films that were produced during this time and this faction. At this time, films that were produced were experimental. They explored relationships between reality and the many images, which could be shown, on the screen to many people. They explored these realities through a number of means by reflecting what they perceived to be a dream world, which could capture the imagination and consciousness of mass audiences. Thus, reality was redefined through these films to seek to capture the hearts and minds of this generation.
Many of the early surrealists wrote about how the cinema at this time reflected the reality of the present say. Yet unlike many other forms of art, film was not truly perceived as being surrealist at this time as much as, poetry, fiction, painting, photography, or collage. Subsequently, the scholarship that has evolved around the development of surrealism and film has become highly varied. Each of these variations is due to the time in which scholars have sought to examine these two factors in conjunction with each other.
The earliest examinations of the relationships between surrealism and film were mainly derived from French writers who sought to understand why these films were so popular (Dennison & Lim, 2006; Kyrou, 2005). Then a second group of scholars started to examine surrealist films, their directors, and a number of other related scenarios. These scholars believed that each of these factors had influenced each other whilst these films had been made. Finally, more recently, a number of scholars have sought to understand the relationships between these films and surrealism (Dennison & Lim, 2006; Kyrou, 2005). They have sought to develop a number of theories or concepts that allow these phenomena to be classified into a number of fields such as, literary or cultural studies (Kyrou, 2005). Each of these forms of academic investigation into the relationships between surrealism and these films has resulted in a number of differing viewpoints. One of these is that the surrealist film Un Chien Andalou ‘… revealed the cinema as the true metaphor of the dream state…’ Harper and Stone (2007:8), however there are also others. These scholar’s views shall now be briefly outlined to seek to understand what these are.
2.Academic Studies and Surrealism
In order to fully understand how Harper and Stone (2006), reached their understanding of surrealism, it is necessary to give a brief overview on how academics have examined this and the factors surrounding it, in relation to film. Therefore a brief overview of this shall now be undertaken.
As has already been outlined above, a number of scholars have sought to explore the relationships between film and surrealism. Many of these started to be undertaken in the middle of the 20th century (Graham & Labanyi, 1995; Kyrou, 2005). Many film critics, which were associated with the French cinema movement also sought to understand these relationships between the surrealist movement and cinema (Graham & Labanyi, 1995; Kyrou, 2005). However, since this time academics have sought to understand a number of elements, which may be derived from specific disciplines. Matthews (1971) and Kovacs (1980) started to seek to understand the general interests that the surrealists had in film and they wanted to know what the aspirations of these thinkers were in relation to the specific elements of each film. Thus, the analysis of the surrealist movement and film started to take shape. Beyond this, other scholars such as, Short (2008) and Richardson (2006) started to discuss the actual surrealist film makers in an attempt to bridge the gap between what they were trying to attain whilst they were making these films, as many other scholars had focused on a number of other specific elements (Kyrou, 2005). Other works had focused on analysing the relationships between surrealism and cinema, such as, Lancanian psycholinguistic analysis (Williams, 1981) and theories that are more recently new have evolved. Both Kuenzli (1996) and Harper and Stone (2006) have broadened these examinations of the relationships between surrealism and cinema. Kuenzli (1996) focuses on the French surrealist films that were produced in the 1920s and 1930s, whereas Harper and Stone (2006) have sought to understand the cultural genres, which may be associated with these surrealistic films. In particular, Harper and Stone (2006) surmise that:
“….Surrealist cinema presents an unsilvered screen offering no refection to an audience except the possibility of examining, through unsettling the status quo, the truth of their own lives; reality, that is caught in the moments, the memories, the unexpected glimpses beyond the everyday. A sometimes dark Truth, therefore, but equally an often potent comedy of human existence” (Harper and Stone, 2006: 8).
Thus, they have sought to understand the cultural aspects that may be related to surrealism and film. However, though this is a useful way through which to understand the relationship between surrealism and film (Bordwell, Thompson & Ashton, 1997). There is much more that may be said about the relationship between these two factors, one may considered the origins, manifestations, images and a number of other surrealist works which may have influenced this movement. One may also examine the fact that the surrealist movement if often associated with the idea of revolt. This was because what evolved in the ear of the First World War era, where ideas were rejected, as they appeared to be out-dated in a radical time of political or social change and devastation. This, it may be seen that surrealism tried to address these out-dated ideas by seeking to explored new means of expression which were relevant to the time when they were produced. The fact is that it encompassed so many ideas and so many variable forms of art that it may be examined by scholars from a number of perspectives. From this, it may be derived that there is not one way of examining the relationships between surrealism and film. However, for the purposes of this essay, we shall now seek to understand this in the context of the surrealist film Un Chien Andalou that Harper and Stone believed ‘… revealed the cinema as the true metaphor of the dream state…’ (Harper and Stone, 2007:8).
1. Freud and the surrealist movement
Freud was an Austrian neurologist and psychoanalyst he studied under Jean-Martin Charcot before opening his own medical practice in Vienna. He is best known for his theories of the unconscious mind, which have been alluded to throughout this essay. He believed that he could understand the unconscious mind through the practice of psychoanalysis (Freud, 1913). This consisted of a specialised dialogue that was undertaken through free association between a doctor and his patient. He became renowned for a number of his theories at this time however; the most pertinent to surrealism is his theory of dreams. He published his Interpretation of Dreams in the early part of the twentieth century (Freud, 1913). In it, he states that:
“The naive judgment of the dreamer on waking assumes that the dream – even if it does not come from another world – has at all events transported ….all the material composing the content of a dream is somehow derived from experience, that it is reproduced or remembered in the dream – this at least may be accepted as an incontestable fact. Yet, it would be wrong to assume that such a connection between the dream-content and reality will be easily obvious from a comparison between the two. On the contrary, the connection must be carefully sought, and in quite a number of cases, it may for a long while elude discovery. The reason for this is to be found in a number of peculiarities evinced by the faculty of memory in dreams; which peculiarities, though generally observed, have hitherto defied explanation. It will be worth our while to examine these characteristics exhaustively the dreamer into another world.” (Freud, 1913: Preface)
Twenty to thirty years later, the surrealist movement used this as they sought to depict how dreams may be used to depict reality (Bordwell, Thompson & Ashton, 1997). This is shown through the film, which is discussed in more detail below.
2.The Film Un Chien Andalou
In his autobiography, the director, Luis Bunuel, wrote about his film Un Chien Andalou he stated that:
“…I’d felt increasingly seduced by that passion for the irrational which was so characteristic of surrealism… in the working out of the plot every idea of a rational, aesthetic or other preoccupation with technical matters was rejected as irrelevant….”(Bunuel, 1984: 100).
He also alludes to his own approach to surrealism:
“The real purpose of surrealism was not to create a new literary, artistic, or even philosophical movement, but to explode the social order, to transform life itself.” (Bunuel, 1984: 107).
Both of these statements provide us with a useful insight into what Bunuel was seeking to achieve. He saw that the script and the film as a production from his unconscious. He regarded this as a great resource through which he could express and understand irrational things, which formed the world around him. Thus, one approach that may be adopted to understand the film Un Chien Andalou may be to seek to treat the film as a manifestation of the director’s psychological processes either from an unconscious or conscious perspective (Williams, 1981). One could adopt an approach that is derived from psychoanalysis to seek to understand his motivations and thought processes. Either way, we must consider the emotional aspects, which are related to this film, as this is how the director created Un Chien Andalou. This could be undertaken through examining the visual experiences of an audience as they watched the film or through examining the dialogue and its metaphors. Breton commented that:
“the Surrealist atmosphere created by automatic writing, which I have wanted to put within the reach of everyone, is especially conducive to the production of the most beautiful images.” (Breton, 1924: online)
For him, the images were in the surrealist films that were so striking. He believed that these created juxtaposition between two opposing elements, which were reality, and fantasy, like the “man cut in two by the window“(Breton, 1924: online). Thus one may say that from this perspective that Harper and Stones statement that surrealist films ‘…revealed the cinema as the true metaphor of the dream state…’ (Harper and Stone, 2007:8), was true. This may be seen as one of the key strengths of this genre, it reveals and explores a new reality, which the audience may experience first hand.
Many have said that the imagery in Bunuel’s films was very beautiful and unforgettable (see as an example: Breton, 1924: Harper and Stone, 2007). This is what made them so emotionally insightful and gave the audience the feeling that they understood their conflicts and desires. A sequence from this film may be used as an example to illustrate this. The extract sequence begins after the stranger in a suit and hat enters the cyclist’s room, pulls off the cyclist’s drag garb and box and throws them out the window, then orders him to stand facing the wall with his arms up as if on a crucifix:
An inter- title reads, “Seize ans avant (Sixteen years ago)”, and as the stranger turns to leave, we find that he is a spitting image of the cyclist. He spots some books scribbled upon by ink, walks over, closes the books, and holds them to his chest with an air of disapproval. He returns to the cyclist, still standing by the wall, and hands him the books, shaking his head as if in disappointment. After he turns once again to leave, the cyclist suddenly spins around with a glower on his face, and the books in his hands become guns. The doppelganger turns to face the cyclist with a hurt look, but the cyclist mercilessly fires several shots. The doppelganger’s eyes roll back and he begins his slow-motion collapse, but falls in a meadow by a gentle lake, next to a nude woman who sits with her back facing the camera. He reaches out and tries to clasp her, but his fingers claw down her bare back, and he falls as the woman vanishes.
This excerpt show sus how we may seek to understand this film from a number of perspectives, if we adopt a psychoanalytical approach to this we can see that the cyclist may have been disenchanted with constraining effects of the super ego and thus, he lashes out by retaliating by turning the objects against him, the books are turned into weapons which he uses like guns. The killing of the doppelganger, which is like a father to him, seems to be related to the Oedipal complex interpretations too. This sequence is also emotionally powerful and this reflects the ids impulse that allows us to act out, thus a number of emotions are acted out though the surrealist nature of this film. From this when we review Harper and Stones statement that surrealist films ‘… revealed the cinema as the true metaphor of the dream state…’ (Harper and Stone, 2007:8), we may see that this statement may also be extended to the psychoanalytical means through which this film maybe examined.
In conclusion, whether the director’s film was created by his unconscious mind or his conscious reality, which he perceived to be true, we can see how surrealism may have sought to imitate those images, which may be derived from a dream state that is created in our unconscious mind. Thus, the director and the film that he has created have explored and depicted a new reality that some may relate to through a series of emotional responses.
3.The metaphor of a dream state
From this when we review Harper and Stones statement that surrealist films ‘… revealed the cinema as the true metaphor of the dream state…’ (Harper and Stone, 2007:8), we can see what the surrealists saw dreams as. They believed that this was one way through which they could gain access to the unconscious and in making these films, they also gave others access to the parts of their minds which they may not normally be aware of (Bordwell, Thompson & Ashton, 1997). From his perspective, they used their films as a metaphor through which they could show audiences the dream state, as Breton (1924) states:
“It is quite right that Freud has analysed dreams. It is inadmissible that this considerable part of our psychic activity should have received so little attention” (Breton, 1924: 21–22).
This, through these films reality was depicted as a dream and dreams were depicted as reality. These states were derived from Freud’s theory of dreams, which was created at this time, thus this had a significant influence on the surrealist movement.
The image was very important to the surrealist movement and thus we may see how the film Un Chien Andalou may be to seen as a manifestation of the directors psychological processes either from an unconscious or conscious perspective (Williams, 1981). This is pertinent in regards to the statement that was to be discussed at the beginning of this essay which was surrealist films ‘… revealed the cinema as the true metaphor of the dream state…’ (Harper and Stone, 2007:8). Now we may fully understand how Harper and Stone (2007) reached their conclusions.
4.Conclusion
In conclusion the statement which was made by Harper and Stone (2007) which states that surrealist films ‘… revealed the cinema as the true metaphor of the dream state…’ (Harper and Stone, 2007:8) in relation to the film Un Chien Andalou, may be seen to be derived from a number of perspectives. These are based on the images, which are depicted in the film, the director’s unconscious or conscious mind that influenced how the film was made, the sequences, which occurred throughout the film and the ways through which each of these factors may be understood through psychoanalytical theory or Freud’s work the Interpretation of Dreams (Freud, 1913).
Each of these factors shows how this film was derived and sought to show mass audiences how reality may be depicted through the metaphor of dreams. This is the common approach which has been associated with the surrealist movement and each of the forms of art or expression that are used to depict how reality may be perceived by dreams and vice versa. From this perspective the analysis and the discussion, which has been undertaken in this essay, supports the statement, which was made by Harper and Stone (2007).
However, though that conclusion may be drawn in relation to the discussion that has been undertaken through this essay other conclusions may also be drawn. These are related to the means through which the analysis of the surrealist movement saw and sought to create metaphorical depictions of reality through the expression of the dream state via a number of means. There is much more that may be said about the relationship between these two factors, one may considered the origins, manifestations, images and a number of other surrealist works which may have influenced this movement. One may also examine the fact that the surrealist movement if often associated with the idea of revolt. This was because what evolved in the ear of the First World War era, where ideas were rejected, as they appeared to be out-dated in a radical time of political or social change and devastation. Thus, it may be seen that surrealism tried to address these out-dated ideas by seeking to explore new means of expression, which were relevant to the time when they were produced. The fact is that it encompassed so many ideas and so many variable forms of art that scholars from a number of perspectives may examine it. From this, it may be derived that there is not one way of examining the relationships between surrealism and film.
References
Bordwell, D., Thompson, K., & Ashton, J. (1997). Film art: an introduction (Vol. 7). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Breton, A. (1924) Manifesto of Surrealism. Available from http://pers-www.wlv.ac.uk/~fa1871/surrext.html (Accessed 29/05/2013)
Bunuel, L. (1984) My Last Sigh. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Dennison, S., & Lim, S. H. (2006). Remapping world cinema: identity, culture and politics in film. Wallflower Pr.
Freud, S. (1913) The Interpretation of Dreams, Third Edition. Trans. by A. A. Brill. New York: The Macmillan Company.
Graham, H., & Labanyi, Y. J. (Eds.). (1995). Spanish cultural studies: an introduction: the struggle for modernity (p. 18). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Harper, G. and Stone, R. (2007) The Unsilvered Screen: Surrealism on Film. London: Wallflower.
Kovacs, S. (1980) From Enchantment to Rage: The Story of Surrealist Cinema. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press.
Kuenzli, R. (1996) Dada and Surrealist Film. Cambridge, MA. MIT Press.
Kyrou, A. (2005) Le surrealisme au cinema. Paris: Editions Ramsay.
Matthews, J. H. (1971) Surrealism and Film. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Short, R. (2008) The Age of Gold: Surrealist Cinema. Los Angeles: Solar.
Richardson, M. (2006) Surrealism and Cinema. Oxford: Berg.
Williams, L. (1981) Figures of Desire: A Theory and Analysis of Surrealist Film. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Surrealism and Film

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In what ways has Surrealism influenced fashion

In what ways has Surrealism influenced fashion.
In what ways has Surrealism influenced fashion, and how successful are the results? You will need to include discussion of two examples. By likeability 1. What is surrealism? “Surrealism is destructive, but it destroys only what it considers to be shackles limiting our vision. ” Young Night Thoughts are surrealist from cover to cover. Unfortunately, it is a priest who speaks; a bad priest, to be sure, yet a priest. Heraclites is surrealist in dialectic. Lully is surrealist in definition. Flame is surrealist in the night of gold. Swift is surrealist in malice. Shade is surrealist in sadism. Carrier is surrealist in drowning.
Monk Lewis is surrealist in the beauty of evil. Chin von Arming is surrealist absolutely; in space and time Rabble is surrealist in death. Baudelaire is surrealist in morals. Rumbaed is surrealist in life and elsewhere. Harvey Saint-Deny is surrealist in the directed dream. Carroll is surrealist in nonsense. Husband is surrealist in pessimism. Serrate is surrealist in design. Picasso is surrealist in cubism. Bach© is surrealist in me. Rousseau is surrealist in anecdote (And© Breton, 1934, A lecture given in Brussels on 1st June 1934 at a public meeting regained by the Belgian Surrealists, http://home. Lb. AC. UK) “Surrealism is based on the belief in the superior reality of certain forms of previously neglected association, in the omnipotence of dream, in the disinterested play of thought. ” -Andre Breton In the sass, the world was going through one of its ‘all time IoW phases. There was war, or worse, the fear of war, the artists who had been scattered as the result, (who were earlier based in Paris of other cities) became of the mindset that it was the overly rational thinking, the so called ‘high rationale’ of human mind that had brought upon this war.
This resulted in an inspired thought that led to a revolution. Thus the idea to follow the unconscious mind arrived, no matter how bizarre its ideas may seem. ‘The word Surrealism was invented in 1917 by Gallinule Billionaire, and adopted by fellow French poet, And© Breton, in 1924 to describe a radical movement of artists and writers, who drew on their subconscious to depict a heightened or “super-real” vision of the world. (The Surrealist comeback in design, Alice Rawson, The New York times, March 25, 2007) Perhaps this is a little hard to understand, but one of the best examples to describe owe a surrealist thinks is a Salvador Dali quote; when asked “do you take drugs”, he answered, to the interviewer’s bewilderment, “l do not take drugs. I am drugs. ” The man who commercialese the surreal – Salvador Dali Salvador Dali needs no introduction to anyone who has even remotely studied art. Not only was Dali a tremendously gifted painter, but also a designer, photographer, thinker and an extraordinary witty writer.

His autobiography ‘The secret life of Salvador Dali’ gives a very good insight into his thought process and his ideas. He was one of the first artists who brought the idea of surrealism from paper (And© Breton was a poet) to the visual arts, thus making it commercial and marketable. According to many, the idea of making surrealist art commercial was against the idea of surrealism. But as the history goes, the artists who had surrealist themes were very successful in the later sass’s.
The surrealist ideas were incorporated into fashion when Salvador Dali famously collaborated with the Italian designer Else Capillaries. The collection consisted of Lobster Dress – Lobster Dress was a simple white silk evening dress with a crimson waistband featuring a large lobster painted (by Dali) onto the skirt. Ђ Tears Dress – The Tears Dress, a slender pale blue evening gown printed with a Dali design of tromped Leila rips and tears, worn with a thigh-length veil with “real” tears carefully cut out and lined in pink and magenta. Ђ Skeleton dress – skeleton dress was a stark black crepe dress which used transport quilting to create padded ribs, spine, and leg bones. Shoe hat – the shoe hats were a particular sensation, hats that were the underside of heels on the top. Before Salvador Dali, many artists had already put forward surrealist works, and though not many are worthy of being mentioned in the name breath as Dali, some of the noticeable ones are – Giorgio De Chorizo (1888-1978) Chorizo’s early paintings were perhaps a vital key in the development of the surrealist style of painting.
Characterized by images of empty town squares, suspended corridors and macabre ghost town like depictions of streets and town squares looked like his imagination of a post war era and were full of a sort of haunting loneliness and grim. Cluttered with puzzling objects, such as clocks, giant statues and distant trains, and often featuring deep, dramatic perspectives, De Chorizo’s paintings left an indelible mark on Breton and numerous other future Surrealists.
Among his works from this early Metaphysical period are The Enigma of the Arrival and the Afternoon (1912), The Anxious Journey (1913), The Nostalgia of the Infinite (1913), Mystery and Melancholy of a Street (1914) and The Child’s Brain (1914). By the time of the first Manifesto of Surrealism, De Chorizo had moved on to a far more classical approach, much to the chagrin of Breton. He participated in Surrealist activities up to 1925, contributing to the periodicals Lilt©return and La R©volition Sour©aliases, as well as eater writing a Surrealist novel Hobbyhorses in 1929.
Rene© Francis Emigrate Some people say that it was the haunting memory of his mother who committed suicide when he was 14 years old. It is said that he witnessed her face covered by her dress as she was pulled out of the water (she committed suicide by throwing herself in a nearby river) the haunting symbolism remained an inspiration for him, even for his famous work Less Aments. Let us come back to the point in history when the surrealist movement that And© Breton had started as a rebellion for poets had captured the minds of designers and as successfully incorporated into fashion by a crazy Spaniard.
After the collaboration of Dali and Capillaries, many designers tried surrealism as a theme but only a few were successful as a whole. Fashion and surrealism The fashion object could be a most powerful force in the simultaneous deconstruction of the figure and remembrance of its presence that inevitably dwells in the garment. Just as music could be envisioned as both an abstract form and physical presence, so too the biomorphic abstractions that characterize much Surrealist art found their way into the free forms of dress and the definition of the unman being as an abstract flow among units of the body.
The creation of illusion gives to clothing the enough implications of narrative and mystery to occur as a function of dress. According to the influential Surrealist gallery owner Julia Levi, Else Capillaries was the only fashion designer to interpret Surrealism successfully. From the starting of her Paris shop to its closing, Capillaries reconciled fashion an art, by interpreting the modern aesthetic and then Joining forces with artists who were at the time highly forward in their time. Such out of such her collaboration with Salvador Dali is a reorient one.
To be dressed by Capillaries was to acquire confidence and chic, whether one was beautiful or not. Schizophrenia’s fashion philosophy was grounded in classical mythology, particularly Ovid and the Pygmalion myth, and its stories of magical transformation and metamorphosis, themes also explored by the Surrealists. Her fashion was not only surreal and unique but also easy to wear and very feasible. Because she was able to make this transition and bring the surreal in the real world not only in theory but also in clothes that could be work in a casual manner along tit a style statement that associated a person with the surreal movement.
It is not a less known fact that she inspired one of the leading fashion designers of our time, the late Lee Alexander Macaque who had a travel case or Luggage in his shop that was visibly inspired from Schizophrenia’s skeleton dress. In the sass’s, transformation was symbolized by the butterfly. Schizophrenia’s collection of the 1938 Exposition International du Surrealism, and it included two of her most notable collaborations with Dali, the Skeleton Dress and the Tear-Illusion Dress. Dali and
Capillaries collaborated again in 1937 on the Lobster Dress, which simplicity of the white dress is belied by the erotically charged placement of the lobster on the front of the skirt, a symbolism possibly lost on the wearer. Images relating to the fashion industry, such as sewing machines, irons, dressmaker forms and mannequins, played a leading role in the surrealist theatre. During the sass Surrealism helped to liberate fashion form more dressmaking and realize the dream of the marvelous. In the words of American Fashion Historian Richard Martin, “Surrealism remains fashion’s favorite art”. Surreal thing”, Glassine Wood, 2007). ‘Some of the latest manifestations of Surrealism are screamingly commercial. Take the tromped O’Dell hoarding at 39 Avenue George V in Paris, where a construction site is padded by an eerily realistic image of a Serialized 19th-century apartment building whose structure ripples like water. Or the tops-truly boutique of the Dutch fashion designers Victor & Roll on Via Sandpapered in Milan, which is literally built upside down, with a “floor” that looks like the ceiling, and vice versa.
You can also spot Surrealism’s influence in more thoughtful design projects, like the provocative, lightly sinister work of the young product designers, such as the Swedish group, Front, and Dutch duo, Studio Job. Oscillating from Serialized commercialism to a considered reinterpretation of the original Surrealist spirit reflects the central theme of the V&A show. It examines the ambiguity of Surrealism’s relationship with commerce, and the tensions that developed during its transition from an avian garden art movement in the sass to a commercial design style from the sass. (The Surrealist comeback in design, Alice Rawson,2007) But the question remains is surrealism successful in fashion industry? Let us take the example of the late Lee Alexander Macaque. His work would probably one of the best examples of surrealism in fashion that was widely popular in the last few years and arguably still is. Macaque, famous for collaborating with Lady Gaga had once quoted that she was his unofficial muse. Lady Gaga officially unveiled her ‘Bad Romance’ single at Alexander Unseen’s Spring/Summer 2010 runway show during Paris Fashion Week.
Although Gaga wasn’t in attendance, her presence was certainly felt as her hit song streamed over the speakers during the encore of all the looks that Macaque had showed off. But was Lady Gaga the first surrealist design wearing pop icon? No. At the presentation of a new surreal collection of designer Jean-Paul Guiltier dean Paul Guiltier) gathered all the secular Paris, as well as fans of millionaire-style Guthrie from around the world. At the show in the front row along with influential politicians, financiers and other celebrities turned out to be only one woman – Madonna.
Madonna and Jean-Paul Guiltier share the same relationship Lady Gaga did with Macaque since before Lady gaga was even playing the piano and scaring her babysitters by turning up naked before them. Macaque owned the brand Alexander Macaque which was later bought by Gucci, with Macaque serving as a creative director. The same collection was also famous for models with bizarre make up and surreal outfits. This show was so successful that it crashed the networks servers. This could be called one of the greatest achievements in surrealist fashion by a designer.
Perhaps the most famous of his famous surrealist works are his signature high heels. Macaque, 40 at the time of his death can be labeled the most famous and the best example of designers inspired by surrealism in their work. Viviane Westwood Dame Viviane Westwood popularity constantly gains momentum. Her punk attitude is more alive in the Naughtiest than ever and her outspoken, Union Jack waving Englishmen (with a few added safety pins and tea stains), is undiminished. It is fitting that the Establishment has recognized her work by making her a Dame.
Viviane Westwood – fashion’s older stateswoman that many wish to emulate, with her younger husband Andrea Chronicler and energy for shaking things up whilst keeping her feet on the ground – seems to only recruit admirers. Cutting edge but lassie, she is unflinchingly rooted in what matters, whether it is human rights or classical fiction. No trendy noise for her, Just cleavage, mischief, and CAPITAL LETTER MESSAGES such as sass’s “l AM NOT A TERRORIST, please don’t arrest me baby -r- shirts. Her first catwalk show was presented in 1981, featuring the collaboration of Westwood and McAllen. The theme that year was Pirates.
Subsequent Westwood theme titles in the early years included Savage (1982), Buffalo Girls (Autumn/Winter 1982-83) and Clint Eastward, (Autumn-Winter 1984-85) under the Worlds Ends Label he stopped producing the line in 1985 to concentrate on her Viviane Westwood Lines. Viviane Westwood says (“Sometimes you need to transport your idea to an empty landscape and then populate it with fantastic looking people. “). She dubbed the period 1981 to 1985 New romantic and 1988-1991 “The Pagan Years” during which “Viennese heroes changed from punks and ragamuffins to ‘Taller’ girls wearing clothes that parodied the upper class. The period from 1993 to 1999 she called “Megalomania” and from 2000 to the present – “Exploration” (vogue, 2007) Viviane Westwood has always been a fan of surrealist work and is herself a punk. It is also a known fact that her ex husband was the manager of the sex pistols and they were also associated with surrealism in music. The future of surrealism in fashion – upcoming designers such as Yang Du Surrealist fashion designer Yang Du established her brand Yang Du in London in 09 after studying in the central Saint Martin’s College of art and design, and working for designers such as Viviane Westwood, John Gilligan, and Giles Deacon.
It is evident in her work that she is a former artist and a fan of surrealism and impressionism. Her work is ultra hip, very colorful and can be seen as a mix of post modern and impressionist. She is especially fond of animal prints, painting animal faces on dresses, and using models with vivid makeup although a notch less vivid than Alexander Macaque. Unlike most surrealists Yang Dud’s inspirations are less controversial. She stated that she gets her inspirations from her travels. These have included India and Ecuador.
Her latest design includes a cactus hat that has actual spines in the top. In the new winter collection, the colors were pastel with animal prints along the dress line. When asked about her design ideology in an interview, she said “My ideology… I am ere open-minded to new things, and mostly, look at things from a very different angle. I often go on trips, where I take lots of photos and meet lots of people. When I come back to London, I always have so much in my mind, some of them like stories which I really want to share through the clothes I design. (Amelia’s magazine, 2009) Surrealism in fashion photography Although surrealism is apparent in fashion, it is even more so in fashion photography. It would be almost worthless for a designer to create a design which looked surreal if the photographer couldn’t capture the thought of the designer. Fashion photography thus can be called as a way to express surrealism in fashion. Also fashion photography can be used to make a normal collection surreal. One of the author’s best photographers is Toshiba Canoe who in her career (1950-1960) made hundreds of collages, and quit the profession after married.
Her photography is inspired by surrealist painters such as Giorgio De Chorizo, Max Ernst, Joan Mir¶, and Francis Pica. It is apparent that she did all her work from an out of the world prospective which is one of the reasons that her pictures though surreal look very believable, and honest. Some of her famous works are the horse and the bride in the sea and the bride on the door. Conclusion The surrealist movement changed many aspects of art. No other visual art was the same after the surrealist movement.
Surrealism is that form of art which believes in anything that the subconscious mind can conjure up. It is the way of life for great minds like Salvador Dali who dreamed more than they breathed. In the fashion industry, it was a huge step when Salvador Dali collaborated with Capillaries not only because it lead to two of the most talented minds of the generation to come soother, but also because it opened the door for surrealist art to come in the field of fashion and blossom.
And so it did. The careers of Alexander Macaque and Viviane Westwood are a testimony to this fact. And as for the future, the designers like Yang Du are taking forward the legacy and continue to inspire the people with their surreal work that one knows to be untrue but is still forced to think twice. And that is the beauty of the surreal art. It may be argued that the surreal art like most others will one day be obsolete and out of fashion but it is also ever changing.

In what ways has Surrealism influenced fashion

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