Conforming to General Health, Safety and Welfare in the Workplace

Conforming to General Health, Safety and Welfare in the Workplace.
1.1 When first attending a construction site, new work operatives will be given an induction so that all they have a clear understanding of their responsibilities along with that of the company. This site induction is specific to the site and provides you with information on the current hazards of the site and tells you about the site rules and regulations you must comply to. Information may include:
emergency evacuation & fire procedure
safety signage

• risk assessments
• safe systems of work
• organisational procedures
• use of PPE (Personal Protective Equipment)
• COSHH (Hazardous Substances)
• storage requirements
• control measures
• waste disposal procedures
• reporting procedures
site facilities.
1.2 The company shall issue you with the appropriate PPE, the basic provision would consist of safety footwear and safety helmet to protect your feet and head respectively from falling objects, Hi visibility clothing to been clearly seen. These are the basic PPE normally worn when on site in accordance with legislation and organisational requirements. The work task may require addition protection as ear defenders / plugs, gloves, safety glasses, masks, respirators , handling equipment.
1.3 Health, Safety, Warning and Information signs found throughout worksite and identified as below:
Fire equipment
Location of fire fighting equipment
Mandatory
Must do
A course of action which must be taken
Prohibition
must not
Behaviours that are prohibited
Hazard
Danger
Danger, warning and caution
Safe condition
Information
Escape routes and safety equipment
1.4
Collective protection is equipment which can protect more than one person and, once properly installed or erected, does not require any action by them to make sure it will work. Examples which prevent a fall include, scaffolds, tower scaffolds and cherry pickers which have guard rails and equipment which minimises the consequences of a fall, include nets and airbags. Collective measures have several advantages. They are easier to use, protect everyone at risk in the work area and need less effort in terms of maintenance and Industrial safety helmets, bump caps, hairnets and fire fighters’ helmets user training. Personal measures have disadvantages – they require a high level of training and maintenance and they only protect the user.
Personnel Protective Equipment (PPE)
The needs for PPE are assessed by a person who is competent to judge whether
other methods of risk control can offer better protection of safety and health than the Eye protection: Safety spectacles, goggles, face screens, face shields, visors. Hazards
Chemical or metal splash, dust, projectiles, gas and vapour, radiation
Head and neck: Industrial safety helmets, bump caps, hairnets and fire fighters’ helmets. Hazards
Impact from falling or flying objects, risk of head bumping, hair getting tangled in machinery, chemical drips or splash, climate or temperature
Ears: Earplugs, earmuffs, semi-insert/canal caps
Hazards
Noise – a combination of sound level and duration of exposure, very high-level sounds are a hazard even with short duration Choose protectors that reduce noise to an acceptable level, while allowing for safety and communication
Respiratory Protective Equipment (RPE)
Used when you might still breathe in contaminated air, despite other controls you have in place e.g. extraction systems When there is short-term or infrequent exposure and using other controls is impractical Whilst you are putting other controls in place
When you need to provide RPE for safe exit in an emergency
When you need to provide RPE for emergency work or when there is a temporary failure of controls
Local Exhaust Ventilation (LEV) in your workplace should carry away any harmful dust, mist, fumes or gas in the air to protect your health: It needs to be the right type for the job.
It needs installing properly in the first place.
It needs regular checking and maintenance throughout the year. It needs testing thoroughly at least once every year.
It needs an indicator to show it’s working properly.
1.5 When carrying out your daily work you must adhere to health and safety measures in accordance with the given instructions which could include safety data sheets, collective protective equipment, signs, notices, barriers, dust and fume ventilation.
1.6 Health & Safety at Work Act 1974, Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH), Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR), Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations, Reach. Codes of Practise. Health & Safety signs / notices placed throughout the worksite.
1.7 Having your working area risk assessed, method statements produced, safety & warning signs displayed, all relevant to the occupational area will help the worker carry out their job activities safely and correctly to reduce health & safety risks to himself and those operating within the area.
1.8To comply with control measures that have been identified by risk assessments and safe systems of work. You would be required to wear the appropriate PPE, to read and follow safe systems procedures, comply to any health, safety, information and warning signs placed throughout the working site.
2.1Following organisational procedures in the workplace, any hazards created by change in circumstances should be reported, these may include a change in weather if working outside such as if rain or frost may make working site areas hazardous with possible slipping on the changing surface area. Staff absence placing undue workload . Work equipment not operating as expected such as dust extraction not clearing air as normal.
2.2Typical hazards associated with your working environment could include moving and placing tools and materials in the work area safely, so that they are not causing a trip hazard, obstructing or blocking fire exit doorways. Tools and equipment have been checked for any damage prior their use in conjunction with the correct PPE being worn to avoid the dangers they are prescribed to protect you from. The use of hazardous substances hold its own
risks to the user and the environment. users should not leave such substances unattended which could cause harm to other if inadvertently exposed to them. Correct use while wearing the PPE in accordancewith manufactures instructions and following H&S regulations for storage and disposal.
2.3 /2.4
http://www.hse.gov.uk/construction/lwit/risk-behaviours-tool.htm
Fall from a ladder
Fall through a fragile roof
Lifting operations
Struck by plant
Overturning plant
Fall from scaffolding
Fall through a roof void
Asphyxiation poisoning
Crushed by falling excavation
MWEP crushing entrapment
http://www.hse.gov.uk/construction/lwit/safety-risks.htm
Exposure to Asbestos
Manual Handling
Exposure to excessive vibration
Exposure to Sillica
Exposure to excessive noise
3.2 To ensure safe working on site, you will be issued with various information documents in the form of method statements, risk assessments, training notes, manufacturer’s instructions, control measures, reporting procedures etc. once you have read them you will be required to sign as a record for the employer that you have been provided with the documents, have read and understood the information. Therefore if there is any part of the information which you are not unable to interpret properly or understand you
must ask for an explanation before signing. Once you have signed you must always comply with the information and instructions provided to ensure safe working practise.
3.2 If during the working day there are issues which could compromise health & safety or you could provide information which can help improve the safe working environment or practises then you should feedback this to your supervisor, manager or safety officer.
3.3Welfare facilities are provided on site for the benefit of all, so that you may wash and eat in clean and healthy surroundings. It is each and every person’s responsibility to keep these areas clean and tidy for hygiene purpose. Also if you find that the washroom hygiene items needs replenishing then this should be reported at your earliest opportunity.
3.4It is important that PPE is safely stored so that it don’t get damaged when not in use. This applies for any safety control equipment that is not in use is checked and then put in away in safe storage area in accordance with manufactures instructions.
3.5There are company policies for the management of all waste materials on site prior to them being taken for recycling. The waste materials are separated and placed into their allocated waste bins. eg timber, metals, chemicals, plastics, cardboard and general waste. The bins are emptied frequently to ensure they don’t over fill and become a safety risk.
3.6If a minor accident (minor cuts, abrasions, splinters) occur while carrying out your work duties then this would be dealt with by the company’s first aider and the incident recorded in the accident book.
In the case of a accident being a near miss then this must be reported to your supervisor. The incident will be recorded and a new risk assessment conducted to help to reduce the risk of this accident re-occuring.
If there is a accident that is much more serious then the emergency services
my need to be called upon. In this case work within the area of the accident would have to cease and the Health and Safety Executive informed. They may then have to conduct an investigation and take statements and could even halt work on the site.
Should there be a fire within the vicinity of your work, then you will need to raise the alarm immediately and evacuate the site in an orderly fashion to their fire assembly point, where a resister of all personnel whom have checked in onsite will need to be accounted for.
3.7 / 3.8 The chart below shows the types of fire extinguishers, their colour code identification and their uses on different type of fires.
British Standards
*BS EN:2 1992 Classification of fires (ISBN 0 580 21356 0):
Class A fires involving solid materials, usually of an organic nature, in which combustion normally takes places with the formation of glowing embers Class B fires involving liquids or liquefiable solids
Class C fires involving gases
Class D fires involving metals

Conforming to General Health, Safety and Welfare in the Workplace

Effects of Safety Negligence

Effects of Safety Negligence.
The Importance of Aviation Safety and The Effects of Safety Negligence Michael A. Maze Colorado Technical university Online Why Is safety of such importance throughout the aviation Industry? Throughout this discussion I will Interpret the significance safety Imposes on not only the lives of maintenance personnel but also the lives of many others, which may even include you. Air travel has been a high demand for many years now and everyone should understand how critical it is maintaining these aircraft safely really is.
Everyone has eared of a helicopter or airplane crashing here and there. How many have actually sat back and thought whether these accidents could have been avoided? Truthfully some of those accidents could have been. There’s not a lot we can do to prevent an aircraft from going down due to a natural occurrence, however with properly trained maintainers the event of a maintenance related failure can be greatly reduced. I will explain the roles of the Quality Assurance (QUA) and Production Control (PC) sections of maintenance.
I will further explain what needs to be required for a shop to run feely and introduce you to examples of FOOD (Foreign Objects of Debris/Damage) and the threat they pose to aircraft as well as many lives that encounter them. Shop safety plays an Important role In succeeding the goals of aviation safety. The work that any individual shop performs can turn catastrophic In the air due to safety negligence. It is imperative that all shop personnel are properly trained and certified in their areas of expertise.

Ensuring that employees are familiar with the operation of their tools and using the proper PEP (Personal Protective Equipment) can erroneously reduce the risk of injury within the shop. In many areas of the aviation maintenance industry there is also exposure to hazardous chemicals and materials. Requiring employees to use all PEP In accordance with each chemical/ material’s MESS (Material safety Data sheet) will reduce the risk of getting cancer and having other serious health problems throughout time. One of the biggest threats to aircraft today is the presence of FOOD (Foreign Objects of Debris/Damage).
One of the most widely known cases of FOOD-related accidents that have taken place In the recent year Is jetliners flying into a flock of birds. There have been many Instances In which these large planes have struck birds therefore causing one or more of their engines to go out or malfunction. Although natural threats of FOOD cannot always be prevented, there are many things that can be done as an aircraft maintainer to prevent an accident due to negligence. Maintaining accountability of the tools you take on and off the aircraft and practicing clean work play a huge role in the prevention of FOOD-related accidents.
It is always good to keep In your mind the burden you will face due to your act of negligence and that any debris left behind could cause a catastrophic failure. N any company there can be a vast number to aircraft in their delete. T Production Control office is responsible for the scheduling of phases. A phase is a period where an individual aircraft is due in for maintenance. Each aircraft has its own specified periods for phase and is scheduled in accordance to that aircraft’s technical manual, based on the number of flight hours.
It is important to have an updated schedule as things change and to avoid having too many aircraft in maintenance than the company can handle at once. With an overload of work you face the increased risk of safety concerns. The personnel that comprise the Production Control office play a key role in maintaining a safe working pace for the maintainers and understand the elevated risk when things fall out of schedule. Although every component of a company in the aviation maintenance industry is important, the most important is the technical inspectors who make up the Quality Assurance section of the company.
These inspectors have to have a vast knowledge of the work that is performed on each aircraft. After a maintainer completes their task, the inspector must follow behind ensuring that everything was done in accordance to that aircraft’s technical manual. They must then verify that the quality of the work performed meets all specifications. Finally, they must verify that there is not any FOOD left on the aircraft before the task can be signed off as good. The Quality Assurance office is ultimately responsible for every repair done to the aircraft as they sign each individual task off.
However in all reality every person involved, from the maintainer to the technical inspector, is responsible for enforcing safety procedures. They are responsible for making sure that the aircraft we fly in everyday are safely maintained and safe to fly. After reading this essay I hope that you have a better understanding of the importance of safety in the aviation industry. The effects of negligence can be vastly reduced when people are more knowledgeable in the subject, therefore reducing the amount of accidents caused by gelignite.

Effects of Safety Negligence

5 Ways Workplace Safety is Shifting in the Digital Age

5 Ways Workplace Safety is Shifting in the Digital Age.

Everything is changing in the digital age, from the way we do things in our personal lives to the way we do things at work. In the work category, one thing definitely undergoing change in this digital age is workplace safety.
Related:
Fortunately, many of the issues we used to worry about have faded because we now have updated the ways we stay safe in the workplace. Here is how workplace safety is shifting in the digital age.

1. Better metal detectors
Many places of business now have walk-through metal detectors to ensure no one is bringing guns, knives or any other dangerous weapons into the workplace. When you walk through one of these metal detectors with something you shouldn’t, the detector will find it.
This is the first step for protecting the workplace. And it is rare to get anything dangerous past these detectors because those we have today are superior to the ones we had in the past — able now to detect the tiniest piece of metal.
2. Bulletproof glass
Many banks and other financial institutions now have bulletproof glass windows. This is another way the into the digital age. Bulletproof glass can protect bank tellers and others serving the public. They can also work hand-in-hand with metal detectors. .
3. Stepped-up security
Most places of business have not only the traditional security guard (or guards) but, increasingly, digital security cameras. Motion lights are another modern security feature. In combination, these tools protect your place of business from the outside in.
If burglars get past the motion lights and security guards, they will still be recorded on the security cameras. 
4. Laser safety curtains
Along with bulletproof glass, there are also to keep the workplace safe. For example, criminals and other trespassers might get through the walk-through metal detector, although this is rare, but the laser curtains will likely stop them. You never know when you will need that little bit of extra security.
Related: 
5. 3D visualization technology
With 3D visualization technology, you can see potential threats before they even happen. This technology helps you prepare for issues “you didn’t see coming.”
Using warning signs to keep employees safe
Another way to keep your workplace safe is to incorporate  on signs and product labels. These educate employees about the different machinery in the workplace, including its operating instructions; they educate customers about product safety.
URLs and QR codes can be printed on a sign posted in the workplace or on a label placed on a machine, which, when scanned by employees, offers additional information. This way, they know the proper way to use machines to avoid injury.
You never know what may happen 
These tools not only help employees stay , but may also increase productivity. Technology continues to advance every day. 
Related: 
In sum, it is always better to be . And, here, the digital age is playing a big role in the safety every one of us wants and expects.

5 Ways Workplace Safety is Shifting in the Digital Age

Driving Safety and Distractions

Driving Safety and Distractions.
Research question: driving safety and types of distractions.
Hypothesis: Driving safe and trying to avoid distractions can prevent thousands of accidents each year. People tend to let things like music, phones, makeup, and other things distract their driving. Acting more safely can prevent a lot. The null hypothesis would be that it really doesn’t matter about the distractions it is up to the person to drive safely. The number of participants that I will use for this research is thirty. The inclusion characteristics will be age, gender, and three different types of distractions. I don’t think there will be no exclusion characteristics considering the study is using age and gender as well as different distraction characteristics. Yes, the sample needs to be diverse because we are studying driving between males and females. We are also studying the adult and teenage age groups against the different distractions that we intend to use. The type of sampling method that I will be using is stratified random sampling. This sampling is appropriate because I will be randomly selecting participants from each group so that their presence in the sample is proportional to the representation in the population. I will generalize my sample to the male and female populations. I will also use the teenage and adult groups. I will also generalize between the different types of distractions and there affect. The independent variables in my study will be men versus women. The dependent variable would the types of distractions that cause a person not to drive safely. I will be using the one-way ANOVA test. This test is appropriate to use with the number of distractions being tested which will be three or more categories to compare against.
The reliability of this study is based on the participants and how they react to the types of distractions. The validity would be how valid the distractions are to get a reaction out of the participants. For this study, I will be using observational research in determining driving and types of distractions. I would set up a car simulation. Each participant would be driving and I would add a distraction to the experiment to observe the reaction of the person. I will also use data from different driving accidents to see what caused it and the age and gender of the person. Descriptive research is the design being used. This research is good because I am using observational research and some archival data. The basic procedure that I will go through is to randomly pick males and females some that are teens and some adults. I will set up car simulation and have each one drive and then present different distractions to see how they react. I can also see what was the one distractions that had the greatest effect and the one that had the least effect. Some ethical issues could be the race of the subjects, the area in which they live, health, and mental issues.

Reference

Newnam, Sharon; Lewis, Ioni; Watson, Barry. Accident Analysis & Prevention (0001-4575) March 2012.
Rhodes, Nancy; Pivik, Kelly Accident Analysis & Prevention (0001-4575) May 2011.
Vol. 43, Iss. 3; p. 923-931 Source: Science Direct Age, skill, and Hazard perception in driving Borowsky, Avinoam; Shinar, David; Oron-Gilad, Tal Accident Analysis & Prevention (0001-4575) July 2010.
http://www. sciencedirect. com. libproxy. edmc. edu/science_ob=GatewayURL=citationSearch=4=SERIALSCENT=1=S0001-4575%2811%2900306-X=f657769fe706b77650817f650bfd1ffe
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Driving Safety and Distractions

Road Safety Analysis

Road Safety Analysis.
Road safety is a major issue affecting the road sector. Road accidents remain a serious impediment to sustainable human development in many of the developing member countries (DMCs) of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). Road accidents continue to be an important social and economic problem in developing countries like India. Growth in the number of motor vehicles, poor enforcement of traffic safety regulations, poor quality of roads and vehicles, and inadequate public health infrastructures are some of the road safety problems facing in India.The object of this Thesis is to present a status report on the nature of the government policy towards the Activity plans implemented till now and which has to be implemented later for the reduction of road fatalities and for the safe roads, and also giving the guidelines for financing of remedial measures, institutional framework, physical characteristics of the road, traffic control and calming measures, road safety education and enforcement issues.The aim of the Activity plans is to analyze the present situation of road safety in India and to indicate main problems in individual sector of the Activity implemented by comparing and taking the examples of some of the ASEAN Region who are successed in implementing in the individual sectors.

The effect of the programme to real safety situation is estimated, and further plans could be corrected if it is necessary. Implementation of the goals for the coming years to reduce the number of accidents at maximum extent and give people, the safe and the steady flow of traffic in India.The vision of a tremendous change next 5 to 10 years is based on a big potential for improvement and a joint effort of all involved groups on all levels of traffic safety, centrally coordinated by the National Road Safety Authorities. The Action Plan is deliberately divided into 14 key Sectors of activity in broadly the same way as the individual country road safety action plans. The sectors involve many different disciplines and a very wide range of multi sector activities but all are based on applying scientific, methodical approaches to the problem. At the end the thesis gives the recommendations and conclusion for the safe Roads in India

Road Safety Analysis

Software Testing in Safety Critical Systems

Software Testing in Safety Critical Systems.
Abstract Today, many safety-critical applications are controlled by computer software. Therefore effective testing tools are required to provide a high degree of safety and to reduce severe failures too minimum. The paper examines existing regulating standards in safety-critical systems. By comparing different software testing methods the requirements and challenges in safety-critical software testing are being evaluated. The QUICKIES standard serves as the mall regulatory framework for all separately systems and provides the basis for the creation of application- and Interdependently tankards.
Moreover it defines certain safety integrity levels depending on the field of application and recommends testing methods according to these levels. In model- based safety testing a usage model with restricted space state domain is used to generate representative test cases. Statistical testing is a mathematical approach that uses a high number of test cases to reach a significant result. The main challenge of all safety-related testing methods Is to reduce testing time and complexity without distorting the significance of the test.
These can for example be transportation systems, power plants, and medical applications. As people’s lives depend on the correct function of such control systems and their software, thorough testing is required before they can be admitted to operation. There are many different software testing methods. Most of them only analyze the probability of a failure but do not value its severity. However, in safety-critical systems a failure that has severe consequences, even if it is extremely rare, can not be accepted. Therefore testing in this field has to be adopted accordingly.

The purpose of this paper is to find and compare the latest methods for safety-critical footwear testing and to identify the most common industry standard in this field. Moreover the requirements and challenges in safety-critical software testing will be elaborated. At the beginning the paper will provide definitions that are required for the understanding of the subsequent chapters. After that, an introduction to the JUICE 508 safety standard, which serves as a basis for most industry-specific standards, is given.
The chapter “Testing Methods” will address some of the latest safety-related software testing methods in detail. 5 Definitions 2 Definitions 2. 1 Reliability and Safety In safety critical systems both, reliability and safety are required to achieve the goals of dependability. However, reliability and safety are two different attributes of dependability. The reliability, R(t) , of a system is a function of time. It is defined as the conditional probability that the system will perform its intended function in a defined way over a given time period and under certain specified and assumed conditions.
The most used parameter to characterize reliability is the Mean Time To Failure (MATT). The safety, S(t), of a system is defined as the probability that a system ill either perform its functions correctly or will discontinue its functions in a way that does not interrupt the operation of other systems or Jeopardize the safety of any people associated with the system [1]. Based on these definitions, in reliability testing all failures are weighted equally, whereas in safety testing the failures are weighted according to their severity.
Therefore, a reliable system may be quite unsafe and a safe system may be very unreliable. 2. 2 Safety-critical System States very complex to generate. As many states are unreachable or very difficult to reach hey can be reduced to a relatively small number of representative system states. These states are grouped in three subsets: Normal State Subset (NUNS), Fail-Safe State subset (FPS) and Risky state subset (IRS). Their relationships are: s=Unusualness; 6 Their inter-dependability is described as a Markova chain (see figure 1) [2]. Figure 1 : Three-state Markova Model for Safety-critical Systems(Source: 2. Markova Chain Usage Model The Markova chain usage model describes the possible usage of a software based on a predicted environment. It can be used to generate statistical test cases and to estimate the software reliability. In an Markova model the transition from operation I to operation J can be denoted by an ordered pair . Let be the transition probability from operation I to operation J, with and EX=I .. N p(is)=1, where n is the number of operations. The transitions and transition probabilities can be represented in the form of a matrix [3].
Each specific usage of the program corresponds to a path X=(XI, XX,… Xi) in the Markova chain where Xi corresponds to the I-the operation. P(Xi, X]) determines the next executed operation J after execution of operation I. Since the operations are random rabbles, each path X=(XI, XX,… ) forms a stochastic process. For a particular path x=(ox, XSL ,… ), the corresponding path execution probability is [3]: 7 pox pop , x 3 Standards There exist both national and international standards and guidelines at different depths and classifications which define requirements for safety-related technologies. Yester and provides the basis for the creation of application- and underspecified standards. It includes more than 500 pages of normative and informative specifications and proposals. Nowadays most safety-related standards are based on he JUICE 508 in combination with the previously applicable requirements [4]. The JUICE 508 defines so called Safety Integrity Levels (Sills) which serve as a measure for the safety requirements on a certain system. The following table shows the different SILLS as well as the corresponding probability of failure and application examples.
Probability of Failure One Failure in x Years Consequences Application Example < 10-8 110000 years Potential for fatalities in the community Nuclear power plant control 2 < 10_7 1 1100 years Potential for multiple on-site fatalities Hazardous area laser curtain sensor 1100 years Potential for major on-site injuries and fatalities Hazardous liquid flow meter < 10-5 110 years Potential for minor on-site injuries Thermal meter Table 1 : Safety Integrity Levels (Source: 8 Standards The ‘EC 61 508 is divided into seven parts. Parts one through four are normative and are used as a guide.
The last three parts, are informative and include practical examples which should help to simplify the application of the standard. The ‘CE 61 508 describes the complete life cycle of safety-related systems from planning to decommissioning and refers to all aspects related to the use and requirements for electrical / electronic / programmable electronic systems (E / E / PEE) for separately functions [4]. According to the focus of this paper only the parts relating to software testing are mentioned in the following paragraph. Figure 2 shows the verification and validation process in software development according to the JUICE 508 standard.
The E/E/PEE system safety requirements are applied both on the system architecture and the software specifications. Every level in the system architecture verifies if it meets the requirements of the next higher layer (I. E. Coding fulfills module design requirements, module design fulfills software yester design requirements etc. ). Moreover each system architecture layer is tested by a specific test. As soon as the test circuit is closed successfully the software can be validated. The standard also recommends and rates certain test methods according to the required SILL. In order to meet the requirements of the ‘CE standard a series.
Test methods comprised in the ‘CE 61 508 are categorized as follows [6]: Failure analysis (I. E. Cause consequence programs) Dynamic analysis and testing (I. E. Test case execution from model-based test case generation) Functional and black box testing (I. . Equivalence classes and input partition testing, including boundary value analysis) Performance testing (I. E. Response timings and memory constraints) Static analysis (I. E. Static analysis of run time error behavior) 9 Figure 2: ‘CE 61 508-3 Verification and Validation Process(Source: 10 Testing Methods 4 Testing Methods There are many different software testing methods.
A detailed introduction to all different methods would be far beyond the scope of this paper. Therefore the author will only mention two methods he deems most relevant in the field of safety-related software testing. Finally both methods are compared and their possible application areas are evaluated. 4. 1 Model-based Safety Testing In model-based testing explicit behavior models that encode the intended behavior of a system and its environment are used. These models generate pairs of inputs and outputs. The output of such a model represents the expected output of the system under test (SOT). Mineral model-based testing method. The system safety-related behavior is defined in the safety requirements specification. Test cases are derived from a safety model that is extracted from the SHUT and from formal safety requirements. This model encodes the intended behavior and maps each possible input to the corresponding output. Safety test selection criteria relate to the functional safety of the safety- critical system, to the structure of the model (state coverage, transition coverage), and also to a well defined set of system faults.
Safety test case specifications are used to formalize the safety test selection criteria and render them operational. For the given safety model and the safety test case specification, an automatic safety test case generator and optimizer generates the safety test case suite. Finally, the concreted input part of a test case is submitted to the SHUT and the SOT’s output is recorded. The concentration of the input part of a test case is performed by a safety test engine. Besides executing the safety case, it can also compare the output of the SHUT with the expected output as provided by the safety test case [6]. 1 Figure 3: Model-based Safety Testing according Gang You et al. (Source: Test Case Generation One of the most commonly tools for test case generation are model checking techniques. The main purpose of model checking is to verify a formal safety property (given as a logic formula) on a system model. In test case generation, model checking is used in order to find violations of certain formal safety properties. Safety models of safety-critical software systems may have a huge number of states. Therefore the greatest challenge when using a model checker is to cope with the state space explosion.
As a countermeasure, Gang You et al. ‘s approach applies the safety model, which is derived from SHUT and certain safety requirements. The model 12 limits the number of states by splitting them into three subsets (NUNS, FPS, IRS) containing only representative states (see 2. X). Moreover the safety model encodes he intended behavior, and from its structure, safety test cases can be derived. It thereby restricts the possible inputs into the SHUT and the set of possible separately behaviors of the SOT.
Hence, to reduce the amount of testing and guarantee the quality of testing the model checker will search those most frequently entered states and generate the corresponding safety test cases without searching the whole state spaces. The selection of states is based on the safety requirements (Sills). Generally speaking, the safety model can be seen as a test selection criterion generate safety-related test cases. Figure 4 shows the corresponding flow chart. 1 . The system safety model in the form of a finite state machine (FSML) is transformed into the input language of the model checker tool (SPIN) 2.
Each test requirement of a given safety criterion is formulated as a temporal logic expression (LET). 3. Based on the Markova model of a system, the state space is divided into three subsets. 4. In term of these subsets, the negation of each expression of the formula is verified by the model checker. If there is an execution path in the model that does not satisfy the negated formula then it is presented by the model checker as a counter-example. This path becomes a test sequence that satisfies the original test requirement. 5.
The inputs and outputs that form the executable test case are extracted from the counter-example or are derived by a corresponding guided simulation of the model. 13 Figure 4: Test Case Generation Framework according Gang You et al. (Source: 4. 2 Statistical Testing As already mentioned in 2. 1 reliability is defined as the conditional probability that the system will perform its intended function. This chapter will link the reliability of a system with the Markova usage model (see 2. 3). Let f: be a function that shows the failure probability of a software. The argument D represents the possible usage set of the software.
Each element AXED is a usage path from quo (initial operation) to send (final operation) The relation between software reliability R and failure probability F is: R=l -F (2). In the assumed model the failure behavior of the software only depends on its usage path X and not on the input. This means that the input domain corresponding to the used X is homogeneous. The simplest way of obtaining unbiased reliability estimation of the software is to select N test paths XSL, XX, … , CNN according to the usage model. The exult of the function f(Xi) is 1 if the path fails and O otherwise.
Then the arithmetic 14 mean of f(Xi) is an unbiased estimate PEP(f(X)), which is the mathematical expectation of the software failure probability under transition matrix P. Hence, the software reliability can be expressed as R=l -PEP(f(X)) [3]. Critical operations are infrequently executed in real applications. This generates the problem that development organizations have to spend too much time when performing adequate statistical testing. Although one can overcome these drawbacks by increasing the execution probabilities of critical operations during statistical entire software under test. Yang Going et al. 3] found a possible approach to overcome this problem: Importance Sampling (IS) Based Safety-critical Software Statistical Testing Acceleration. IS Based Safety-critical Software Statistical Testing Acceleration This chapter presents the Is-based software statistical testing acceleration method. It ensures that the critical operations tested adequately by adjusting the transition probabilities in the matrix of the usage model, and at the same time, produces the unbiased reliability of the software under test. The IS technique reduces simulation run times hen estimating the probabilities of rare events by Monte Carlo simulations [3].
For complex software with a large model matrix, the simulation procedure is often extremely time consuming. To overcome this problem, Yang Going et al. ‘s approach adopts a simulated annealing algorithm to calculate the optimal matrix Q. This widely used optimization method employs stochastic techniques to avoid being trapped in local optimal solution. The 16 exact mathematical explanation of this algorithm is complex and would be out of the scope of this paper. [3] 4. 3 Method Comparison Although model-based and statistical testing follow completely different approaches, the challenges are very similar.
Both methods have to limit the extent and complexity of testing. Model-based testing reduces the number of test cases by restricting the state space domain of the Markova chain usage model. Whereas statistical testing reduces the number by changing the relation between critical and normal test cases with help off likelihood ratio. 5 Conclusion Today an increasing number of safety-critical applications are controlled by computer software. Therefore effective testing tools are required to provide a high degree of safety and to reduce severe failures to a minimum. The paper focused on

Software Testing in Safety Critical Systems

Health and Safety In a workplace

Health and Safety In a workplace.
I have chosen two work places to compare in my health and safety investigation. First one is in my school, and my second workplace is in St James medical centre. I wrote up a questionnaire about health and safety to give to both of my workplaces. An employee in this place will fill out the questionnaire to see how much they know about their work place.
Firstly both my workplaces do know the evacuation procedures in the event of an emergency or a fire.
Waste Materials: Each workplace uses different methods of disposing of their waste materials. The workplace has special bins for unsafe waste and the school uses the sinks or black bags because it is usually not harmful waste thrown away if it is then it is disposed appropriately for the type of martial of substance. The workplace recycles all unwanted paper the same as the school has just bought in paper bins to use in each classroom.

Is the electricity is used safely: In each workplace there is different electricity safety insurgency firstly in the Post-graduates who have just finished university can also use electronic information for a variety of things as well. Firstly keep in touch with all there friends that they made from university on websites such as Facebook, MySpace and others like that as well as the chat programs e.g. MSN and others. Secondly using it to find jobs and to start to look for cars and houses school the students can use the switches and the equipment under supervision the teacher has control of the safety switches and the circuit breakers in each lab. The workplace has a rule that only qualified elections are allowed to touch the equipment.
Prevent fire: Each workplace is smoke free to insure no fires caused by that. The school has gas cut of switches if the fire was caused by gas to stop the building blowing up. No naked flames and put on near chemicals that are flammable. Each workplace has fire alarms. The medical centre insures that all equipment is switched off before leaving building at night.
Effects on environment: The medical centre knows the effect in the environment is helping people. In the school Some ways of having to use the electronic information can be:
having to buy clothes online delivered to your door, buying plane tickets for anywhere around the world, having your shopping delivered to your door by a local super market e.g. Tesco, Sainsbury and ASDA.
there is know effects to the environment because there are such few hazards chemicals and if there was then they would be so few medical centres w that it wouldn’t make any differences.
Hazard chemicals: Each work place does use chemicals the medical centre has correct training for individuals that are handling them and also monitoring of using them too. The school has fume cupboards are used in the labs ands correct storage. Each chemical is clearly labelled how bad it is also they have fire proof cabinets.
None of my work places use any biological hazards.
First aid: In the medical centre there are doctors and qualified nurses in the case of emergency first aid. In the school there is about 7 teachers qualified in first aid,

Health and Safety In a workplace

Health and Safety of Using a Computer

Health and Safety of Using a Computer.
You need to use the internet to search for the following information. Use the table below to store your answers along with the web address of websites where you found the information. You should use more than one website to check your answers Why is posture important when using a computer? Information found (copy and paste from the website) Your ‘computer posture’ can have a huge impact on your health. If it’s poor, and you slouch for 7 hours a day in front of your PC, your body will suffer in the long-term. http://www. fitness-programs-for-life. om/computer-posture. html| Why should you take regular breaks or change of activity when using a computer? Information found (copy and paste from the website) Find an image to show how you should correctly sit when you are using a computer? Information found (copy and paste from the website)
Why should computer screens and chairs be adjustable? Information found (copy and paste from the website)| Web address| Adjust your keyboard and screen to get a good keying and viewing position. A space in front of the keyboard is sometimes helpful for resting the hands and wrists while not keying. Adjust seat height to ensure hands are perpendicular to keyboard (height adjustment is usually achieved by a handle to the left underside of the chair).
Why should you not have trailing cables around a computer room?

Information found (copy and paste from the website) A large number of accidents around the work place, are cause by tripping over trailing wires. ‘Ergonomics’ is the science of designing environments and products to match the individuals who use them.
The word ‘ergonomics’ comes from the Greek ‘ergon’ meaning ‘work’ and ‘nomos’ meaning ‘law’. “Fitting the worker to the job not the job to the worker. ”

Fitting the job to the worker through task design and procedures
Fitting the worker to the job through the use of proper placement procedures and training.

It should be noted “What works for one worker may not work for another, so it’s important to emphasize individual solutions. ” Your basic knowledge of ergonomics is a prevention of physical damage or injuries that may occur.

Health and Safety of Using a Computer

Health and safety and responses to emergencies in a care setting

Health and safety and responses to emergencies in a care setting.
M3: Discuss health, safety or security concerns arising from a specific incident or emergency in a health or social care setting.
D2: Justify responses to a particular incident or emergency in a health and social care setting.
Incidents can occur wherever and whenever. It is important that you know how to deal with incidents because it could save a person’s life.

One incident that could occur is aggressive and dangerous encounters. This could happen in a care home where the patient has a mental illness or dementia, so it could lead to them being abusive towards staff. When working in a care home, staff members should be aware of what triggers the aggressive behaviour for each individual so it will prevent you from making it happen. When dealing with aggressive behaviour, your priority should be your own safety because the patient could easily hit you so you should respond to this quickly, keeping yourself safe. The way a carer should respond to this is by firstly calling for help because if you stay on your own with the patient, they could physically hurt you so it is important to have someone there as a witness in case something does happen.
This should be the first priority because it is not safe staying on your own and if you don’t do this response it could be a risk to you and also no one will be there to witness anything if the patient does hurt you. Having someone else there may calm the situation down. If no one is available to come you the second thing you should do is move back from the patient and try to calm them down, but this will not always work, if the patient doesn’t calm down or gets angrier then you should immediately move away from the situation so the patient can calm down on their own this is important because if you don’t move away it could make them angrier and cause them to lash out. As a carer you should know when to walk away from the situation to stop it from escalating.
After you have walked away, the last step should be to report it to the senior staff members or the manager so they could log it in the report book this is because all staff members will be aware of that person and if it happens again they will maybe be prepared and will know it’s happened before. It is important to inform everyone about this so they are aware when they are caring for that person.
The first thing and the most important thing to do is call for help. This is because you cannot stay on your own as the patient may not listen to you. It is always best to have someone else so you have a witness. The extra member of staff may be able to calm the situation down by talking to the patient. If you are on your own it will be quite intimidating and scary, as you may not know how to deal with it so it is easier to have someone else with you. These responses should be done in that order and effectively because it is a safer way to deal with the individual and also it will keep other people safe in the care home. You should record it because if you don’t it means no one will be aware of it unless you tell them but it is formal and a legislation to record it as it is proof. If family members, ask to see their record they will be aware of it and know all details about it. It is easy for carers to forget details about the incident so it is important to record it.
Read also Six Dimensions of Health Worksheet
A concern that could arise from aggressive and dangerous encounters is the patients could hurt themselves if they do get angry and violent. This is dangerous and it could cause serious injuries depending on what they do. You should inform other residents to stay away from this patient to keep themselves safe. This is because patients may try to speak to the aggressive resident. This might influence the responses because normally you would walk away if they are being aggressive however, if they are going to hurt themselves you should not walk away as the carer will need to try stopping them. You should call for help because you will not be able to deal with it yourself and make sure no sharp objects are around the patient or any other objects that could potentially hurt them.
This should be a quick response to deal with the situation because having sharp objects around that particular resident can be a massive risk, so if you quickly respond to it then it could reduce the incident from escalating. It will change the responses to the emergency because the patient will be a threat to you and to everyone else within the care home. The patient should be moved away from everyone else and should be accompanied by a carer. This is because it will give them a chance to calm down without creating a scene and it will not put other residents at risk as it could scare them. It is important to not let them be alone as anything could happen so leaving them with a carer is important as they can keep an eye on the patient and make sure they do not do anything to harm themselves.
A critical incident like falling unconscious can happen anytime in a care home with the elderly patients. For example, if they have diabetes or low sugar, it can cause them to be unconscious, as their body will need sugar. In addition, if the place is too hot they can fall unconscious from dehydration. It is important to look out for symptoms to prevent it from happening. Symptoms like headaches, dizziness, slurred speech, confusion and a fast heartbeat. If a patient says they have any of these symptoms, you should not ignore it as it could lead to a serious injury. Having a seizure or a stroke can happen at any time, which can also cause unconsciousness; in this case, it is a care home with elderly residents who go out on a trip out to a shopping centre.
So if an elderly patient has a seizure/stroke whilst walking in a shopping centre they will fall unconscious so it is important to respond to this situation straight away. The first thing you should do is check if they are breathing, if they are not which they won’t be if they are unconscious. The reason why you have to check if they are breathing first is because there are different procedures you have to take for example if they are breathing you should put them in a recovery position but if they are not breathing you need to perform CPR on the individual. Emergency services (999) should be called immediately so they can provide medical help. Whilst waiting for them it is important to keep performing CPR until they arrive because it could potentially save the residents life. It is important to follow this response effectively because the emergency services are professionals who know how to deal with this situation so they can provide better care.
The steps for CPR are:
* Place the heel of your hand on the breastbone at the centre of the person’s chest. Place your other hand on top of your first hand and interlock your fingers.
* Position yourself with your shoulders above your hands.
* Using your body weight (not just your arms), press straight down by 5–6cm on their chest.
* Repeat this until an ambulance arrives.
This is for people who have not been fully trained on how to perform CPR.
The people that have had training for CPR and are dealing with this situation they should do CPR with rescue breaths. The steps for this are:
* Place the heel of your hand on the centre of the person’s chest, then place the other hand on top and press down by 5–6cm at a steady rate, at approximately 100 compressions per minute.
* After every 30-chest compressions, give two breaths.
* Tilt the casualty’s head gently and lift the chin up with two fingers. Pinch the person’s nose. Seal your mouth over their mouth and blow steadily and firmly into their mouth. Check that their chest rises. Give two rescue breaths.
* Continue with cycles of 30 chest compressions and two rescue breaths until they begin to recover or emergency help arrives.
(NHS CHOICES, 14/07/2015)
You should also keep calling the patient because they may respond and also to reassure them that they are in safe hands. If you did not do this response you would not know if the patient is able to respond and also the patient may feel like they’re on their own so it is important to keep talking to them so they know they are in safe hands. You should always remain calm when dealing with a situation like this and make sure your priority is the person’s life you are trying to save. The reason for this is because if you are under pressure and worrying it may distract you from helping the person and it could lead to you not performing CPR effectively. If people are surrounding the environment, you must tell them to move away and keep the area clear.
It is important to respect the patient’s dignity because other people in the shopping centre may be overlooking to see what is happening. Always put a blanket or something over them to make sure nothing is exposed. This is because it may embarrass the patient once they are conscious and could make them feel uncomfortable if they find out everyone has been looking at them. Once the ambulance has come it is then their responsibility to take over and save the person. Once you get back to the care home it is important to record the accident because it is a legislation that should be followed correctly. You should also record it because all staff members will be aware of what caused it and how it happened which means they can be prepared in case it happens again. The most important response is to make sure the airway is clear; this is because it will stop them from breathing and it also means you will not be able to perform CPR if the patient’s airway is blocked. These responses should be followed correctly and effectively because it could safe the patients life.
A concern that could arise from an elderly patient falling unconscious is theft during the emergency. Because the patient has fell unconscious in a shopping centre on a trip, your attention will be on the patient and trying to save them so it will require you to put your things down. This will make it easy for someone to steal your things which will create a bigger emergency as the person may not be found and could potentially steal your valuable items. This thief could be a stranger who is walking past the incident. This is a concern that would need different responses because it will be difficult to deal with a patient and a theft. You should ask someone to keep an eye on your things whilst you look after the patient, this way no one can steal your things.
All onlookers should be asked to move away however, in this case a person who is looking could save valuable items from being stolen and also the thief could be caught. A shopping centre is a busy place so if your attention is on the patient a stranger could come and steal your valuables. The responses will change because you will be dealing with 2 incidents instead of one. To prevent any thefts, you should keep your things close to you or call someone to guard your items. This will stop people from thinking they can steal items. Getting someone to guard your items and to be aware of thief’s can be a good thing because it means your items will be protected however, it could also be a bad thing because it could make the patient feel uncomfortable when they are conscious because they may feel embarrassed.
Another concern that could occur is the patients may hurt themselves when they fall unconscious. It could lead to them hurting their head, which can cause serious head injuries for example a blood clot in the brain. This will require further assistance and responses that are more complicated that the professionals will deal with so 999 should be called immediately. You should try to stop any severe bleeding to stop the emergency from escalating.

Health and safety and responses to emergencies in a care setting

Ceo Safety Policy Statement

Ceo Safety Policy Statement.
Safety Policy Statement a. Safety is paramount in all flight operations. Company X manages safety risks related to its operations to as low a level as reasonably practicable. Company X will manage safety through its dedicated commitment to implement and maintain Company X’s Safety Management System. This commitment includes the responsibility of both Company X’s management and employees to continuously improve the level of safety and never to become complacent when it comes to the safety of Company X’s operations.
It is the joint responsibility of everyone connected within the flight operation to be proactive and ensure all safety hazards are identified, analyzed and, where possible, eliminated or avoided. When this is not possible, mitigation is developed, implemented and tracked to verify that the level of the associated risks are acceptable. It will also be the commitment of both management and of all employees to comply with all applicable regulatory requirements when conducting Company X’s Operation. . The purpose of the safety policy is to manage safety proactively and effectively. This is attained by utilizing the Company X SMS to: i. Identify and manage safety risks specific to the company’s flight operations. ii. Encourage employees to report safety issues without the fear of reprisal. iii. Collect and analyze information and feedback through the continuous improvement system so as to continually improve safety management activities. iv.
When safety issues are discovered it is assumed that both management and the employees have shared responsibility and accountability in finding ways to fix the safety issues and in ensuring that the prescribed procedures to fix the problems are carried out and also to help notify the Director of Safety as to whether these procedures are working or not. v. Both management and the employees are expected to follow all safety procedures and policies of Company X including the reporting of all safety issues and hazards to the Director of Safety. i. The SMS program will also provide management guidance for implementing new procedures and processes to ensure that a high level of safety is maintained when these new procedures and policies are carried out. vii. The Director of Safety reviewing Company X’s safety objectives each month to ensure they are current and still applicable to Company X’s Operations. The Director of Safety will ensure that any safety objectives not meeting current safety standards and goals will be revised as necessary. c.

Company X’s safety policy also requires the full support of safety from top level management. Flight crew members, aircraft maintenance personal and others involved in the operation of Company X will always have the full support of the CEO as long as they operate professionally in accordance with company manuals and procedures. All company personnel have a duty to openly and honestly report events and hazards using the continuous improvement system. The CEO will ensure that all such reports will be thoroughly investigated in a non-punitive manner.
The CEO of the company is ultimately responsible for: i. Sustaining conditions that promote the safe operation of company aircraft, ii. Ensuring that all safety related company positions, responsibilities and authorities are defined, documented and communicated throughout the company. iii. Define and publish which levels of management can make safety risk acceptance decisions in regards to company operations. iv. Providing the resources (in time and money) to assure the safe operation of company aircraft, and v. Actively supports the Safety Management System.

Ceo Safety Policy Statement