What It Tkes to Be an Successful College Student

What It Tkes to Be an Successful College Student.
What Does It Take To Be A Successful College Student? By: Vera Ioveino-Swett Some might say good grades and attending class is what it takes; however success is roe than just good grades and attendance. Success within life, education, or within anything we do comes through hard work and dedication. In our lifetimes we all have learned from our experiences as well as our education; success is one’s desire to become a better them, in addition to committing themselves to the path/journey which take them to their success of dreams and goals, something I like to call our finish line.
We hold the key to succeed in our hands, as well as whether we succeed or fail lies and depends on us. Becoming a successful college student can be challenging at times and very frustrating. Many students attend college not fully knowing what it takes to be successful within their education, as well as that journey. Students who might have been an ‘A’ student in high school come to then find themselves just sot stressed and struggling with the challenges academically in college. Here are some strategies that will help you to achieve becoming the most successful student you can be.
These are tips in which I follow, as well as only work for you as long as you dedicate yourself to them, and achieve what it is out of your education and life journey you seek. (If you can see it, you can achieve it). Strategies for College Success Strategy #1 – never be afraid to seek out help if and when you really need it. Strategy #2 – Create/develop a strategy plan that works within your learning style and preferences; in addition that will keep you focused and motivated. What might work for one, might not for another. Everyone is different. Strategy #3 – Make and set S. M. A. R.

T Goals for yourself to ensure you reach what you would like to gain and achieve out of your term, semester, calluses, etc. They can consist of long-term, short-term or both. However, don’t make too many because it can become overwhelming, and distract you from achieving any or beginning them. You should also write your goals out on paper as well or on a sticky note so it is not just in your mind. This way seeing your goals in front of you on paper daily, will help you in becoming successful in accomplishing what it is you want to achieve. This can also help you not forget that you made a goal list.
You can even reward yourself after each goal you accomplished/achieved to keep you motivated on knocking out the next one. It also helps develop goal-setting habits that will contribute to success within your life. Strategy #4 – Manage your time. Having good time- management, is key for success in college, but also adds a plus within your personal life as well as career. You can make a To Do List each day either for the week, month or both to help assist you remain, and stay on track. You also may want to after creating this list to find and delete/reduce your biggest time-wasters.
Example – Instead of having a quick study session: create a 1 hour bock time to study that gives you 5-10 min breaks. Another would be – examine how much time you need for each class. So for let’s say an 3 credit hour class, you would want to give yourself around 6 hours of outside time each week; instead of trying to do it all at the last minute You will also gain a plus in this as well by remembering material effectively and longer. Another thing is to make sure to say NO to those who keep you away from your studies as well as activities like Facebook, or X-box, etc.
Strategy #5 – Make sure to attend class as scheduled. Attending Seminar’s/class as scheduled will ensure you succeed in your classes because your professor can go over questions you may have as well as will go over material that just learning from your textbook doesn’t cut it or ensure remembering material or clarifying it. Being a part of an active class can also have you gain access to classmate’s questions or concerns which may be on a homework assignment or quiz in which your professor will go over and even may provide the answer to, or steps to how the answer is reached which is always a plus.
Strategy #6 – Take notes. One way you may want to take notes is within a way that is systematic and becomes beneficial for exams, projects quizzes, etc. make sure to always date, and place the name of the class, Unit, Chapter, as well as titles and subtitles in your notes that are being discussed, and shown. Write down terms, definition’s, key points, examples, graphs, and diagrams; this will come in handy for review on/for tests, quizzes, projects, and studying later on. Do not write word from word as I do.
Summarize discussions your professor is explaining in your own words except for terms and items mentioned above. Strategy #7 – READ! READ! READ! Make sure to preview the chapter rubrics, projects, assignments, etc. beforehand. It’s the same as when you preview a movie or a video game before purchasing it. This way you can get an idea of what the chapter, etc. will focus on. Then read the Introduction, and learning objectives in the chapter. This will give you a purpose to what you will achieve. One thing I found easier is to read a section first then go back to highlight the material.
This will not just help with looing your spot, but also help to consume the material from your STM to your LTM since you will be reciting the material again as you highlight. You can then read out loud, important points, ideas, etc. , to ensure you understand the material and even have a family member or friend test you. Strategy #8 – Preparing for your Midterms/Finals. You are being prepared for your big tests from the very start of the first day of class. So everything from there on is to prepare you for what’s to come.
First day I would open and copy the rubrics to Midterm, Final, exams then view each of them. One to two weeks before exams, consolidate all your notes (textbooks, seminar, discussions etc. ), review, and even place your rough draft threw the Writing Center for suggestions, and advice on grammar, formatting, citations, and sentence structure. The Writing Center pap0er review is a great way to ensure success for your finals, midterms, projects, as well as all written papers. When it comes to your tests/finals/midterms, make sure to always be prepared.
Read all instructions and follow each one according to your professor’s rubrics. Don’t spend a lot of time on one question, you can always come back to it later on, and remember to always stay calm, though some anxiety is completely normal. Have Fun! Being organized, focused, and determined as you find your strategy plan, will bring you 100% success within and along your educational journey. Here’s a quote I live by and that helped me to get here today: In order to succeed you must fail, so that you know what not to do next time. – Anthony J. D’Angelo-

What It Tkes to Be an Successful College Student

An A student

An A student.
So much so that common phrases such as “An easy ‘A'” and “An ‘A’ for effort” have emerged, while others insist that an “A” is closer to perfection Han it is to “a good effort”. Grades are supposed to be a numerical/letter representation of ones academic progress in a course or lesson. But more often than not, good grades become a goal and not a reward; thus students are striving for grades and not the knowledge which they represent. In his article “Making the Grade”, Kurt Westfield points out that students are often undeserving granted good grades.
This allows the same students to graduate with a degree and find a Job, without the actual knowledge needed to strive in their field. Similarly, he then goes on to note that these under-qualified students that are now in the workplace aren’t ready for the tasks at hand. Universities are sending students into their careers with the same immediate they had throughout choreographs, find the quick and easy way to get the Job done. Consequently, Jobs and projects could be done incorrectly or left incomplete. The difference is, though, that when these real world Jobs are incomplete or incorrect, they can create real world problems and difficulties.
The grading system was made with the intention that it would accurately reflect a dents performance in a class. It’s commonly believed that if a student understands a subject well, they deserve an “A”. But for a student to actually deserve that grade, they must also complete the entire workload, whether they know they information or not. The grade in the class is determined by the amount of work the student completes correctly, and this is where the controversy starts. Some argue that if a student demonstrates that he/she understands the given subject, he/she should be given a passing grade (whether their work was completed or not).

Others argue that if a student truly works their hardest and gives a strong effort in the class, they deserve a passing grade (whether their work was correct or not). At the end of the day though, if searching for a simple “A” grade in a class, one must be willing to work and study for that class, and complete each assignment with accuracy (easier said than done, of course! ). The source of the problem resides in the earliest years of the school system. Starting from a young age, students are being taught and prepared for the next school year instead of for life.
Elementary school students are being prepared for adolescent, meddlesomeness are being prepared for householders, householders for college, etc. Each year of schooling teaches you Just enough to get through the next year. The problem is, though, that by the time the student reaches college he/ she is not ready for life as an adult, only for more school. Meaning that students are going into college with the idea that they need to pass, and not the idea that they need to be preparing for their future. Students aren’t realizing that what they are learning is essential for their Job until it’s too late and they are unable to perform.

An A student

Student Attendance Monitoring

Student Attendance Monitoring.
Wale in partial fulfillment of the Requirements in Computer Programming NC-IV ,has been examined and is commended for your approval and acceptance this August , 2014. DIRT Adviser The Oral Examination Committee Oral Examination Grade Ms. Germinal F. Malice Ms . Sheens Rose F. Beguiler Faculty Member Ms. Made L. Soon School President Faculty Member Approved and Accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements in Computer Programming NC IV Ms. Mandela. Soon I would like to dedicate this project to our Lord God, who gave us strength and power to do our tasks every day.
Secondly, I sincerely dedicate this project to our beloved School President Ms. Made L. Soon and to all tech staff who never get tired of us to teaches, accommodated and support us even in awkward time. And lastly, to our supportive Parent’s, who always there to guide us and gave their moral support. Acknowledgement I wish to thank Ms. Made L. Soon our School President, for supporting and helping us in making this system. Without their support we would not have realized our dream to fulfill this challenge in our life of study.
We can only promise to pay back by availing our skills to this school of tech Computer Academy. I also want to thank our parents for supporting us to make this project. And we also want to express our appreciation to our classmates and friends who helped us in one way or another during the course of developing this project. So, thank you to all people who helped and support us. I also want to thank our Father God who give us the knowledge and wisdom to make this project, without his help and guidance we can never to this project, so We thank him a lot for helping us.

Abstract I system entitled “tech Computerized Student Attendance Monitoring System”, helps our faculty to manage the schedule of a student in proper way. Our system was developed in Visual Basic 6. With Diversification using Microsoft Access Application. This system will make text information of students of this school. After developing this research project it will help and easy to monitor the attendance of all students. Through the use of search engine the information you wants to know will appear.
The Research project will be discuss and presented with sample programs, on how to create a simple Student Attendance Monitoring System using a Microsoft Access. Chapter l: Introduction Background of the Study The attendance monitoring system is a system that would check and record the attendance of a student in a class. Similar to the ID swiping machine at the entrance of each college in the university, this machine will be placed in each classroom to precisely monitor the students and the professor in their respective classes this system is software-based because of its storage of inputs that could be viewed in any compatible browser.
The system Background of the Study The attendance monitoring system is a system that would check and record the attendance of a student in a class. Similar to the ID swiping machine at the entrance of each college in the university, this machine will be placed in each classroom to precisely monitor the dents and the professor in their respective classes. Statement of the Problem General Problem How does “decompositions Student Attendance Monitoring System” helps the faculty to keep and secured the attendance of the student?
Specific Problem 1 . What is the profile of your respondents in terms of the following: a. Age b. Gender c. Course 2. What is the importance of “tech Computerized Student Attendance Monitoring System”? 3. What is the advantages of “tech Computerized Student Attendance Monitoring System”? 4. Why do we need to implement the “tech Computerized Student Attendance Monitoring System helps the tech Computer Academy? Hypothesis Age, gender and course do not affect the variables involved in the Computerized Student Attendance Monitoring System. Objectives of the Study 3 Significance of the Study A “Student Attendance Monitoring System”, will be used by the faculty to check easily the Attendance of the students of tech Computer Academy Inc. This proposed project will give information on how to monitor Students using this system. It will benefit the user because it aims to help the faculty easier. It also helps the Admit monitoring more efficient. Scope and Delimitation This research project will focus on the topic on Student Attendance Monitoring. The researchers came up with the approach of using database which contains a list of names, dates and time on when they arrived. Theoretical/Conceptual Framework A Student Attendance Monitoring System (SAM) is being developed to provide a reliable, secure, and efficient method of recording student attendance. The project involves two phases of IT development. The first part involves the development of SAM within SAP Student Lifestyle Management (Slam) and integration with Syllabus Plus and a scanning solution. It also includes the development of an on-line student absence notice form with document management and appropriate workflow for approval and updating of attendance record.
SAP Business Warehouse will be used to produce reports of absence including incorporation of records available in other systems (e-Portfolio and Blackboard) to enable comprehensive reporting of attendance. The second part of the project is the collection of in-class attendance data. Paradigm Input Process Output Benefits Users: Faculty Admit. Computerized Student Attendance Monitoring System. Ready to access About Students Information. The user easily monitors the students. This system provides a security here in tech Computer Academy Inc.
Data: Visual Basic Database Microsoft Access Minimize the effort of the Blue Desk Focal. Device: Monitor Mouse Keyboard System Unit These hardware devices are the most important tools for easy findings information about the system. 6 Definition of terms Students- a person engaged in study; one who is devoted to learning a learner. Computer- is a programmable machine that receives input, stores and automatically manipulates data, and provides output in a useful format. Visual Basic- is a arrogating language developed in 1991 as a simple method of creating Graphic User Interfaces, or Guy’s.
Visual basic was an early example of an object-oriented programming language. The programming environment is also an easy-to-use GUI system. Icons- are the small graphical image that represents files, folder or application. Microsoft Word- or simply as WORD is a word processing application that supplies you with all the important tools that you need in creating a wide variety of documents such as memos, outlines, newsletters, etc. Word provides you a window called word window where you can create your documents. Attendance-is the act or fact of attending (being present at) work.
Monitoring- is an intermittent (regular or irregular) series of observations in time, carried out to show the extent of compliance with a formulated standard or degree of deviation from an expected norm. 7 Related literature Local Literature Saint Marry University “Students Attendance Monitoring System” Booming Uneven Vicar A computerized system that will facilitate a faster and easier checking of student’s attendance during the implementation of departmental and/or institutional programs is now being utilized at the School of SIT.
The system was developed BMW. Rogue B. Tabor, an IT instructor whose objectives in developing the system are the following: to make the checking of attendance easier and faster, to keep accurate records of students attendance, to eradicate or at least minimize complaints of students on erroneous data on attendance, and to inspire IT students to develop computerize systems that will make processes easier. 8 Foreign Literature The University Senate has agreed a unified University policy on attendance monitoring for all home and international students.
This is to ensure equity of treatment across the whole student population and enable attendance monitoring to e an effective tool for identifying any problems at an early stage and offering students appropriate support. Departments are therefore required to monitor attendance and review engagement with the programmer of study, for all home and international students. Two documents entitled “SAM Policy & Guidance for Depth (with effect from 2012-13)” and “Policy Appendix: Guidance for Depth relating to Checkpoints” are available (see Downloads box on the right).
Systems for Attendance Monitoring The University has developed central Student Attendance Monitoring (SAM) systems o assist departments in recording both student attendance throughout the year and student engagement at specific Check Points during the year. These systems include a Reporting Facility to assist in monitoring and reviewing student attendance/ engagement data. Further information and guidance on the various systems available can be found at: http://www. Sheaf. C. UK/SD/Sam 9 Chapter Ill Methodology The “tech Computerized Students Attendance Monitoring System” aims to help the Faculty to easily monitor the studentship’s Computer Academy Inc. The respondents are the students of this institution. We make a questionnaire to gather information. Research Design In this research study I used the descriptive and quantitative type of research to be obtained information among the faculty and staffs of tech Computer Academy Inc.
Malicious, Panamanian. Respondent My respondents are the faculty and student of ‘Tech Computer Academy Inc. The selected respondent is composed of 186 members. Statistical Treatment For the statistical treatment, the researchers will use the frequency distribution and the percentage for the computation of the sample size. N=Sample Size n=number of the respondents E=margin of error 11 Research Design 12

Student Attendance Monitoring

Goals for Students

Goals for Students.
Goals for students So what is it that we want students to gain from a k-12 science education? What are the goals we should constantly work to promote in students? Considering that rote memorization of scientific ideas leads to little understanding, I have identified ten goals for students that focus on life learning skills, and other traits that will be valuable to them in the future, no matter their career choice. Each goal below is accompanied by more specific explanations of what I might see students doing who meet that goal. I hope whatever your goals are for your students, you have thought about them extensively.
We all want great things for our students, but if we do not have well articulated goals, our efforts will not be focused. I will post later on how we can consistently work to promote the goals below. Student Goal 1) Students will demonstrate critical thinking. A student who demonstrates critical thinking will defend their viewpoint using relevant evidence. Students will pose questions when new information does not agree with their current understanding, and look for further sources of evidence to support the new idea if necessary.
Students will not accept blindly new information and be willing to question teachers, texts and other sources of information. A student who is capable of critical thinking should be able to solve problems in a stepwise sequence, and be able to revise the sequence if necessary. Student Goal 2) Students will demonstrate a deep understanding of content and be able to apply this knowledge to problems in and out of the classroom. Students with a deep understanding of the content will be able to clearly articulate that understanding by citing relevant evidence and sources when confronted with a question.

Students will be able to make connections between various concepts and apply multiple concepts to a single problem when needed. Students will be aware of resources to find information regarding content, and use such resources when necessary. Students will use their knowledge of content when approaching a relevant problem and will be able to recognize which concepts are of value for specific situations. Student Goal 3) Students will demonstrate creativity and curiosity. Students who are creative will propose original ways to approach or solve problems.
Students will ask thought-provoking questions during class discussion, and try to answer questions by piecing together previous knowledge. Students who are curious will come up with possible investigations and ask questions seeking explanation of ideas during class discussions. Students will develop their own ways to explain their ideas and look for evidence that supports their ideas. Student Goal 4) Students will demonstrate respect. Students will not interrupt others during discussions. Students will listen to other ideas and treat them as valid.
Students will discuss positive aspects of ideas they do not necessarily agree with; this helps them to understand both sides of an issue, and makes them a better critical thinker. Students will follow classroom rules, and treat school property as though it were their own. Work area will be kept clean and students will remind each other of classroom rules. Each student will work cohesively with a team and treat themselves as part of that team. Student Goal 5) Students will be responsible and conscientious members of communities.
Students will address global problems concerning the environment, energy needs, human needs, social concerns and others. Students will seek out remedies to such problems and debate which ideas offer the most effective solutions. Students will propose possible measures to be taken as citizens when a problem is found. Student Goal 6) Students will exhibit confidence. Students who exhibit confidence will be willing to participate in class, and willing to provide ideas, even if they are unsure of the idea’s worth. These students will be willing to try new procedures and willing to try again when they fail.
Students will ask the teacher to clarify when they do not fully understand, and be willing to look for additional help if needed. Student Goal 7) Students will set goals and assess their own learning and progress. Students will set realistic goals for the semester, quarter, unit, and week. As weeks go by, students will become better at setting goals they are capable of achieving. Students will revise goals as needed. Students will use a journal to track their progress and to assess their own understanding. Students will seek ways to express their learning and check for understanding of new concepts.
Student Goal 8 ) Students will be active in their own learning. Students will look for further resources when they feel they do not yet fully understand. Students will ask questions in class to clarify points of confusion. Students will create models to explain their ideas. Active learners will look into topics of interest beyond the classroom. Students will bring concerns about understanding to class discussions, and also cite how current material applies elsewhere, besides the classroom. Student Goal 9) Students will use communication and cooperation skills effectively.
Students will be able to communicate clearly in large groups as well as one on one. Students will be able to communicate ideas succinctly through written language. Students will use correct terminology where appropriate. Students will use correct grammar and punctuation. Students will listen to other ideas and maintain eye contact during conversation and debates, and will speak in a respectful manner during such debates and discussions. Students who are able to cooperate are willing to let others do their fair share as well as pull their own weight in a group.
Students will value all suggestions of group members equally. Students will attempt to resolve problems within their group before asking the teacher. Student Goal 10) Students will understand the nature of knowledge. Students will partake in discussions about the nature of knowledge and compare different ways of knowing. Students will apply principles of the nature of knowledge to different content areas. Epistemological discussions with students can help them become more reflective concerning their own thinking.
By reflecting on what it means to know something in diverse areas, students will better understand how to learn effectively. I hope these goals are lofty, children deserve no less than our highest expectations. Assessing these goals is difficult, but by carefully designing lessons and providing important experiences for students, we can promote these goals – however, like with anything, they must carry the goals to fruition. I’m sure some will tell me I’m an idealist with a goal list like that, so I leave you with some John Lennon’s Imagine:

Goals for Students

Smartphone Usage Among Students

Smartphone Usage Among Students.
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1. Introduction: Smartphone Usage Mobile phones nowadays are addressed as smartphone as they offer more advanced connectivity and computing ability than a normal cell phone. The term smartphone refers to a programmable mobile phone that offers advanced capabilities and features that help individuals in their daily work and personal life (Euromonitor, 2010). Smartphone basically is the combination of both cell phone and a PDA. 70% of the world’s population own at least one mobile phone. In a telephone survey, 83% of respondents said that they owned a cell phone and 35% of the 2,277 U. S. dults said that they owned a smartphone. Literately, a smartphone is a handheld computer, as it is powerful enough to deliver various functionalities comparable to a computer. The release of dual-core processors smartphone recently has further reaffirmed this assertion. A research on 5013 US adult smartphone Internet users at the end of 2010 reveal the types of smartphone users. i. General Smartphone Usage: Cell phones have been a must have item in daily lives. With the invention of smartphones, owing a cell phone is no longer for calling; it has become a trend and is a substitute for computers, telephone and PDA. 1% uses smartphone to browse the Internet, 77% search, 68% use an application and 48% watch videos on their smartphone. ii. Action-Oriented Searchers: Smartphones is used to find wide variety of information and to navigate the mobile internet. Search engine websites are the most visited websites with 77% of US smartphone users citing this. iii. Local Information Seekers: Smartphone is convenient because it users can easily access to information through internet and software provided. 95% of US smartphone users have looked for local information. iv.
Purchase-driven Shoppers: Smartphones has been relatively useful for women because it provides shopping tools, from comparing prices, finding more product information to locating a retailer. 74% of US smartphone shoppers make a purchase, whether online, in-store, or on their phones. v. Reaching Mobile Consumers: Businesses never miss the opportunity to advertise their products. With smartphones, consumers are exposed cross-media and a majority of them notice mobile ads which lead to taking action on it. 82% notice mobile ads with half of take action, 35% visiting a website and 49% making a purchase.
Figure 1. 1 Smartphone Penetrations across Global Markets Source: http://www. asymco. com/2011/12/13/global-smartphone-penetration-below-10/ (2011) Smartphones have penetrated many countries since its first launching. The number of users started to expand massively in 2010. Figure 1. 1 depicts Singapore to be the country with the most smartphone penetration in year 2011. 2. Smartphone usage in Malaysia With the popularity and functions offered in the phone, smartphones have seen an increase in terms of demand (Park and Chen, 2007). It is reported that in year 2010, 85% of Malaysians own mobile phones.

Number of smartphones sold doubles within 12 months. In 2010, mobile phone industry in Malaysia started to boom. The overall value of the industry increased by 30 per cent compared to the year before. The main contributor to the good performance of the industry was the sales of smartphones. The number of units sold went two-fold growth of 208 per cent. Figure 1. 2 Smartphone and Internet Usage in Asia Source: http://www. malaysianwireless. com/2010/05/nsn-talks-about-lte-mobile-broadband/ Figure1. 2 shows that Malaysia is the fifth country in Asia with growing percentage of smartphone and internet usage.
With mobile broadband becoming more widely available and affordable, it’s not surprising that a growing number of Malaysians are accessing the Internet via smartphones. Massive competition on mobile broadband industry causes the price of subscription become lower. This is an advantage to middle income people especially to students as they now have the ability to own a smartphone and utilise it with mobile internet. More than half of Malaysian consumers (55%) are using laptops and netbooks while eleven per cent said they are using smartphones which is a nine point gain from 2009.
Almost two in ten (19%) Malaysians aged 20-24 access the Internet via their mobile phones. Figure 1. 3: Mobile and Smartphone Sales in Malaysia Source: http://marketresearchbulletin. com/? p=3636 The data from the Figure 1. 3 shows that the number of smartphones sold doubles from 2009 to 2010. Since the beginning of 2010, value sales of smartphones have been consistently increasing every month and occupied 72 per cent of the overall pie by December. Overall, close to two in five (38 per cent) mobile phone sets sold last year were smartphones.
In Malaysia, it was found that smartphone sales totalled 172. 4 million units in year 2009, with a 23. 8 per cent increase from 2008 (Sidhu, 2010). This increment in sales was partly contributed by university students (Jacob and Isaac, 2008). 3. Research Problem Mobile phones have been more and more versatile and with smartphones, it makes communication convenient between and among individuals, especially students. Communication and life makes easy as smartphones provides Internet capability and functionalities that are similar to computers.
Students nowadays are prone to using Social networking services (SNS) to spread information. With smartphones, students can instantly share ideas, activities, news, and interests anytime and anywhere. The problem therefore is to understand whether attitudes will affect the intention towards using smartphone among students. Attitude is a feeling, beliefs or opinion towards something. Positive attitude can result in beneficial usage of smartphones by students such as to use it as a medium of learning.
On the others hand, negative attitude such as to abuse the use of smartphone will develop negative effects to the users such as incompetent and unable to meet deadlines and reduces the productivity which will affect the user overall daily routine. The next question that we want to research is on whether perceived behavioural control can influence the intention to use smartphones. Perceived behavioural control is an individual’s perceived ease or difficulty of performing the particular behaviour.
It is linked to control beliefs, which refers to beliefs about the presence of factors that may facilitate the behaviour. 4. Research Objectives Research objectives are the objective that we intend to achieve after identifying research problems. There are some of research objectives that are highlighted in this research. One of our main objectives of this research is to understand the determinants of attitude among students in using smartphones. We are going to find out the relationship of the key determinants such compatibility, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use in influencing the attitude.
Secondly, the purpose of this research is to understand the factors that will influence the intention of students to use smartphones. Lastly, this study will also seek to understand the role of attitude on intension. 5. Research Questions In seeking to achieve the above objectives, this study attempts to answer the following research questions: 1) What are the key determinants of intention? 2) Does attitude moderate the relationship between perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, compatibility, observability, trialability, self-efficacy and intention? ) Does perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, compatibility, observability, trialability, self-efficacy influence intention to use? 6. Significance of Study The study is carried out to help us understand the key determinants of intention to use smartphones among students, using attitude as the moderator to the relationship. It helps us to have clearer picture on how the determinants will affect the intention of using smartphones among students by looking at the independent variables that are directly and indirectly affecting the dependent variable (actual use).
Understanding the determinants for intention to use will raise awareness regarding usefulness of smartphones to students and will create higher level of acceptance to smartphone in the future. This study will help to give insight on the grey areas of smartphones and enable us to understand better the social and psychological factors that may affect the intention to use smartphone among students. The results from this study can be used by mobile phone manufacturers to improve the functions and elements in smartphone which will attract new users especially students and continue to bring extra benefits to the present users.
In addition, this result can be used as a benchmark for smartphone manufacturers to be creative and innovative in developing new ideas that could help users especially students in learning process. Therefore, understanding the key factors that will increase the intention to use smartphone will result in better suitability in functions to students. 7. Definition of Key Terms Perceived Usefulness – defined as the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance. Davis, 1989) Perceived Ease of Use – defined as the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free of effort. (Davis, 1989) Compatibility – defined as the degree to which using an innovation is perceived as consistent with the existing sociocultural values and beliefs, past and present experiences, and needs of potential adopters. (Rogers, 1983) Observability – defined as the degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others. (Rogers, 2003) Trialability – defined as the degree to which an innovation may be experimented with on a limited basis. Rogers, 2003) Self-Efficacy – The judgments an individual makes about his or her capability to mobilize the motivation, cognitive resources and course of action needed to orchestrate future performance on a specific task. (Martocchio and Dulebohn, 1994) Attitude – A psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favour or disfavour” (Chaiken, 1993) Intention – the extent to which an individual intends to perform a specificbehavior. (Davis et al. ,1989). 8. Organization of the Report This research proposal is organized into five chapters.
Chapter 1 gives the background of the study. The purposes and research objectives have been put forth to guide the direction of the study. Chapter 2 reviews related literatures by previous researchers. Based on these literatures the theoretical framework and hypotheses are developed. Chapter 3 discusses the research methodology used in this research. Chapter 4 presents the result of the statistical analysis. Chapter 5 summarizes research findings, implications of the findings and limitation of the study. The concluding chapter also provides some suggestions for further studies. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. Introduction This chapter focuses on discussing the theories, the expansion of the theories to the present theoretical framework used in this research and the justification for the present model. 2. 2 Overview of the literature Various literatures from scholars in Malaysia and abroad were reviewed on the subject Theory Acceptance Model (TAM) and Innovation-Diffusion Theory (IDT). Among numerous perspectives that can be used to examine user acceptance and usage behavior of new technologies, TAM might be the most popular one. This model is derived from Fishbein & Ajzen’s (1975) Theory of Reasoned Action.
Davis (1986) developed TAM specifically for explaining and predicting user acceptance of computer technology. The goal of TAM is “to provide an explanation of the determinants of computer acceptance that is in general, capable of explaining user behavior across a broad range of end-user computing technologies and user populations, while at the same time being both parsimonious and theoretically justified”. The Technology Acceptance Model posits the determinants of user acceptance that may be able to explain a user’s behavior in regard to a general user’s computing technologies.
The TAM claims that users evaluate the system based on the system’s ease of use (PEOU) and perceived usefulness (PU). If the system is easy to use and useful, a user would have a positive attitude toward the system (AT), which in turn causes a user’s actual intention to use (BI). Then, the intention creates a user’s decision to use the system. A previous study conducted by Park and Chen indicated that behavioral intention to use a smartphone was largely influenced by perceived usefulness and attitude toward using a smartphone.
They further postulated that perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use positively determine attitudes toward using a smartphone. Kwon & Zmud (1987) suggest that when discussing IDT-related subjects’ factors such as task, individual, organization, and environment as additional explanatory factors should be introduced. Task includes structure of the task, jurisdiction, and uncertainty. Individual factors include aspects such as education, age, experience, and personal specialties.
Organizational factors include the support of higher-level management, the organizational structure, the involvedness of the users, and the quality of the product. Environmental factors include pressure from competitors, customer satisfaction, and marketing strategies. The context of smartphone adoption contains both individual factors and organizational diffusion. Previous innovation diffusion studies have suggested that innovation attributes affect an individual’s attitude of the innovation prior to adoption and may consequently influence the speed of adoptions.
This study employed these attributes in building the theoretical basis for behavioral characteristics. These beliefs include, compatibility, trialability, self- efficacy and observability. 2. 3. Theory Acceptance Model (TAM) The TAM probably is the most popular theory explaining user acceptance and behavior related to new technologies. Davis (1989) developed the TAM and investigated the determinants of user acceptance that may explain a user’s behavior in regard to the user’s general attitude toward the use of computing technologies.
According to the TAM, users evaluate the system based on the perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of the system. If the system is perceived as easy to use and useful, a user would have a positive attitude toward the system, which in turn leads to the user’s intention to use the system. Then, the intention results in the user’s actual decision to use the system. We are using the Technology Acceptance Model to test the perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use about the intention to use smart phones among students.
The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) has become a well-established robust model for predicting user acceptance (Davis, 1989; Davis, Bagozzi, & Warsaw, 1989). TAM is one of the most influential extensions of Ajzen and Fishbein’s (1975) theory of reasoned action and specifies two key constructs that influence users’ attitudes, intentions, and behaviors related to technology adoption and use (Lippert & Forman, 2005). The parsimony of TAM combined with its predictive power makes it easy to apply to different situations. However, while parsimony is TAM’s strength, it is also the model’s key limitation.
TAM is predictive but its generality does not provide sufficient understanding from the standpoint of providing system designers with information necessary to create user acceptance for new systems (Mathieson,1991). TAM provides researchers with “valid, reliable, and easy to administer scales for the key constructs” (Venkatesh et al. , 2007, p. 268). Due to the reliability of these measurement scales, questions for the survey instrument in this study were adapted from this information. Venkatesh et al. noted the repeatability and validity of TAM.
TAM was confirmed to be generalizable over time in various research papers worldwide, testing numerous technologies, diverse settings, and different populations. Predicted validity was also confirmed by a number of research studies investigating intention, self-reported use, and actual use. Ramayah (2006a) and (Venkatesh, 2000) have added depth to TAM model by understanding the determinants of perceived ease of use in their study. The study by (Venkatesh, 2000) explained up to 60% of the variance in system specific perceived ease of use.
The study by (Ramayah, 2006a) on determinants of perceived ease of use of e-Library also explained up 65% of the total variance. These studies have some of the highest explanatory power among TAM research conducted in recent years. The TAM is a specific model developed to explain and predict user’s smartphone usage behavior. Derived from the TAM, it predicts user acceptance based on the influence of two use beliefs: Perceived Usefulness (PU) and Perceived Ease of Use (PEU). 2. 3. 1 Limitation of Theory Acceptance Model (TAM)
TAM may be criticized, however, for the lack of sufficient explanation about cognitive processes culminating in a user’s acceptance of new technology. TAM still shares the basic premises and components outlined in Ajzen and Fishbein’s Theory of Reasoned Action (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980), but by excluding the attitude construct from the TRA model, TAM discounts the role of attitude in explaining technology acceptance behavior. Venkatesh and his colleagues dropped the construct of attitude from the technology acceptance model (Venkatesh and Davis, 1996; Venkatesh and Davis, 2000; Venkatesh et al. 2003), arguing that the role of attitude in explaining behavioral intention or actual adoption behavior is very limited and is at best a partial mediator in the relationship between salient beliefs and the adoption behavior or intention. We contend that this argument is made without serious theoretical consideration and restricts the search for a comprehensive understanding of technology acceptance. 2. 4 Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT) The IDT describes the process of technology acceptance by five characteristics of the technology influencing the consumer’s attitude leading to adopting or refusing the technology (Rogers, 1995).
The main difference appears to be TAM’s focus on a specific technology whereas IDT recognize the importance of establishing a technology’s likelihood to be adopted in relation to comparable existing technologies (Park & Gretzel, 2006). Diffusion of Innovation Theory (DIT or DOI) (Roger 1995) is a well-known conceptual framework to study new products’ diffusion and adoption. The original diffusion model provided a probabilistic approach based on the hazard function, which determines the likelihood that an agent who has remained a non-adopter of an innovative product will become an adopter in the next temporal unit.
Rogers [1983] explained the process of innovation diffusion as one which is dictated by uncertainty reduction behaviour amongst potential adopters during the introduction of technological innovations. Even though innovations typically offer its adopters novel ways of tackling day-to-day problems, the uncertainty as to whether the new ways will be superior to existing ones presents a considerable obstacle to the adoption process. To counter this uncertainty, potential adopters are motivated to seek additional information, particularly from their workplace peers [Brancheau & Wetherbe, 1990].
In diffusion research theory (Rogers, 1995), diffusion is classified into five stages: innovators, early adopters, the early majority, the late majority, and laggards, with 2. 5%, 13. 5%, 34%, 34%, and 16% of the population respectively. These barriers are closely connected to all kinds of access-related issues, i. e. access to the physical device needed to use a new mobile service, i. e. the smartphone, or access to money to pay for the hardware to use the service, or to pay for the service itself.
Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT) consists of six major components: innovation characteristics, individual user characteristics, adopter distribution over time, diffusion networks, innovativeness and adopter categories, and the individual adoption process [Tornatsky & Klein, 1982; Rogers, 1983; Brancheau & Wetherbe, 1990; Moore & Benbasat, 1991; Taylor & Todd, 1995(b)]. According to IDT, the rate of technology diffusion is affected by an innovation’s relative advantage, compatibility, trialability, observability and complexity.
Research suggests that all but the last factors have a positive influence on diffusion (Sonnenwald, Maglaughlin and Whitton 2004; Ferle, Edwards and Mizuno 2002). Rogers (1995) defines relative advantage as ‘the degree to which an innovation is seen as being superior to its predecessor’. The IDT posits an array of innovation characteristics that may impact a user’s perception of the innovation preceding adoption of the innovation. As a result, these characteristics presumably affect the speed of innovations being embraced. These attributes further provide a theoretically-based set of socio-behavioral beliefs.
Thus, we adopted IDT because of the innovative nature of smartphone devices. Innovation may be defined as a new use of an idea, practice, or object by the unit of adoption. This definition of innovation can be applied to new technology adoptions among students. Rogers defined innovation as a new use of an idea, a practice, or an object by the unit of adoption. The smartphone was introduced in 2000. Thus, we view smartphone devices as recent innovations and employ Rogers’s DOI theory in our study. Researchers have used the theory to better understand whether an individual or an organization will adopt new innovations. 2. Theoretical Framework Theoretical frameworks in quantitative research help to “provide a conceptual guide for choosing the concepts to be investigated, for suggesting research questions, and for framing the research findings” (Corbin & Strauss, 2008, p. 39). Figure 2. 5. 1 Theoretical Framework 6. Independent Variable 2. 6. 1 Perceived Usefulness In Technology Acceptance Model, behavior intention is influenced by both perceived usefulness and attitude. This relationship has been examined and supported by many prior studies (Adams et al. , 1992; Davis et al. , 1989; Hu et al. , 1999; Venkatesh and Davis, 1996, 2000).
Perceived usefulness refers to the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance, (Davis, 1989). Many earlier studies have shown that perceived usefulness was the major determinant of attitude towards system use (Langford and Reeves, 1998; Venkatesh and Davis, 1996). Empirical studies have shown that perceived usefulness has a strongly impact on usage than ease of use. Perceived usefulness are existing in the studies of technology to shown that perceived usefulness directly and significantly influences behavioral intention to use smartphone (Chen and Ching, 2002; Chen et al. 2002; Heijden et al. , 2003; Guriting and Ndubisi, 2006; Khalifa and Shen, 2008; Liao et al. , 2007; Lin and Wang, 2005; Luarn and Lin, 2005; Wei et al. , 2009; Lai and Yang, 2009). However, Davis et al. (1989) to suggest that perceived usefulness may impact on behavioral intention to use the technology-based system. H1: Perceived usefulness is positive related to intention to use. H2: Perceived usefulness is positive related to attitude. 2. Perceived Ease of Use Perceived ease of use refers to the extent to which an individual perceived that using a system is easy or effortless (Davis, 1989).
Earlier studies revealed that if an individual perceives a system to be easy to use, he/she is more likely to perceive the system to be useful also (Morris and Dillion, 1997). In addition, if an individual perceives the system to be easy to use, the individual is more likely to use the system, especially among novice users. In a test of selling, when consumers perceive that making a purchase from a virtual store is easy to understand and do, they usually continue interacting with that site (Barkhi and Wallace, 2007). However, by the prior literature by Davis et al. 1989) proposed that perceived ease of use is predicts attitude towards the channel, and also an antecedent of perceived usefulness. Technology acceptance model (TAM) (Davis et al. , 1989; Mathieson, 1991; Davis and Venkatesh, 1996; Gefen and Straub, 2000; Al-Gahtani, 2001) determined by perceived usefulness (PU) and perceived ease of use (PEOU) relating to the attitude toward use that relates to intention and finally to behavior but there is no direct related with actual use. H3: Perceived ease of use is positive related to intention to use H4: Perceived ease of use is positive related to attitude. 2. 6. 3 Compatibility
Compatibility (Park and Gretzel, 2006) is the degree to which in an innovation is perceived as being consistent with the existing values, needs, and past experiences of potential adopters. Compatibility (Gavin J. Putzer, 2010) has a positive effect on the rate of adoption. When a user recognizes that an innovation is compatible with a system, the more the innovation will be adopted. Compatibility (Rogers,1995) refers to ‘the degree to which an innovation is seen to be compatible with existing values, beliefs, experiences and needs of adopters’. In a conjoint analysis directed at the adoption of mobile games, Kleijnen et al. 2004) found that perceived risk, which are often used in extensions of Rogers’ concepts (Ortt, 1998) of complexity, and are also referred to as relative ease of use and compatibility, are important factors in the intention to use of mobile services(eg Smartphone) . According to Kleijnen et al. (2004), this implies that mobile systems (eg Smartphone) have to be reliable and data-transmission has to be secure, while the systems have to be easy to navigate and fit into the daily routine of users. H5: Compatibility is positive related to intention to use H6: Compatibility is positive related to attitude . 6. 4 Observability Observability (Park and Gretzel, 2006)is the degree to which the results of an innovation is observable to others. Observability (Yangil Park,2010) has a positive effect on adoption. When a user has an opportunity to observe an innovation, the innovation is more likely to be adopted. Observability(Rogers,1995) is the ‘degree to which the results of an innovation are visible’. An innovation factor from the Kwon and Zmud model known as trialability was removed from our model to reduce possible confusion with another innovation factor known as observability.
The final pair of characteristics, results demonstrability and visibility, are derived from Rogers’ observability characteristic. Result demonstrability is defined as the tangibility of the results of adopting an innovation, and visibility as the degree to which prospective users see an innovation as being visible in the adoption context [Moore & Benbasat, 1991; Agarwal & Prasad, 1997]. H7: Observability is positive related to intention to use H8: Observability is positive related to attitude 2. 6. 5 Trialability Trialability (Park and Gretzel , 2006) is the degree to which an innovation may be experimented with before an adoption.
Trialability (C Huang,2010) existence negative relationship with the attitude of use. Trialability (Rogers,1995) is the ‘degree to which an idea can be experimented with on a limited basis’. If a person can try out the technology before deciding to accept Smartphone, the person will develop a stronger attitudinal belief about the technology, either in a positive or in a negative way depending on the quality of the new technology (Karahanna et al. , 1999; Venkatesh & Brown, 2001; Xia & Lee, 2000; Choi et al. , 2002). Therefore, if a user as an opportunity for trial usage before enroll with Smartphone; the person will have positive attitudinal belief and intention to use Smartphone. H9: Trialability is positive related to intention to use H10: Trialability is positive related to attitude 2. 6. 6 Self Efficacy Self-efficacy (SE) refers to individuals’ belief in their ability to perform a specific task in a given situation or context (Bandura, 1977). Bandura (1977) states that efficacy expectations—the belief that one can perform an activity in question—are the major antecedent of activity choice and effort. Jengchung Chen, 2010) is recognized to be a more important than the others. Efficacy refers to the belief that an individual has the ability to perform a particular behavior. Compared with competing models, TAM is believed to be more accurate and parsimonious when it is used to predict technology adoption. However, the parsimony of TAM often results in the model being less informative in understanding usage behavior. Due to this limitation, researchers have attempted to extend the TAM framework by encompassing various constructs such as gender, culture, trust, experience, social influence, and self-efficacy.
Among those constructs, self-efficacy is recognized to be a more important than the others. Efficacy refers to the belief that an individual has the ability to perform a particular behavior. Self-efficacy has been documented in numerous studies to be an important determinant of PEOU. In the context of web technologies, Agrawal et al (2000) found a positive effect of self-efficacy on both PU and PEOU. Similarly, Ma & Liu (2005) found that self-efficacy positively influences PU, PEOU, and the intention to use smartphone. H11: Self Efficacy is positive related to intention to use. . 7 Mediating Variable 2. 7. 1 Attitude According to Antonides et al. , (1998), “Attitude is the individual predisposition to evaluate an object or an aspect of the world in a favorable or unfavorable manner. ” In Fishbein & Ajzen’s (1975) formulation, attitudes influence behaviour through behavioural intentions. Past studies indicate that the link between attitude toward the object and behaviour is not always clear. In some cases, attitudes have a direct effect on behaviours (Bagozzi & Warshaw 1992) but no effect in Bagozzi (1992).
Both PU and PEU are posited as having significant impact on a user’s attitude (AT) toward using smartphones. (Yong-Wee Sek 2010) Based on an analysis of four different types of mobile services, Nysveen et al. (2005b) conclude that, in all four cases, people’s intention to use mobile services as well as their attitude toward the actual use, is affected significantly by the direct motivational influence of enjoyment. Moore & Benbasat [1991:196] reminds us, however, that these definitions are, in fact, “based on perceptions of the innovation itself and not on the perceptions of actually using the system”.
As Fishbein & Ajzen [1980] concur, attitudes towards an object and attitudes regarding a particular behaviour relating to that object can frequently differ. Attitude towards behaviour can be described as an individual’s subjective forecast of how positive or negative he / she will feel when performing the target behaviour, whereas subjective norm can be viewed as an individual’s perception of the social pressure on him / her to perform the target behaviour [Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975; Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980].
Furthermore, according to the expectancy value model of attitude [Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975], an individual’s attitude towards performing the target behaviour is itself determined by his / her beliefs regarding the consequences of performing the target behaviour, as well as the evaluation of these consequences. Attitude is explained as a function of the combined effect of behavioural beliefs and outcomes evaluations [Mathieson, 1991]. The behavioural beliefs relate to the favourable utilitarian, hedonic and social outcomes that can result from performing the behaviour [Venkatesh & Brown, 2001]. Davis et al. 1989) indicated that the key purpose of TAM is to provide a basis to trace the impact of external factors on internal beliefs, attitudes and intentions. Many IT researchers have since used TAM as a basis to explore and identify other determinants and relationships specific to a particular IT usage in different contexts (Venkatesh et al. , 2003). Hence, since the intention of smart phone among students is very closely tied attitude, this theory should be directly applied to the adoption of this innovation. (Check-Yee Law 2010) H12: Attitude is positive related to intention to use 2. 8 Dependent Variable 2. 8. 1 Intention to use
Intentions are different form attitudes where attitudes are summary evaluations, intentions represent the person’s motivation in the sense of his or her conscious plan to exert effort to carry out a behavior (Eagly & Chaiken 1993). Behavioural Intentions (BI) to use is jointly determined by a person’s attitude toward using the system and its perceived usefulness (Shahril Bin Parumo 2010). Behavioural intention is a measure of the strength of one’s intention to perform a specified behaviour (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975). It is correlated with the usage (Davis et al. , 1989) and is a predictor for usage (Szajna, 1996).
Purchase intentions are personal action tendencies relating to the product (Bagozzi et al. 1979). Intentions are different from attitudes where attitudes are summary evaluations, intentions represent the person’s motivation in the sense of his or her conscious plan to exert effort to carry out a behavior (Eagly & Chaiken 1993). At times, intention is also difficult to measure. For instance, Bagozzi, Baumgartner & Yi (1989) commented that when an individual is unclear about his or her intention in regards to some action, there is strong tendency for him to react based on their past actions.
Here, the individual is likely to report his or her habit rather than intention when responding to the intention (Warsaw & Davis, 1985). Despite issues, purchase intention is an important construct in consumer behavior (Kotler & Armstrong, 2003). A previous study conducted by Park and Chen indicated that behavioral intention to use a smartphone was largely influenced by perceived usefulness and attitude toward using a smartphone. The Theory Acceptance Model is the most popular intention-based theories and models that have emerged from this school of thought [Chau & Hu, 2002].
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 3. 1 Introduction The purpose of chapter 3, methodology is to explain the process or the steps taken to answer the research problems. The process may be expanded to include a philosophically coherent collection of theories, concepts or ideas as they relate to a particular discipline of inquiry in this research. Discussion in this chapter will consists of the research model, variables and measurement, population, sample and sampling techniques, data collection technique and techniques of analysis. 3. 2 Research Model 3. . 1 Type of Study This is correlational study. This study was conducted among students in Universiti Sains Malaysia who are personally using smartphones. Hypotheses testing was undertaken to explain the variance in the dependent variables to predict the relationship. We will begin by discussing the relationship that certain events might have to one another whether there is a positive correlation or negative correlation or no correlation. 3. 2. 2 Nature of Study This study was conducted under the non-contrived setting (natural environment).
The variables are neither controlled nor manipulated. This is a cross sectional study where data were collected within 2 weeks. Data is only collected from willing students from Universiti Sains Malaysia. 3. 2. 3 Unit of Analysis The unit of analysis is individual who are students using smartphones in USM. 3. 2. 4 Research Site The research sites for this study are individuals who study in USM, Penang. 3. 3 Population, Sample Size and Sampling Technique The population consists of individuals who are students of Universiti Sains Malaysia (main campus) that uses smartphone.
The general rule for the of analysis independent variable, sample size must be five-to-one ratio (5:1) of the independent variable, which means that number of respondent must be at least 30. However, based on Hair et al. (1988) he proposed that the acceptable ratio is ten-to-one (10:1) of the independent variable, which means in a research must have minimum 60 respondents. The sampling technique used is non-probability sampling method. Non-probability sampling method is used because only little attempt is made to generate a representative sample.
Besides, there is no need to generalize compared to probability sampling and feasibility. Moreover, when there come to limited objectives, non-probability will be a good choice. Judgment method has been chosen as the sampling technique for this study because there is a need to find out whether people that we approach have access to social networking sites before filling up the questionnaire. This ensures credibility of this research. The list of smartphone users among students in Penang cannot be obtained therefore probability sampling could not be done. . 4 Scale and Measurement The questionnaire was divided into 10 sections. Section 1 to 8 is measured using interval scale of measurement. The other two sections, personal profile and internet experience is measured by using nominal and ordinal scale. For section 1 to 8, the respondents were asked to read and respond to all questions according to their level of agreement or disagreement using the 5 point scale. The ratings are as below: 1 Strongly Disagree 2 Disagree 3 Neutral 4 Agree 5 Strongly Agree
All instruments were adopted from various literatures and were modified for the purpose of understanding people’s reflection when they use smartphones. 3. 4. 1 Independent Variable The independent variable is defined as the presumed cause of some changes in the dependent variable (Robbins, 1998). 3. 4. 1. 1 Perceived Usefulness Perceived usefulness of the individuals was measured on six items using 5-point scale ranging from “strongly disagree” (1) to “strongly agree” (7). Items were derived from Park & Chen (2007). Example of question is “Using the smartphone would enable me to accomplish tasks more quickly”. 3. . 1. 2 Perceived Ease of Use Six items using 5-point scale was used to measure perceived ease of use of the individuals ranging from “strongly disagree” (1) to “strongly agree” (7). Items were derived from Park & Chen (2007). Example of question is “I would find it easy to get the smartphone to do what I want it to do”. 3. 4. 1. 3 Compatibility This measure was derived from Park & Chen (2007) and a total of 3 items was measure using 5-point scale ranging from “strongly disagree” (1) to “strongly agree” (7). Example of question is “Using the smartphone will be compatible with all aspects of my studies”. 3. 4. 1. Observability Observability of the individuals was measured on six items using 5-point scale ranging from “strongly disagree” (1) to “strongly agree” (7). Items were derived from Park & Chen (2007). Example of question is “It is easy for me to observe others using the smartphone in my university”. 3. 4. 1. 5 Trial ability This measure was derived from Park & Chen (2007) and a total of four items was measure using 5-point scale ranging from “strongly disagree” (1) to “strongly agree” (7). Example of question is “Before deciding on whether or not to adopt the smartphone, I would need to use it on a trial basis”. . 4. 1. 6 Self-Efficacy Self-efficacy of the individuals was measured on ten items using 5-point scale ranging from “strongly disagree” (1) to “strongly agree” (7). Items were derived from Park & Chen (2007). Example of question is “I could complete a task using the smartphone if I had seen someone else using it before trying it myself”. 3. 4. 2 Dependent Variable Dependent variables are variable that is measured, predicted, or monitored and are expected to be affected by the manipulation of the independent variable. The dependent variable for this study is the intention to use smartphones. 3. 4. . 1 Intention to Use Smartphones Intention to use smartphones was measured by items adopted and validate by Park & Chen (2007). It has a total of four items measuring the intention of users to use smartphones. Example of item is “Assuming I have the smartphone, I intend to use it”. 3. 4. 3 Moderating Variable Moderating variable is a second independent variable, believed to have a significant contributory or contingent effect on the originally stated IV-DV relationship. The moderating variable for this study is attitudes towards using smartphones. 3. 4. 3. 1 Attitudes towards Using Smartphones
Four items using 5-point scale was used to measure perceived ease of use of the individuals ranging from “strongly disagree” (1) to “strongly agree” (7). Items were derived from Park & Chen (2007). Example of question is “Using the smartphone is would be a pleasant experience”. 3. 5 Questionnaire Design One hundred and twenty five respondents from Universiti Sains Malaysia voluntarily responded and completed the questionnaire. The questionnaire has 10 sections with 55 questions to measure the relationship of those factors and the intention to use smartphones as well as some demography questions.
Table 3. 1 depicts that all instruments used in this study had a corresponding Cronbach alpha ;. 693 Table 3. 1 Questionnaire Source and Validity |Variable |Construct |Items |Cronbach | Author | |Independent |Perceived Usefulness |6 |;. 779 |Park & Chen (2007) | | |Self-Efficacy |10 |;. 85 |Park & Chen (2007) | | |Perceived Ease of Use |6 |;. 764 |Park & Chen (2007) | | |Trialability |4 |;. 748 |Park & Chen (2007) | | |Observability |2 |;. 693 |Park & Chen (2007) | | |Compatibility |3 |;. 99 |Park & Chen (2007) | |Dependent |Intention to Use Smartphones |4 |;. 765 |Park & Chen (2007) | |Moderating |Attitude towards Using Smartphones |4 |;. 795 |Park & Chen (2007) | 3. 6 Data Collection Technique Data for this study was collected through structured questionnaires. The questionnaires were distributed to students in USM, Penang. 3. 7 Statistical Data Analysis The data gathered through questionnaire was subsequently coded and analyzed sing the computerized SPSS (Statistical Software Package for Social Science) software version 16. They were summarized using appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics. 3. 7. 1 Goodness and Correctness of Data Entry Establishing the goodness of data lends credibility to all subsequent analyses and findings (Sekaran, 2003). The main objective is to provide an introductory idea of how good the scales were by checking the central tendency and distribution of the responses. In order to prevent data entry error, data will be checked by running descriptive statistics for minimum, maximum, and count.
The mean, range, standard deviation and variance in the data will give a good idea of how the respondents have reacted to items in the questionnaire (Sekaran, 2003). Nevertheless, the missing value does not exhibit whether the data had been entered correctly. This is due to the large amount of variables that need to be keyed in. 3. 7. 2 Factor Analysis The principle concern of factor analysis is the resolution of a set of variables linearly in terms of (usually) a small number of factors. This resolution can be accomplished by the analysis of the correlation among the variables.
A satisfactory will yield factors which concern essential information if the original set of variables (Harry H. Harman, 1976). When a researcher has a set of variables and suspects that these variables are interrelated in a complex fashion, then factor analysis can be used to untangle the linear relationships into their separate patterns (Zikmund, 2003). 3. 7. 3 Validity and Reliability Validity becomes an issue whenever we ask: How can we access a concept that we have? Validity test is the degree to which the test actually measures what it claims to measure (Gregory, 1992).
Reliability test is the degree to which tests is free from error in measuring and therefore yield consistent results. It is th extent which respondent can provide almost similar answer to the same or approximately the same question the same way each time. Test validity is requisite to test reliability. If a test is not valid, then reliability is moot. Validity test plays an essential role in order to test the goodness of measurement. Validity ensures the ability of a scale to measure the intended concept (Sekaran 2003).
However, reliability also very important because reliability deals with the accuracy and precision of a measurement procedure which is the respondent can answer the same or approximately the same questions the same way each time. In short, reliability is the “consistency” or “repeatability” of measurement. In order to assure that the variables are measured correctly and make sure that the respondent was understood the lucidness, wordings, interpretation and appropriateness of the questions, the content validity of the questionnaire was established through literature review.
Cronbach’s coefficient alpha is the commonly used measure for internal consistency reliability. Cronbach’s alpha assesses the reliability of a rating summarizing a group of test or survey answers which measure some underlying factor. Cronbach’s alpha value that larger than . 70 or . 80 regard as the benchmark for acceptable reliability values (Nunnally and Bernstein, 1994). 3. 7. 4 Descriptive Analysis The analysis aims to provide an overview of the respondents and an insight into their behavioural patterns. Descriptive analysis was not used to analyze gender, race, education and income level.
For this data, the frequencies and percentage was used for computation. 3. 7. 5Regression Analysis Regression analysis is used as a statistical tool for the investigation of relationships between variables (Norman R. Draper, Harry Smith, 1998). Multiple regressions are a statistical technique that allows us to predict someone’s score on one variable on the basic of their scores on several other variables. Below are the assumptions of regression analysis. a. Normality assumption Regression assumes that variables have normal distribution. It used to determine whether a random variable is normally distributed.
If the histogram appears to at least resemble a bell shape curve, it was assumed that the normality requirement has been met. A bell shape curve will have almost zero mean and value of one for standard deviation. b. Linearity assumption Standard multiple regression can only accurately estimate the relationship between dependant and independent variables if the relationship are linear in nature. Linearity illustrates a relationship between variables that can be described by a straight line passing through the data cloud. c. Homoscedasticity assumption
Homoscedasciticity means that the variance of errors is the same across all level of the IV. When the variance of errors differs at different values of the IV, heteroscedasticity is indicated. This assumption means that the variance around the regression line is the same for all values of the predictor variable. d. Independence of Error Term Independence of Error Term means the predicted value is independent of other predicted values. Durbin-Watson statistics was used to validate the independence of error term assumption. Value of Durbin-Watson should fall between 1. 50 and 2. 0, which implies no auto-correlation problem. e. Multicollinearity Multicollinearity is the condition when two or more of the independent variables are highly correlated which will result in an overestimation of the standard deviation of the regression coefficients as an indicator of the relative importance of independent variable. Tolerance above 0. 1, Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) value below 10 and condition index below 30 signifies no major multicollinearity problem. f. Outliers In statistics, an outlier is an observation that is numerically distant from the rest of the data.
Case wise diagnostics was run to identify any outlier in the sample. Any cases that fell above the standard deviation value of 2. 50 would be dropped. CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS AND RESULT 4. 1 Introduction This chapter represents the result of the study from the statistical analysis conducted on the collected data and hypotheses testing. In the first part of this chapter the presentation would be on the characteristics of respondent profiles. The goodness of measured is determined by analyzing frequency analysis, descriptive analysis and reliability analysis on the measurement.
The final part of this chapter would be focused on hypotheses testing, correlation testing and linear regressions. 4. 2 Samples and Profiles 4. 2. 1 Frequency Analysis Table 4. 2. 1: Personal Profile of Respondents |Demographics |Frequency |Percentage | |Gender | | | | Male |43 |34. | | Female |82 |65. 6 | | Missing |0 |0 | |Ethnicity | | | | Malay |46 |36. 8 | | Chinese |65 |52. | | Indian |5 |4. 0 | | Others |9 |7. 2 | | Missing |0 |0 | |Nationality | | | | Malaysian |86 |68. | | Others |39 |31. 2 | | Missing |0 |0 | |Year | | | | First Year |31 |24. 8 | | Second Year |66 |52. | | Third Year |21 |16. 8 | | Fourth Year and Above |7 |5. 6 | | Missing |0 |0 | |Program | | | | Bachelor’s degree (undergraduate) |123 |98. | | Masters |2 |1. 6 | | Missing |0 |0 | |Status | | | | Part Time |17 |13. 6 | | Full Time |108 |86. | | Missing |0 |0 | |Faculty | | | | Management |95 |76. 0 | | Computer |6 |4. 8 | | Technology |4 |3. | | HBP |11 |8. 8 | | Communication |3 |2. 4 | | Chemistry |2 |1. 6 | | Humanities |1 |0. 8 | | Missing |3 |2. | |Live | | | | In Campus |100 |80. 0 | | Outside Campus |25 |20 | | Missing |0 |0 | A total of 125 responses were obtained from 125 questionnaires.
According to table 4. 2. 1, the respondents comprised 43 males (34. 4%) and 82 females (65. 6%). 46 (36. 8%) of the 125 respondents were Malay, 5(4. 0%) Indian, 65 (52. 0%) Chinese and other races comprised of 9 (7. 2%). 86 (68. 8%) of the respondents were Malaysians whereas 39 (31. 2%) of them are from other countries. Among the respondents, 31 (24. 8%) of them were First Year students, 66 (52. 8%) of them were Second Year students, 21 (16. 8%) of them were Third Year students and 7 (5. 6%) of them were students form Fourth Year and Above. Besides that, 123 (98. %) of the respondents were undergraduate whereas 2 (1. 6%) of them were master students. 17 (13. 6%) of the respondents were part time students whereas 108 (86. 4%) of them were full time students. In addition, 95 (76. 0%) of the respondents were students from School of Management, 6 (4. 8%) of them were students from School of Computer,4 (3. 2%) of them were from School of Technology, 11 (8. 8%) of them were from School of HBP, 3 (2. 4%) of them were students were students from School of Communication, 2 (1. 6%) of them were students from School of Chemistry, 1 (0. %) of them were students from School of Humanities and 2 (2. 4%) of the data were missing. 100 (80%) of respondents were live in campus whereas 25 (20%) of them were live at outside campus. Table 4. 2. 1. a Internet Experience of Respondents |Demographics |Frequency |Percentage | |Access | | | | Yes |117 |93. | | No |8 |6. 4 | | Missing |0 |0 | | | | | |Where | | | | Home |83 |66. | | Place of employment |13 |10. 4 | | School/ academic institution |21 |16. 8 | | Cybercafe |3 |2. 4 | | Others |5 |4. | | Missing |0 |0 | |Browser | | | | Internet Explorer |40 |32. 0 | | Mozilla Firefox |30 |24. | | Others |32 |25. 6 | | More than one browser |23 |18. 4 | | Missing |0 |0 | |Time | | | | Almost never |2 |1. | | From 0. 5 hours to 1 hour |5 |4. 0 | | 1-2 hours |17 |13. 6 | | 2-3 hours |31 |24. 8 | | More than 3 hours |70 |56. | | Missing |0 |0 | |Often | | | | Less than once a month |1 |0. 8 | | Once a month |1 |0. 8 | | A few times a week |13 |10. | | About once a day |30 |24. 0 | | Several times a day |80 |64. 0 | | Missing |0 |0 | According to table 4. 2. 1. a, 117 (93. 6%) of the respondents have internet access at home while 8 (6. 4%) of them do not have internet access at home. Other than that, 83 (66. %) of the respondents were primarily access internet from home, 13 (10. 4%) of them were primarily access internet from place of employment, 21 (16. 8%) of them were primarily access internet from school or academic institution, 3 (2. 4%) of them were primarily access internet from cybercafe and 5 (4%) of them were primarily access internet from other places. Internet Explorer was the most popular web browser used by respondents which recorded 40 (32%) of respondents following by 32(25. 6%) of them were using others web browser, and 30 (24%) of them were using Mozilla Firefox. 23 (18. %) of the respondents were using more than one browser. On an average day, 70 (56%) of the respondents were spend more than 3 hours on the internet, 31 (24. 8%) of them were spent 2-3 hours on the internet, 17 (13. 6%) of them were spent 1-2 hours on the internet, 5 (4/0%) of them were spent from 0. 5 hours to 1 hour on the internet and only 2 (1. 6%) of them almost never spending their time on the internet. On average, 80 (64%) of the respondents were using internet for several times a day, 30 (24%) of them were using internet for about once a day, 13 (10. 4%) of them were using internet for a few times a week, 1 (0. %) of them was using internet for once a month and another 1 (0. 8%) of them was using internet for less than once a month. 4. 3 Descriptive Analysis The summary of the descriptive statistic of the variables is given in table below. Table 4. 3. 1 Overall Descriptive Statistics of the Study Variables |Variables |Mean |Standard Deviation | |Perceived Usefulness | 3. 4707 |0. 56403 | |Self-Efficacy |3. 216 |0. 44948 | |Perceived Ease of Use |3. 6587 |0. 51145 | |Trialability |3. 5720 |0. 66510 | |Observability |3. 6280 |

Smartphone Usage Among Students

Has the raise in the tuition-fees rule affected student’s degree choices?

Has the raise in the tuition-fees rule affected student’s degree choices?.

Introduction
The underlying aim of this research is to identify the impact of the changes suggested and implemented as part of Brown Review of Funding, in 2010, and to establish whether this has changed the overall funding approach to be taken by higher educational establishments, while also approving the raising of the fees’ cap up to a maximum of ?9,000. The previous maximum was ?3,375; therefore, the increase in tuition fees was potentially going to have a dramatic impact on the overall desirability for higher education and the degree choices that are made by students. This research paper aims to ascertain the decisions made by students and the impact that these fees have had on the industry, as a whole.
Literature Review

Issues relating to the funding policy of education, with the fees charged to students arguably being one of the more high-profile elements of the policy, are many and complex. Existing literature in this area has therefore looked at various different aspects of the funding policy, all of which may be relevant when it comes to determining how the student body is likely to react to the changes, at ground level. Research by Chowdry et al., 2010, suggested that the complexity of the repayment system was in itself a potentially negative factor, although this did create a situation whereby the burden of these increased fees does vary, depending on underlying factors among students, such as parental income and the eligibility for grants and loans.
Research by Chowdry indicated that the average debt for students when graduating is likely to be approximately ?59,100. Given this dramatic change, it is unsurprising that there is a relatively large amount of literature looking at student uptake of a university education, although historically this has largely been focused on the links between family background and university participation. For example, research by Blanden and Machin, in 2004, looked at the link between university participation and the achievements of students, based on parental income, both before and after the year 1998, where withdrawals had had a dramatic impact on the way in which university life was funded. This work was then updated in 2008, yet no direct impact was found, creating a gap in the literature.
Research in this area also exists within the United States, with researchers such as Kane, 1994, using variances across the states and within the states to monitor and track student participation, based on tuition fees. This research was undertaken in a quantitative fashion, on the grounds that an increase of $1,000 in the tuition fees being charged could ultimately results in a decrease in attendance of approximately 3.7%.
Other research has taken a slightly different approach when looking at the impact of financial support, rather than necessarily considering the impact of increased fees, with Dynarski (2000) finding that an increase of $1,000 in aid increased the level of participation by 4%, thus showing a greater sensitivity to assistance than it does from increasing fees. Research does, however, suggest that both the availability of assistance and changes in tuition fees are having a direct impact on the willingness of individuals to participate in higher education, yet the precise impact of the new UK reforms in 2010 still remain relatively unexplored.
Research Philosophy, Strategy and Methodology
The purpose of this research is to look at the substance of quantitative changes and the impact that these have had on an individual, to make decisions in relation to participation in higher education.
Type of Research
As the key issues at the heart of the research are to look at the thought patterns and behaviours of individuals, the appropriate research philosophy is interpretivist and phenomenological in nature, ensuring that the researcher takes into account the conscious decisions of the individual. The reasoning behind the decision to adopt this approach is based on the recognition that human decision-making is controlled by a variety of factors and not simply based on quantitative, rational and objective decision-making. The research will be a combination of quantitative and qualitative, as it is anticipated that an analysis of participation, such as that within the existing literature can be undertaken to determine the figures behind the change, yet it is also necessary to look for a descriptive element to the research, so that the thought patterns of students can be analysed.
This phenomenological approach is much more humanistic in nature and recognises that opinion will be central to the ultimate findings within this research; however, this should be undertaken with a quantitative support structure, where appropriate.
Research Approach and Strategy
The underlying research approach is inductive in nature and involves taking a particular situation, in this case the increase in tuition fees, and developing general ideas and theories as to how this is likely to impact on various different elements of higher education. This will include not only looking at overall levels of participation, but also at the impact which this has had on decision-making in relation to which degree should be studied. This research being inductive enables the researcher to start by looking at the factual basis of an increase in fees and then to spread out from this point, in order to gather ideas and theories.
Methodology
The chosen methodology therefore will be to look at the precise nature of the changes and to identify any trends in participation between the two previous increases in fees and the year after the increase in fees, something which can be achieved by looking at the figures and facts from various institutions, before then going on to take the humanistic approach by undertaking questionnaires, interviews and focus groups with students and potential students, to determine whether the increase in fees leads to changes in decision-making in relation to the choice of course that can be attributed to the figures that have been identified.
Ethical Implications
There are several key considerations when it comes to ethical concerns during research of any nature and, in particular, in this case many of which are identified by Saunders et al., (2003). Some of the ethical considerations which have potential implications for this research have been identified, and the researcher is mindful that other ethical considerations may arise, on a case-by-case basis. The main concern at this stage is linked to the fact that information needs to be gained directly from the student in relation to their financial status and, as such, the privacy of those individuals is crucial, with individuals having to be confident that the information being provided will be maintained in confidence, although the research is going to be objective in nature when dealing with the information the participants provide.
Participation in the research must necessarily be entirely voluntary, with any participant being free to leave the study at any point. Participants need to be clear on the purpose of the research and the role which they play, as well as offering them the opportunity to make changes to the responses and to gain access to their responses, at any point, to check that they have been reported accurately and make changes, if they deem appropriate.
Data Collection
Data collection from primary sources, i.e. students and potential students, will be gathered through the method of questionnaires, interviews and focus groups and will target existing students and those students who are making their higher education decision, at the moment, or in the foreseeable future. On the whole, therefore, this will focus on the age category of 17 to 20 years old, although where possible, some more mature students will also be interviewed, as they may have different perspectives in terms of their higher education decisions.
The most appropriate form of data collection for the questionnaires has been determined as being online, as this is likely to encourage the greatest response, due to its flexibility and the likelihood that the majority of students and potential students will have at least an acceptable level of IT experience to be able to complete a questionnaire online. As interviews will also be conducted, the fact that the questionnaires will be on closed-end questions that can provide quantitative analysis does not present a particular limitation. A copy of the enclosed questionnaire will be contained in the appendix to this proposal and the format of the interviews and focus groups will be the same as questionnaires, but encouraging longer and more open ended responses, in order to obtain a better feel for the thought patterns behind the responses. A test pilot of 10 questionnaires has been undertaken and the responses are contained in the appendix.
Analysis of Pilot Data
The data collected as part of the pilot is contained in the appendix and it is concluded that the questions are appropriate when it comes to meeting the aims and objectives of the research. By asking the respondents about their current position in terms of their education and whether they are currently considering a university course as well as looking at the factors that are likely to influence the decision, a broader understanding of the influence of the increased fees can be ascertained. This questionnaire will also form the basis for the interviews and open-ended answers are expected in relation to these questions, offering explanations as to why certain answers have been given by the broader questionnaire sample.
For example, all the respondents stated cost as an influence on their university choices and 6 respondents stated that it was their main factor when it came to the decision-making process, suggesting that there is on the face of it a strong indication that this factor is going have a direct bearing on university choices. This questionnaire will then lay the foundation for the broader analysis and in order to determine the precise impact that the increased fees are likely to have, and not simply determining that they do in fact have an impact, but rather, it is the nature of the impact that is going to be the formative part of this research.
Overall Evaluation
The research strategy, on the whole, is appropriate to the underlying aim of the research, as it combines quantitative information relating to the number of students and the choices in relation to courses. This is then to be combined with the thoughts and ideas of students entering into education, to ascertain the reasons behind these quantitative changes. This issue is, however, likely to be personal to individuals and, as such, there will be limitations in the fact that it is not possible to gain responses from every single potential students simply cannot be obtained on generalisations which are likely to be present during research of this nature.
References
BLANDEN, J., GREGG, P. & MACHIN, S. (2003) Changes in Educational Inequality. CMPO Working Paper Series No 03/079.
BLANDEN, J & MACHIN, S. (2008) ‘Up and Down the Generational Income Ladder in Britain: Past Changes and Future Prospects’ National Institute Economic Review 2008; 205; 101.
BROWNE REVIEW (2010) Securing a Sustainable Future for Higher Education in England. www.independent.gov.uk/browne-report
CHOWDRY, H., CRAWFORD, C., DEARDEN, L., GOODMAN, A. and VIGNOLES, A. (2010) ‘Widening Participation in Higher Education: Analysis Using Linked Administrative Data’, Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS) Working Paper W10/04.

Has the raise in the tuition-fees rule affected student’s degree choices?

A Student Can Succeed Working 15 Hours per Week

A Student Can Succeed Working 15 Hours per Week.
A student can succeed working 15 hours per week. This will be successful with careful time budgeting and the selection of the correct job. The student must create a time budget and carefully allocate the hours to each activity for this to work; deviations from the budget will likely result in loss of sleep, loss of grade point average (GPA) or unsatisfactory job performance.

The student must allocate time between class participation, homework, exercise, social events and other extracurricular activities.  Use of alcohol and other light drugs should be avoided, but light usage every once in a while during social activities will not unduly upset the time allocations.

The time budget consists of the following allocations: 20 hours per week attending classes; 20 hours per week doing homework and lab work; 7 hours per week exercising; and 7 hours per week socializing and doing other extracurricular activities. Note there is no time allocation for the job, that is because homework will be done while on the job. Although the times for exercising and socializing average 1 hour per day, there is no requirement that these activities need to be done on a daily basis. During exam week and at other critical times, the socializing activities can drop down significantly.
Selection of the correct job is critical for the success of the work budget. The job must allow the student to do homework while at work. The jobs best suited for the working student include receptionist, evening watchman, intern jobs for the United States Government (including the CIA and NSA), house sitting, or babysitting.  The job can be worked either 3 hours per weekday or 7.5 hours on the weekends. House sitting is ideal, because it provides a free room and generates income. However, house sitting jobs will be the hardest to get.
Government intern jobs pay very well but demand a five year commitment after college which may not be appropriate for all students. Also the student must be working on a technical degree, have a clean background, and have a high GPA. Evening watchman will likely be the most available job, but typically requires 40 hours per week not 15. Students may be able to convince a potential employer to share the slot so that an entire 8 hour shift can be covered by three students. Job sharing will be successful if the student schedules do not intersect, which may be difficult.
The student also needs to eat and sleep. The time budget requires 8 hours per day for sleep and 3 hours per day for eating. The typical day for the student will be to rise at 7 AM and eat breakfast and then work on homework until the first class of the day at 10 AM. The student will eat lunch and then attend afternoon classes until 4 PM.
The student will then do homework until it is time for the job. The student should make a dinner and bring it work to eat there. While on the job the student will read and do other homework assignments until the work period has finished. The job should complete by 10 PM. The student then should walk home (getting exercise) and go to bed at 11 PM. There should be time during various parts of the day to have conversations with friends and work on hobbies such as music performance.
The schedule does not allocate time for the weekends. If the student elects to work during the weekends, then there can be more time allocated during the week for socializing and exercise.
The student should not keep an entire week of homework until getting to the job, as that will mean missing key points during the lecture period. So if reading is required for a particular class then that reading should be done before the class starts. Writing term papers and essays will be perfect for the weekend hours as that requires focused attention for several hours. The student should ensure that they will be allowed to bring a laptop computer to the job site. The schedule will allow a student to work 15 hours a week and keep a good GPA.
 

A Student Can Succeed Working 15 Hours per Week

Steve’s Needs as a student

Steve’s Needs as a student.
Steve is a 20 year old male student; he lives away from home as he is in his final year at university. Steve lives in student accommodation with 6 other male students. The area he lives in is deprived of the city and the local housing is poor quality. There are busy roads and factories surrounding the area he lives in. He smokes up to 120 cigarettes per week and binge drinks a lot. He doesn’t exercise at all and he eats unhealthily. Steve’s housing is very dirty and messy therefore causing a lot of dust. This is affecting his asthma. Steve’s Needs Steve has many needs to improve his PIES.
Firstly for his physical health he should stop drinking so much as it will be affecting his liver. Also he should stop eating so unhealthy and get on a healthy diet and start to exercise regularly. He should also use the exercise as well as to get fit to loose weight so he is at a healthy BMI. For his emotional health he should make sure that he stays motivated to loose weight and drink less alcohol and smoke less and eventually quit. He should keep self-confidence in himself that he can loose weight and that he will look much better in the long run after all his hard work.

Dying of Breast Cancer in the 1800s

Lastly for emotional health he should have support from people in order to help him loose weight and get healthier. People offering him support should be his friends, family and the nurse and doctors who are helping him. These could include the dietician and the community nurse. For Steve’s intellectual health he should make sure he concentrates more at university, in order to achieve a high standing grade. Also he should make sure that he gets educated on the risks of what he is doing to himself as he needs to realise what he is really doing to damage his body.
Lastly for Steve’s social health needs he needs to reassess his social life and stop going out more and maybe even find more supportive friends rather than people who find it funny that he gets into a complete state. Also he should take up a hobby in order to keep himself busy rather than turning to alcohol and causing himself harm. Steve should also think about how he spends his money and that he should stop spending it on alcohol and cigarettes and he should use it in a more useful way such as joining a gym or towards a hobby he may want to take up.
Steve should also make sure his housing environment is clean as it is affecting his health as it is very unhygienic. Community Nurse Lisa is a community nurse. She is helping Steve to get healthier and giving him advice on how he can loose weight and get healthier. Roles Lisa works within the community but she is based in a doctor’s surgery. A community nurse acts as a teacher and counsellor primarily, but also plays an important role in preventing widespread illness and disease in the community she serves. Lisa offers a supportive role; she supports patients as well as other professionals.
She does visits to schools, GPs and home visits in order to spread awareness of illness disease and also to support people in any health issues they may have. Lisa is part of the PCT (primary care trust). She offers general health care to patients and she gives out general advice. The main roles that Lisa undertakes are monitoring people’s health, providing nursing care to the sick and disabled, she is also a health teacher letting the community she serves in know about health risks and what you can do to prevent them.
Also she is a councillor; giving an appropriate advice and broadening a client’s insight about a problem so that appropriate decisions are made which can lead to a positive resolution of the problem. Tasks One of the tasks Lisa may undertake is screening tests to find out about their health such as she could look at the height, weight, BMI and blood pressure of Steve. Also she could do tests on Steve for his cholesterol levels and test their lung functions. These screening tests can help to promote good health.
This is because if there is an issue involving the Steve’s health then doing one of these screening tests Lisa may be able to notice the problem and then look at it in more detail. If the problem is noticed soon enough then Lisa will be able to inform Steve of what it is and help him sort the problem out and recommend him to a doctor or advise him on what he can do in order to retain a healthy state. Also a task Lisa may do as a community nurse is educating the community. She may give out education and advice on certain issues patients may have.
These could include pregnancies, exercise, drinking, smoking, diet and contraception. A community nurse can also provide information and advice on prescribed or over-the-counter medication on medication regimens, side effects and interactions. However if Lisa thinks that the patient needs more than just her advice such as Steve may need to see a dietician in order to plan out a healthy lifestyle and diet she may advise him to go see the specialist person as she may not be able to help him as much as the dietician can. She may also advise the patient to go to a specialist support group.
Such as if she thinks that Steve is showing signs of being an alcoholic she may advice him to attend an AA meetings or if she sees that Steve is overweight and needs help in loosing weight she may send him to groups that are specialised in helping people loose weight such as weightwatcher meetings. Lisa may also give out leaflets to a patient in order to help them with their health issue and for them to learn more about what it may consist of and how they can help themselves to get better health. Such as giving Steve leaflets on stopping smoking.
The leaflet would contain information of what stopping smoking consists of and what different methods he can use to stop smoking. If Lisa is incapable of giving the patient the knowledge they need she may have to refer them onto someone who will have much more knowledge about the issue. Such as if Lisa found that there may be an issue with a Steve’s health that would need him to have more tests and more examining then she will refer him to a doctor who will have more knowledge on what the issue is and they will be able to advise give more advice to the Steve than Lisa may be able too.
Lisa educating the community and giving them advice is another way to show that she is promoting good health to the community. The education she is providing will help people to see the first symptoms of serious diseases such as lumps on the breast, which should be checked out for breast cancer. This education of people finding out about diseases in the early stages will help a person to overcome the disease and get their good health back as soon as they can. Rather than having no education on looking out for the disease they may end up noticing the disease months down the line when it may be too late.
Also if people are being given positive advice they may feel better about themselves and therefore their lifestyle may become of a better quality and more positive. Such as if she was telling Steve how much fitter and healthier he will be if he looses weight and cuts down his drinking and smoking. Also that he will look much better and people will find him more attractive. This positive encouragement will help Steve to take on Lisa’s advice and make him want to loose weight so he can achievement a positive outcome.
The advice may also help people to seek out more medical help in order for them to maintain good health, without the advice they have been given by Lisa they may not know what to do about their health issue and things could have got much worse. Another task that Lisa might do as a community nurse is minor treatments. Lisa will not have the full medical training and knowledge as a doctor may have so therefore she will not be able to administer extreme drugs to the patient or be able to attend to serious wounds.
However she will be able to dress wounds and make sure they are kept clean. Such as if Steve has a minor injury from being out drinking all night and falling over as he was drunk. He will need the wound dressing and Lisa will be able to clean it to prevent infection and then bandage it up to avoid further damage. Skills Lisa will need a variety of different skills as a community nurse. Firstly she will need mathematical skills. These mathematical skills can be put to use when she is making sure that numerical data is interpreted properly.
If the data is interpreted properly then patients will have a correct understanding of what is going on with their body. Also Lisa can put her mathematical skills to use when she is doing Steve’s BMI. If she correctly uses her mathematical skills to work out Steve’s BMI then Steve will see Lisa as a knowledgeable, reliable person. If he sees Lisa as this then he will be more likely to listen to her advice and trust her. If he is listening to her advice because she has shown him that she is correct at her job and can help him then that will be helping Steve needs.
Lisa should also have good communication skills. She can put these skills to use when she is trying to get her message across to Steve. If she is giving Steve results from a screening test she must make sure that she doesn’t upset him and that she knows how to correctly communicate with him in order to get the best outcome. If Lisa seems to be nice and helpful towards Steve and she looks like she knows what she is saying and she is comforting Steve when he finds out some shocking news then Steve will maybe become to like Lisa and understand why she is there for him.
If he understands that she is there to help him then he is more likely to listen to her and in listening to her and getting her advice Lisa will be helping Steve to loose weight and cut back on the bad things he is doing to his body. This will be helping Steve’s needs. Lisa will have to have medical knowledge as a skill to be a community nurse. She will have to have medical knowledge so when she is giving out medical advice she will need to know that what she is saying is accurate and correct.
If her medical knowledge is accurate and correct and she has the skill to advise people on what they should do and help people with their descriptions she will be trusted and respected a lot more than if she didn’t have any knowledge on what she was doing. The medical knowledge can come in useful when she is working with Steve and helping with his needs. If Lisa shows Steve that she knows what she is doing and her knowledge is correct then Steve is going to want to follow her advice on how he can get his body fitter and healthier.
Steve needs to lose weight and if he wants to follow Lisa’s advice then she will be helping with his needs. If she had bad knowledge and seemed as if she didn’t know what she was doing Steve would be put off by this fact and may not want to or follow her advice as he may seem it to be incorrect, or that its her opinion and not a medical one. Lisa also should have good communication skills. She must make sure that she gets her message across to her patients such as Steve in a way that won’t offend them and will make them feel confident that she knows what she is saying.
She must make sure that if she is giving out results such as screening tests to someone that she is professional and makes the person feel comfortable. If Lisa puts this skill to use when working with Steve she will be helping with his needs. She will be doing this by communicating to Steve what is going on with his body in a positive non-offensive way then Steve is going to want to listen to Lisa and he will see what she is saying is important and that will help him in being confident that he is in the right hands to lose weight and get healthier. Qualities There are many qualities that Lisa should have to be a good community nurse.
Firstly she should be patient with the patient. She should never rush them into anything she must make sure she remains calm and not stressed out with the patient. Some patients may need to lose a lot of weight and if they aren’t doing it as quick as the community nurse would like, they must make sure they still remain calm and patient. If they start to rush a patient into loosing weight and telling them there not doing well enough or quick enough then they may lose their self-esteem and that could cause them to stop the course of treatment and therefore they won’t be loosing any weight.
However if Lisa is patient and calm with patients like Steve throughout the whole time they are seeing them which could be many months, Steve will more likely to become more confident that what he is doing is going to be beneficial and that he is doing everything correctly therefore Lisa will be helping him with his needs. Another quality that Lisa should have as a community nurse but also in helping Steve with his needs is being encouraging. If Lisa is encouraging then Steve will want to carry on with what he is doing as he is being encouraged to do so.
If Lisa is giving him positive encouragement and keeps reminding Steve how much better he will look and feel when he is healthier and fitter then Steve will become more determined to listen to her advice and participate in what she is doing to help him. If he listens to her advice then his needs will be for filled. Lisa should also make sure that she is very friendly towards her patients and that she doesn’t come across as being very nice then patients like Steve will be put off from talking to her.
If Steve is put off from talking to Lisa then he is unlikely to listen to her advice. If he doesn’t follow or listen to her advice then he won’t have his needs met. However is Lisa is friendly and kind towards Steve and shows him that she cares about him as an individual then Steve is more likely to listen to her advice and encouragement and have his needs met. Dietician Roles Sue is a dietician for the NHS. She works in partnership with doctors and a nurses who can refer their patients to Sue to get specific help that Sue as a dietician can help them with.
Sue will have specialist knowledge about diets and nutrition as she is trained in them areas. Therefore Sue will be very useful in helping Steve with his diet and loosing weight. A dietician plans nutrition programs and food programs for their patients. Dieticians such as Sue can help prevent diseases and obesity problems because they teach people about the role of food in their diet. They usually run food programs in institutions, such as hospitals and schools. A dietician promotes healthy diets through education and education programs.
Another role that Sue may have is to be able to create a diet based on what the doctor prescribes. The dietician must be able to prepare and calculate a diet based on the nutrients a person needs. Tasks A few tasks Sue may have to do as a dietician is educate her patients. The education is often about appropriate diets and what diet may be appropriate for their health needs. Sue could educate Steve on what diet he could start to take and how it will benefit him. Sue can also educate her patients by telling them the different types of food groups and why their all individually important.
She could educate Steve on what the different foods he eats do for him and maybe what food group he should start eating and why. Also Sue can educate her patients about the risks of an unhealthy diet and being overweight. Steve would benefit from this education very well as he may not understand the full risks of what he is doing to his body, but if Sue educates him on what he is doing to it and how bad it is then it may encourage Steve to take action. One of Sue’s tasks may also be giving her patients a diet that they specifically need and that will fit into their lifestyle.
She could give Steve a diet that specifically is for him and fits around his university timetable. Both hospital and community dieticians educate people who need special diets as part of their medical treatment, for example patients with kidney disease, food allergies, eating disorders, diabetes, HIV/AIDS etc. Another task that Sue may do is to run food programmes. Running food programmes in places such as schools can help the young pupils to get more knowledge on nutrition and what diets they should be taking in order to be healthy.
Sue could run a food programme at Steve’s university to show Steve that it is important to lose weight and be healthy, not just him but everyone. Another task that a dietician may have is giving out advice. Sue could give out advice on diets and nutrition in many different ways. A few of these ways could be giving out leaflets in a school or community place to get people to read into more detail on how important a healthy diet is. Also she could give leaflets out to her specific patients advising them on how to cope with their new diet etc.
Sue could also show videos and tell about case studies in communal places such a school or a GP. These videos will show awareness of a what an unhealthy diet can do and what you can do in order to maintain a good health and how you can do it. One of a community nurse’s tasks are to produce diet plans to suit the individual and what’s best for them. If Sue produced a diet plan that was suitable for Steve in order to lose weight then that will benefit him a lot. A dietician also monitors weight, they do this in order to see how well the patient is doing on the diet they have been set.
If the patients diet plan isn’t working for them and regular weight monitoring shows this then Sue may change their diet to something else to see if that diet plan works. Constant updating is needed in order for Sue to see if she needs to change diet plans for the patients. A dietician might incorporate exercise into the process, but this would only be minimum information such as that they should exercise regularly and often after meals etc. Skills Sue should have mathematical skills as a dietician.
She will need these skills in order to produce accurate diet charts and to accurately work out a person’s BMI. If the information Sue produces is correct because she has accurately used her mathematic skills then she will be able to tell Steve what to do to get healthier and lose weight. Steve will then believe that Sue knows what she is saying, he will then follow her advice and start to lose weight, this will be helping with his needs. Therefore he will feel better about himself as he will look and feel great.
Sue should also have good communication skills. Good communication skills are useful as the information is given face to face so therefore its important that the message is given across appropriately. Steve is more likely to listen to Sue’s information as she will be giving immediate responses and making him feel comfortable. This will help him as he will understand what to do to get himself healthier and this will help him to lose weight leading to him having a good self esteem, again Sue will be helping with what he needs.
Sue should also be able to have a skill in order for her to be able to give good advice. Sue will have to give good advice with reason behind the advice she has given, she will also have to have medical and nutritional knowledge to back up what she is saying this is because Steve will then know that she is giving a medical overview on his body and that it is a serious fact that he is unhealthy and needs to lose weight, not just Sue’s personal opinion.
The knowledge that Sue has is important as she will be letting Steve know she knows what she’s doing and he will follow what she is saying and he will lose the weight he needs also he will get much fitter and healthier and he will then feel much better about himself, therefore his needs will have been helped by Sue. Sue should also have knowledge on nutrition and dieting. This knowledge she has on nutrition and dieting will help her to provide accurate and immediate advice to her patients. If she is providing accurate and immediate advice to patients they will feel confident that she knows what she is doing.
If Steve believes that Sue has knowledge and accuracy on what she is telling him then he will trust her and he will want to take her advice and he will stick to diet plans she sets him, if he loses weight as a result of Sue’s work she will be helping his needs. Qualities Sue should have many good qualities in order to be a good and helpful dietician. Polite and friendly should be one quality. She will need to make sure she doesn’t offend the patient in what she is saying. She shouldn’t say that they are ‘fat’ and need to lose all their ‘chubbiness”.
She should be polite and professional and use the correct terminology to avoid any offence. Steve is overweight and if Sue worked out his BMI and saw this she shouldn’t call him ‘fat’. She should tell him that he is overweight and borderline obese. Even though it sounds worse if Sue uses the correct terminology then Steve is less likely to get offended and more likely to take things seriously. If he takes things seriously he is more likely to want to lose weight and therefore his needs will be met. Sue should also have being approachable as a quality.
If the Sue is approachable and friendly and nice the message she must give to Steve that he is overweight and does need to diet may make him accept these things more lightly than just saying he’s fat and needs to lose weight fast. If Steve can accept things more lightly and understand what Sue is saying to him then he is more likely to be confident and want to lose weight. If he loses weight then his needs will have been met. Sue should also make sure that she is relaxed and patient with her patients but that she is also firm. Things may get irritating if a patient is refusing to diet or doesn’t seem to think they should lose weight.
Sue should stay relaxed and patient but however she must make sure that she doesn’t give in and she stays firm. Such as making Steve stick to his diet plan. She must understand that it may be difficult at first but must be consistent and firm with Steve and keep reminding him that his needs can only be met if he works with her and takes onboard her advice. Sue must also make sure she stays positive. Being positive is a quality that Sue needs. She must make sure that she tells them how much better they will look and feel after all their hard work and that it will be very beneficial.
If she does this then her patients will then want to aspire for the positive goals. If she is negative and rude patients such as Steve may not listen to her and may not lose weight and may even start to gain weight. If Steve doesn’t lose weight then his needs will not be met. However if Sue stays positive with Steve and makes sure that he is in a positive frame of mind and he is in a determined lose as she tells him of all the benefits then Steve’s needs will be met as he will eventually lose weight and feel and look much better.

Steve’s Needs as a student

Essay on Student Information System

Essay on Student Information System.
Today, in most countries, computers and other IT resources are deployed by institutions of learning to facilitate the dissemination, access and management of information. This project evaluates and analyzes the processes, technology and methodologies implemented in the development of a web-based information system termed “Electronic Student Management System” (E-SMS) to solve the basic problems of the manual method used by the administrators and staff of secondary schools in Nigeria ————————————————- Information Technology is widely used for faster and easier way of recording student information.
It is also used in managing the operation undertaken by the school. It is a great help to every school that undergoes with different difficulties within recording the students information. Almost all schools and other institutions, computers have significant impact in their works. People rely on computer for efficient and effective way to handle different loads and tasks. ————————————————- In today’s generation, we are engaged in highly computerized technology aiming to enhance individual lifestyle and most especially in the world of business.
The manual system is now considered obsolete after the birth of the computerized system. Computerized S. I. S is now very common today’s generation. The current system of the EMCSI that they are using now is a manual paper based system and this system is a computerized student… Coping with the electronic revolution left institution in a dilemma with very meager options except to follow and adopt the changes. Students preferred to have guide and easy transaction like release of records, enrolment and many more. These are demands that institutions should cope up with.

They need technology which should do the work for them. What they need is a program or a system where they would simply press or click button and all the necessary information about a person will be provided. Additionally, much of the software used in previous student information systems and school administration worked on an outdated code base and had a curious mix of presentation, businesses and data accessibility. The advantage of having a student management system was missing as it was not possible to integrate any of the campus- based activities within the systems.
Thus, educational institutions were looking for a web- based solution such as a student information system or an intelligent student information system with an inbuilt mechanism to meet the requirements of student- related information management as well as to serve the purpose of a school management system. Furthermore, they were looking forward to a complete package on student information management system from a single programmer. Student Information Systems (SIS) manages student records and information. A Student Information System provides a capability to view the student records.
It includes student status, grades and the remaining accounts. A Student Information System helps schools mange various operations including student data, accounts, and viewing grades on previous semester. SIS is different from Course or Learning Management System (CMS or LMS). A SIS allows for the quick and accessible flow of information. A Student Information System provides fastest and efficient work job to the personnel and staff with useful tools to automate the daily routine of simple tasks ————————————————-
CHAPTER I RESEARCH PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND INTRODUCTION Notably, student information system or SIS incurs such application software designed for educational establishments to manage student data. Student information systems provide capabilities for entering student test and other assessment scores, building student schedules, tracking student attendance as well as managing many other student-related data needs within the institution university.
Thus, many of these systems applied in the Philippines can be scaled to different levels of activity and can be configured by their home institutions to meet local needs. Moreover, before universities have created their own bespoke student record systems, but with growing complexity in the business of educational establishments, organizations now choose to buy customizable within the shelf software. It can be that, modern student information systems are usually server-based, ith the application residing on central computer server and are being accessed by client applications at various places within and even outside the school. During the year 1990s, student information systems have been changing and are fast adopted through the presence of a web medium as a channel for accessing SIS without any hassle upon viewing student details and information. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM This study deals with the Proposed Claro M.
Recto High School Specifically, this study aims to answer the following questions: 1. What are the problems encountered by the system of the students’ information system in terms of services? 2. How do the above to be improved? 3. Is the proposed system can really make solution for these problems? 4. Does the computer based system can help the school to make               Collection process fast and ease?

Essay on Student Information System

Pro and Contra Student Work

Pro and Contra Student Work.
STUDENT WORK STUDY AND PRO-contrast BY MOHAMMAD ZAKARIA CHE ZAKWAN UKM: Although PTPTN loans or scholarships have been awarded, but so the price increases and cost of living are higher indeed inadequate. Therefore, they began looking at ways to overcome the financial difficulties experienced by them. According to the fourth edition of the chambers dictionary, the word “Temporary Works” means work done while normal work or other regular work. For a student, their main task is to learn and focus their attention on academic aspects, while working part-time at leisure intended to supplement pocket money or looking for work experience.
If seen from the positive side, working part-time as to train students to become independent. Desire to work comes from themselves masing. Bagi some students they do not want to burden their parents with problems faced by them. Thus they take their own initiative to work part-time in order to reduce the financial burden of their parents. In addition, part-time work can increase revenue or give incomekepada students. With the availability of this income from part-time work, to some extent they are able to buy all the equipment needed or whether an item needs to meet themselves.
Worked part-time for those who hold student status is indeed a big challenge. Both in terms of time or energy. Time constraints for a student is a challenge indeed. They need to complete assignments given by lecturers and review the lecture notes given in preparation for the final test of the semester and at the same time they have to work part-time to cover their living costs. Furthermore, the study work is also very tiring. Family life far from their need to do it all alone. Starting from toiletries, food, drink and everything should be done independently.

However, every single thing that we do indeed have its own pros and contrast and need our wisdom in finding a solution. MAHASISWA KERJA SAMBIL BELAJAR DAN PRO-KONTRANYA OLEH MOHAMMAD ZAKWAN CHE ZAKARIA UKM : Walaupun pinjaman PTPTN atau biasiswa telah diberikan namun begitu dengan kenaikan harga barang dan kos sara hidup yang semakin tinggi sememangnya masih tidak mencukupi. Oleh sebab itu, mereka mula mencari jalan penyelesaian bagi mengatasi masalah kewangan yang dialami oleh mereka.
Menurut kamus dewan edisi keempat, perkataan “Kerja Sambilan” membawa maksud kerja yang dibuat disamping kerja biasa atau kerja tetap yang lain. Bagi seorang pelajar, tugas utama mereka ialah belajar dan menumpukan perhatian mereka terhadap aspek akademik, manakala bekerja sambilan pada waktu lapang bertujuan untuk menambah duit saku ataupun mencari pengalaman kerja. Jika dilihat dari sudut positif, bekerja sambilan dapat melatih mahasiswa untuk berdikari. Keinginan untuk bekerja itu datang daripada diri masing-masing.
Bagi sesetengah pelajar mereka tidak mahu membebankan ibu bapa mereka dengan masalah yang dialami oleh mereka. Justeru itu mereka mengambil inisiatif sendiri dengan bekerja sambilan bagi mengurangkan beban kewangan ibu bapa mereka. Selain itu juga, bekerja sambilan dapat menambahkan pendapatan atau memberi incomekepada para pelajar. Dengan adanya pendapatan daripada kerja sambilan ini, sedikit sebanyak mereka dapat membeli segala peralatan yang diperlukan sama ada barangan keperluan ataupun untuk memenuhi kehendak diri mereka sendiri.
Bekerja sambilan bagi golongan yang memegang status pelajar sememangnya merupakan satu cabaran yang besar. Baik dari segi masa mahupun tenaga. Kekangan masa bagi seorang pelajar sememangnya merupakan sesuatu yang mencabar. Mereka perlu menyiapkan tugasan yang telah diberikan oleh pensyarah serta mengulangkaji nota-nota kuliah yang diberikan sebagai persediaan untuk menghadapi ujian akhir semester dan dalam masa yang sama mereka perlu bekerja sambilan bagi menampung kos sara hidup mereka Tambahan pula, kerja sambil belajar juga amat memenatkan.
Kehidupan yang jauh daripada keluarga memerlukan mereka melakukan semuanya secara sendirian. Bermula daripada kelengkapan diri , makan, minum dan semuanya perlu dilakukan secara berdikari. Walaubagaimanapun, setiap perkara yang kita lakukan sememangnya mempunyai pro dan kontranya yang tersendiri dan memerlukan kebijaksanaan kita dalam mencari jalan penyelesaiannya.

Pro and Contra Student Work