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Nutrition

Nutritional Assessment

Nutritional Assessment.
The Body Mass Index (BMI) is the ratio of weight to height and is used to classify people as being “underweight,” “normal,” or “obese” (BMI Classification, 2007). Using the international classifications, a BMI of 32.2 would be considered as Obese Gr. 1. The case being answered is why is a person who eats normally at 4-5 fairly healthy meals every day, satisfies the recommended allowances classified as obese?
Many factors must be considered when answering this case. Most important among these is whether the measurement of the BMI is done under normal conditions, that is, if the body type, health status, body composition and metabolic function of the patient are considered. Truly, there are some instances when the BMI classification is not applicable.
It must be noted that the Body Mass Index is a standard for determining the risk of normal people. It cannot be used for people who have high muscle mass. Muscle is considered as heavier compared to fat and a more muscular person would naturally be higher in body weight compared to his or her “more normal” counterpart. Two persons, for example may have a 32.2 BMI but may have different body compositions: one may appear “fat” because of greater body fat composition and the other may appear really lean and healthy because his or her body composition is mainly of muscles.

A bodybuilder may always be classified as “overweight” or “obese” if BMI standards are used; when Arnold Schwarzenegger won a certain competition, his BMI was 31 (Whitney, Cataldo and Rolfes, 2002). As it is, the definition of the BMI must be kept in mind—it only considers the person’s weight and height and not the person’s body composition. In other words, in assessing the health risks of a person using a BMI, the body composition or body type of a person should be considered first because the results may erroneously represent the real status of the individual.
The results of the Body Mass Index can also be influenced by the water composition in the body. If the person is retaining water, for example, he or she should not be classified using the BMI standards because the weight is affected by the unnecessary water that is retained inside the body. If water is retained and the person is measured, the BMI would naturally result to a higher value which would not represent the person’s true health status. Edema or water retention can sometimes happen to people with kidney failure, and to women who are pregnant.
The BMI classification should also not be used to pregnant women because in measuring the BMI, the weight of the unborn child is not considered which could also erroneously increase the true value of the index. The result would then, not become representative of the true health status of the individual.
If however, the patient is not “muscular”, the relatively high BMI of the person, despite his or her normal intake can be attributable to the person’s rate of metabolism. There is a possibility of the person having low metabolism as a result of previous abnormalities in dietary practices and intake or possibly a thyroid disorder. Hypothyroidism can decrease the rate of metabolism of a person by as much as 30%. At such rate, the person, no matter how healthy his or her eating habits are, is at risk to gaining more weight, having higher BMI and thus, being at risk to the diseases associated with higher BMI.
These factors must be considered first in assessing whether there is something significant in the BMI of the patient under study.  The 32.2 BMI of the person may not be signifying a risk in health but a mere indication of erroneous use of the classification without considering the body composition, water retention, or pregnancy. But if these factors are considered, the person must really be at risk for high fat deposition as a result of low rate of metabolism. The person should then consider doing more physical activity or consulting a doctor on how to normalize the thyroid function.
Works Cited
BMI Classification. (2007). World Health Organization. Retrieved 26 Feb 2007 from http://www.who.int/bmi/index.jsp?introPage=intro_3.html,
Whitney, Cataldo and Rolfes. (2002). Understanding Normal and Clinical Nutrition. 6th ed. Stamford, CT: Wadsworth Thomson Learning.

Nutritional Assessment

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Nutrition

Nutrition Self Assessment

Nutrition Self Assessment.
My family often comments on how fat I am. I was diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis in 2004. At the time I could not close either of my hands to make a fist. Opening a door was near impossible. My wife had to button up my military uniforms for me. I was eventually medically discharged. I can now make fists, but have pain as a norm. Over the past 10 years I have put on around 80 pounds. I lost around 20 over the past 2 months with eating a bit better. I was down to 226 pounds when we moved back to Utah in 2012. My food habits were great for about 2 years before moving back to Utah.
I was eating good healthy portions and exercising regularly. Other than those 2 years, my exercising and eating habits have been fairly short lasting with long periods between. Have a home gym, but often find other things to do at home besides exercise. I am not a fan of the gyms because don’t like waiting for the equipment and don’t like other people watching me. Absolutely hate cardiac, but will play basketball or football for hours on end. I was often in the top 5 runners in my military group when running the timed 2 mile course, but just do not enjoy going for runs.
Calculations eve a Body Mass Index (IBM) of 34. 32 (height/(weight 2) x 703) which is obese for my height. I am not a believer in the IBM calculations. I almost didn’t make it into the army because of how much weighed. At that time, I was 215 pounds and had a low body fat. I was lifting weights and involved in sports, but according to the IBM calculator that the army used, they had to get a doctor to look at me and decided if was too fat or not. My waist to hip ratio 46/49 = 0. 94. MY Basal Metabolic Rate (BMW) is 2,344 calories. BMW is the amount of calories needed for my body to stay alive while sitting still. Currently striving to stay under 3000 calories a day and drink a gallon of water a day. Nursing Diagnosis My nursing diagnosis would be inadequate food intake, more than body requires. This is related to the patient telling himself he is too busy as a student, father, business owner, and part time nurse, to work out and watch what he eats. Basically, I am tired and lazy. I attribute my obesity to most of my health problems. Know I have rheumatoid arthritis, but while I was working out and eating right before the move, I felt great. Custom Meal Plan for 7-Day Period

I am trying to eat healthy and may start to work out again soon. Have a trip to Disney World in May with the family and want to be k with myself in a bathing suit. My diet needs some fine tuning still, but I am sure can do it. Bread Kafka For breakfast, eat oatmeal with two eggs and sometimes a banana. Also try to drink 2 glasses of water. Morning Snack For my morning snack I will eat some apples or oranges. Lunch For lunch, usually eat chicken and sweet potatoes with a cup of veggies. Sometimes I eat leftovers from the previous day. I also drink a few glasses of water.
Daytime Snack For this snack, I will try to eat a protein bar or drink a protein shake. Dinner Our family usually eats dinner by 6:30. I try not to eat anything past 9:00 anymore. For this meal, I usually eat whatever my wife makes. I am going to try to eat chicken, sweet potatoes, and veggies for this meal as well. Right now, I just go for what the family eats. Want to get back to my own meals though. I was getting better results. I also usually have a glass of milk with dinner. Day by Day Journal Day 1 Today I followed my meal plan for all but dinner. I had my oatmeal and 2 eggs or breakfast with a banana.
For lunch, had my chicken, veggies, and cup of veggies. Had a burrito for dinner. Feel pretty good for following most of my plan. My snacks were an apple in the morning, a protein bar during the day, and had some popcorn at night while watching a movie, because a movie must have popcorn. Did a workout found online called Scoop’s beginner workout. This involves basic bodyweight movements. I did 3 sets of his ABA rotisserie, pull ups, push ups, and squats. The pull ups were very difficult, had to use my legs to help get me up. The ABA routine almost killed me.
The USPS were k, but my wrists have limited range of motion, so I was in pain and doing an awkward version of a push up. I have some stretches that the physical therapist gave me, I should start to do those too. Day 2 Today I did k. I skipped breakfast. I ate more burritos for lunch. It is just so convenient to put them in the microwave. I ate my fish and veggies for dinner. Fish is what I use when chicken gets boring. Also filled my 64 ounce water jug twice today. I felt very energetic today. Today I opted out of the workout routine and just did an hour long Ate Boo video.
I did a lot of walking in place. I use to be able to do the whole thing. Hope to be back to being able to do the whole thing in a week or two. Also had a strawberry protein shake for both my snacks today. I am trying to convince the wife to go for daily walks, but this cold weather is not helping. Think may try to get her to do the Ate Boo with me. Day 3 I feel like I did k again today. It was oatmeal and a banana for breakfast. I didn’t have time for the eggs. Ate some chicken and veggies for lunch. Dinner was some pulled pork my wife made. I am pretty sure over ate on that meal. My water intake was good.
I filled my jug twice again. My snack in the morning was an orange and my evening snack was a piece of bread with peanut butter and honey. I have been skipping the milk at dinner and going for water instead. Also have been taking a calcium supplement. Chose to do the Scoops workout again today. This time was about the same as the last time. I didn’t really notice anything being easier or harder. I was a bit more out of energy afterwards this time. Hopefully sleep really well. Day 4 Today was not very good for the meal plan. Woke up feeling like a bus hit me. My head was pounding and everything hurt.
I ate about 5 scrambled eggs or breakfast, had lots of left over pulled pork for lunch. For dinner, I broke down and had pizza. I also had milk with lunch and dinner. My snacks consisted of brownies, cake, chips, and some yogurt. I did not work out at all today because of how felt. Remember feeling like this for about a week last time I started to try working out and eating right. I am not so sure with school and everything else going on that can afford to feel this way for a week. Time will tell. For now am off to bed. Hopefully I don’t toss and turn all night from my aching joints.
Day 5 I am feeling the bad eating from yesterday. I feel kind of bloated. It must be all the salt form that yummy food or it could be the stress on my joints. Started off today with my very boring and bland oatmeal, eggs, and water. For lunch, again turned to that not so boring and bland pulled pork. I just love that stuff. I should have married a bad cook so I wasn’t so tempted to eat things not on my meal plan. I also had a glass of milk. I had my chicken, cup of broccoli, and sweet potatoes for dinner with some water. My snacks were a protein bar and a protein drink. Id the Scoops workout again. This time was really rough with my soar joints. Id notice was able to not incorporate my legs as much on the pull ups though. All in all, onto terrible day. Day 6 Today we had my daughter’s birthday party. Needless to say, I had lots of cake, soda, ice cream, and chips. I had no breakfast, just a glass of water. Not the best idea. My energy level was really low and not what I wanted while swimming with the kids. I went and got the family pizza after the party, so I had about half a deep dish pizza from Little Caesar for dinner and 3 root beer sodas.
My water intake was k, as the party was at the wave pool and I must have swallowed a gallon of it. I missed my workout as well, but I did swim for about 3 hours with the kids. I am going to count that since I am exhausted. I hope all that chlorine doesn’t make me sick. Day 7 Today was a good day. I skipped breakfast as had to work early. I feel a bit sick from the pool yesterday. Am sure it will pass quickly. I had some tattoos for lunch along with some water. I had a healthy soup my wife made for dinner. She said it was healthy, so I believed her. I say today is good because have lost 2 pounds over this last week.
I drank lots of water at work today, but I forgot to track it. Just kept filling up a water bottle multiple times. I want to use this assignment to help me focus in on my goals and be happy in my swim trunks in May. Have an app on my phone to help me track what I eat and drink called my fitness pal. Hopefully I will use it. Conclusion In conclusion, I am a 34 year old male who is obese and trying to take steps to do something about it. I tried to make some dietary changes and exercise for a week. Did k, but there is a lot of room for improvement. In the end, the result was a 2 pound loss, which is encouraging.

Nutrition Self Assessment

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Nutrition

General Nutrition Companies Inc

General Nutrition Companies Inc.
General Nutrition Companies Inc. , was founded 65 years ago in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on the premise that Americans wanted to maintain control over their health. David Shakirian founded the company. In 1935 he launched a dream of his by establishing a little health food store in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He called it Lackzoom. The products that were offered at his store included yogurt and healthy foods such as honey, grains and healthy sandwiches. The concept of being a health store and serving health food was thought to be a fad that would soon pass over back then.
To the surprise of many of Shakarian’s critics, many people embraced Lackzoom. David and his store came a long way from its first day”s receipts of 35 dollars to open a second store six months later. Since those first two stores, Lackzoom, which is now GNC, has grown to be the largest manufacturer of vitamins and mineral supplements in the United States (1998 Annual Report). General Nutrition Companies, Inc. , collectively with its subsidiaries, is the only nationwide specialty retailer of vitamin and mineral supplements, sports nutrition products and herbs, and is also a leading provider of personal care, and other health-related products.
The products were sold through 3,757 General Nutrition Centers, 2,531 of which were owned and operated by the company and the other 1,226 stores were franchised. Much of the growth of GNC has occurred in the last 7 years. Since 1992, the Company has opened or acquired in the United States 2,593 new GNC stores (SEC 10k form). The company”s initial growth was through company-owned stores located primarily in regional malls. Many of the stores that were created in the past 7 years have been franchises. This franchise initiative has enabled GNC to expand into secondary locations as well as International markets.

It appears that there is no end to the growth of GNC. At a Franchising meeting on February 6,1999 GNC awarded and agreed to open an additional 323 domestic and 428 international franchise locations. All of these stores report to GNC headquarters, which is located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh is also home to one of General Nutrition”s three distribution centers. The other two distribution centers are located in Atlanta and Phoenix. The products that are distributed through these channels are manufactured in Greenville, South Carolina.
This facility is one of the largest and most modern vitamin and supplement manufacturing facilities in the United States. Within the coming months a new 600,000 sq. ft. manufacturing plant and distribution center in Anderson, SC will open which will double the capacity of the company (www. gnc. com/about/history). As you can see net revenue increased to 1. 4 billion dollars, an increase of 18. 8 % over 1997. This increase was driven by the success of the Company”s store expansion program and increased demand for the Company”s products, as reflected by increased sales, across all business segments.
During 1998, the Company developed a web site, GNC. com, to sell products via the Internet. Although still in the early stages of operation, the Company expects sales to increase based on the growth of the Internet. The history of GNC shows their excellence in planning and execution of these plans. Going into the next millennium, the Company must actively scan their environment for opportunities and threats. The General Nutrition Company is exposed to many external threats. Over the past five years there has been a trend in consumer behavior towards healthy living.
This trend has caused the health product and supplement market to drastically increase. Some of the most prominent external threats that GNC faces are new competitors, competing products and services, new technologies, government regulations, increasing customer expectations, general economic conditions, and the different cultural ways of the host countries. Some of GNC”s new competitors include Internet and mail order companies such as discountnutrition. com and the Vitamin Shoppe have entered the vitamin and supplement market recently. They have taken some of the Company”s residual sales by offering different mediums of purchase.
The Internet and mail order companies tend to offer discounted prices because they buy their products in bulk. A new competitor that has appeared in small regions across the United States has been Vitamin World. These shops tend to carry a similar product line with the exception of General Nutrition”s exclusive products. In addition to Vitamin World many other small chains have been started. Two of these chains are Great Earth and Vitamin Specialty of New York. These stores propose more of a threat to GNC”s corporate stores rather than the franchises because of the personalized service.
The franchise stores also have more leniency in determining the final price and any discounts or specials. With the addition of these new competitors and the threat that they pose the Company has maintained if not increased its market share in many markets. GNC manufactures and sells several lines of supplements, vitamins and minerals, as well as a variety of health foods. These product lines carry many names. Some of these names include Preventative Nutrition, GNC, and Pro Performance. All of these lines are sold exclusively at GNC stores and at their online manufacturer.
In addition to their own product lines, GNC stores carry a variety of products from third-party vendors. These third-party vendors include big names such as EAS (Experimental and Applied Sciences), Twinlab, Met-Rx, and Metaform. All of these vendors are in the top 5% of sales for their flagship product. The Company must realize this and make their own products more attractive to the consumer. Competing products from the third-party vendors are also sold at other stores, so this forces the Company to not only compete within their own store but to also compete in the marketplace.
Today, many companies are facing the threat of the internet. Many companies are not used to this advanced technological system and do not have the resources to compete. Not only is the Internet used for advertising purposes but it is also being used as an online ordering system. With the shift towards an online ordering system many things have to be taken into consideration and changed accordingly. The entire supply chain must be examined to identify any and all potential problems and differences that must be made as a result of this shift.
In this case, the manufacture, supply, distribution, and information flow are critical and will inevitably be modified from the traditional way of supply the product to the retail centers. Government regulations pose an enormous threat to the company. Potential government regulations will mandate FDA regulations and the testing of all products. This will dramatically increase the cost of production, which will ultimately be passed on to the end consumer. Some sport and diet supplements sold by the company today could be ruled illegal in the coming months if this occurs.
This could potentially reduce the number of products available as well as the customer base. With the nation”s shift towards healthier living, many consumers have begun to experience unrealistic expectations of the products offered by the company. This can be witnessed by the fact that 45% of all adult American”s take some form of supplement. An attitude that many American”s exert today is that they want the “pill” or supplement to take the place of the work that they themselves would otherwise have to do. Customers are also looking for a company that offers exceptional customer service and sales associate knowledge.
With today”s flourishing economy, the average American”s income is at an all time high. If anything would happen to cause a negative occurrence in the economy the average American”s disposable income would, as a result, probably decrease. This decrease in their disposable income would take away from their ability and/or desire to spend their money on products offered by GNC. The Different Cultural Ways of Host Countries The way that GNC handles their international business is through franchising. The franchising done internationally is done differently than is domestically.
During the international franchising process, the entire General Nutrition rights are sold to the franchisee for the entire country, not just an individual store as done domestically. The government regulations and culture differences or preferences are left to the discretion of the potential or existing franchisee. The threat is posed as a result of the lack of assistance and guidelines that would normally come from the corporation headquarters. As far as dealing with the individual host country”s government regulations and culture, it may discourage business in that country all together.
The availability of raw materials poses basically no threat to the company at this point because of their vast resources and long term contracts with their suppliers. But, in the future with the addition of many new entrants into the market a shortage of some raw materials and components may occur. General Nutrition was the pioneer of the nutrition industry and will continue to be for years to come. On of the major contributing factors to their success has been their ability to maximize their external opportunities.
Around the late 1980’s the average Americans active lifestyle had reached an all time low. With the 1990’s came the current trend of healthier living. It was at this time that consumers turned to GNC to help maintain a healthy lifestyle. GNC capitalized on this opportunity in several different ways. They began to change the typical consumer”s idea and preferences about the General Nutrition stores and products. They began advertising to all people and having specially trained employees with knowledge of all products that were carried.
This helped to make the store a more inviting place to everyone from a young high school athlete to a middle-aged mother of two. This also lead to new product market niches. Some of the more successful are the pro-performance line which is geared towards athletes, also the live well concept which promotes an overall healthy lifestyle which would be more suited for the average adult. With the change in customer preferences, GNC has the opportunity to increase market share by creating customer loyalty and trust through groundbreaking products.
General Nutrition has done a tremendous job on utilizing these opportunities and in order to remain atop the competition they must continue to fine tune the and analyze the business strategy. Definitely one of General Nutrition”s greater external opportunities is their franchising and long-term alliance with Rite Aid. This opportunity is so tremendous that along with 697 stores opened in 1998 they also signed an alliance with Rite Aid. The alliance with Rite Aid allows GNC to enter a new channel for marketing its supplements.
With a the average American only five miles away from a GNC, there still is such a demand for the stores that they plan to open an additional 250 stores in the next year alone. This combined with a total commitment to providing customer support has helped make GNC one of the most successful franchises for the past decade. To continue to capitalize on these external opportunities the company can look to actively pursue their franchising capabilities while avoiding cannibalization of existing stores to allow them to remain the pinnacle of the health food industry.
The main reason that GNC has been and will remain the world leader in the nutrition industry is due to their ability to use technology to receive great benefits. Their greatest areas of technology that set them apart from the rest are their manufacturing and distribution. This past year the company took a tremendous leap into the 21 century with the completion of a 630,000 square foot state of the art manufacturing facility in South Carolina. Along with the new manufacturing facility, the Company was involved in a recent merger with the Dutch pharmaceutical company Royal Numico.
This merger makes the Company the world”s largest manufacturer of vitamins and supplements. This merger presents the company with a great opportunity to take advantage of the world class research facilities available to them. The Company should streamline their supply chain to fully take advantage of the new manufacturing and distribution facilities. This will increase the Company”s overall efficiency. The Company should look for a strategic alliance with an established online drugstore to broaden the Company”s market share. This would also allow the Company to gain entry into the world of e-commerce.
Internal strengths of the company include quality products emphasizing vitamins and minerals along with sports nutrition. This product mix focuses on high margin value added products, which are sold under the GNC proprietary brand. Along with vitamins, herbal, and sports supplements the Company also offers customers the opportunity the Gold Card program. This program enables stores to add to their product line. The basis for this program charges a $15 annual fee that entitles each member to a 20% discount on all products one time each month.
Sales of proprietary brands represented over 50% of total sales in 1998. Company reputation is another strength for the company. The Company is the only nationwide specialty retailer of vitamin, mineral supplement, sports nutrition products, and herbs. Along with these products the Company is also the leading provider of personal healthcare products. The company”s reputation was built on two basic principles. The first of these is strong customer service. The Company has a strong competitive advantage over competitors because of well-trained and informed employees who have knowledge of the entire product line.
The Company”s employees are knowledgeable and efficient because of the strong employee-training program. The second principal that has built their reputation is a superior product line. The proprietary brands along with other strong brand names enable them to have a product line better than the competitor. Production capabilities at the Company have enabled them to become the world leader in the their industry. The Company will be able to maintain their position as a leader because of their capacity to not only meet company inventory requirements, but also enough to sell to third parties in the wholesale market.
The Company is able to maintain strong production capabilities because of their emphasis on quality control. Each product is tested from the beginning to the end until the final product meets their standard. The Company has experienced a strong sense of executive leadership. The current president has 25 years of experience within the company and the CEO has 18 years. The executive vice president has 19 years of experience and the head of logistics has 22 years under his belt. Along with this experience it is evident to see that there is an extremely low employee turnover ratio within management.
Turnover within this company as with any retail organization occurs with retail store management and part time sales positions. To keep this factor at a low level the Company started the franchise program. The Company wanted to bring strategic partners into their system that would personally invest in the Company”s program. Along with strong management leadership the Company maintains a strong employee base through orientation and hiring kits that enable the new employee to adjust quickly and become an efficient employee.
The company gives their employees the opportunity for tuition reimbursement, profit sharing, good medical and health benefits, and 401k and stock options. All of these factors allow a GNC employee to be part of a team. The Company uses patents to its advantage. By having patents on their proprietary formulas, vitamins, sports nutrition, and herbal supplements, the Company creates barriers between themselves and competitors. Along with their patents the Company conducts research with other companies. One such company is Proctor and Gamble.
Recently the Company has held the patent with Proctor and Gamble on calcium (calcium citrate malate). This product was found to be more absorbent than any other type of calcium. The Company achieves economies of scale throughout the entire organization and network of 5,000 retail stores by a close arrangement of entities. These include arrangements with product suppliers, raw materials, packaging material, store supplies, retail advertising, third party advertising, insurance coverage, and credit card processing.
The close surveillance and agreement of these entities allows the company to achieve greater economies of scale. The mission of the Company is to maintain quality over quantity in its products. The company typically introduces 25 to 30 new products each year and reformulates existing products on an annual basis. An annual reset is done for the stores to introduce new vendor third party products, and new company products through expansion and deletion of retail shelf space. General Nutrition Companies Incorporated is the leader in health products but the company is not adverse to risk.
These risks that we can find within the company are considered to be the weaknesses of the company. The first risk is that Royal Numico has acquired GNC, now being a part of a larger company they must now try to fit into the larger system and integrate themselves. With the integration of the Company into Royal Numico there will be a significant amount of cash spent, some potentially dilutive issuance”s of equity securities, incurrence of debt or amortization expenses, related to goodwill and other intangible assets. Any of these can adversely affect the company; it”s operating results and financial conditions.
In addition to the financial and operating factors we could find difficulties in the assimilation of the technologies, products and personnel of the integrated company. Another weakness that the company has is their leverage problem. This means that the company has raised much of its capital through debt financing, including loans. Based on the current level of operations and anticipated level of growth, the company”s available cash flow, together with other sources of liquidity, will be adequate to meet to future needs of capital. Although it looks to be enough, there can be no assurance that the company will generate enough cash flow.

General Nutrition Companies Inc

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Nutrition

Nutritional Assessment Project

Nutritional Assessment Project.
Nutrition is an essential part in everyone’s life. It helps us stay healthy and energetic, look nice and be in a good mood. It plays a great role for the overall condition. And there is a great difference what you eat and how many vitamins and useful elements every food item includes. The analysis of the daily nutrition record helps realize whether a person consumes the right food in the right quantity. A woman aged 40 years has the following characteristic: 5 ft 4 in and165 lb.
These characteristic features are essential in the course of analyzing the nutritional data as they allow forming certain set of recommendations and diagnosing the errors and inconsistencies in the food choice. The activity level is sedentary. This means that a woman should reconsider her way of life and start go in for some kind of sport or at least take some walks in the evening. It is not only useful for health but also helps with digestion and metabolism. BMI is the next crucial point. It slightly exceeds the normal ratio.
Besides, the woman gains usually 1 lb per week. This is a positive figure as the normal ratio amount not more than two lb per week. It is important first of all to analyze the correlation between the nutrient elements that were consumed by the woman in comparison with the dietary graph recommendations. It is obviously that she consumes too much fat, especially saturated one. It affects negatively not only her weight, but also her health in general. Besides, she consumes too little dietary fiber – it constitutes only 53%.

It is desirable for her to increase the amount of consumed water as it comprises only 70% of the daily need of a person and to decrease the amount of protein consummation. The woman should start consuming more vitamins, especially vitamins D, E and A. Still such vitamins as B1 and B3 seem to be excessive to be consumed as an average daily amount. The best balance is achieved in consumption of vitamin B12 – it amounts to 99% and is very important as it regulates growth, maintenance, and reproduction of all of the cells, including nervous ones, and results in increased energy and improved overall condition (CyberRecovery, 2006).
It is highly recommended for a woman to increase the amount of consumed calcium as it is only 34% of the daily norm while the use of sodium should be necessarily reduced at least in three times. It is necessary to analyze the products this woman usually eats. There are two days’ descriptions. She has for breakfast coffee and creamer, for lunch – cheeseburger, French fries and frozen dessert, then for dinner – fish and fried shrimps, and finally for supper – pop-corn and water.
The other day she has the same breakfast while the lunch is larger and includes mashed potato with pork chops and sauerkraut, soda and water. Her dinner consists of mushroom turnovers, sandwich, steak and Tater Tots. She has a vanilla ice cream as a snack later and no supper. It is important to analyze the options the woman should increase in her daily diet. It is necessary to increase the consumption of dietary fiber that is included in the following products from the list: sauerkraut, mushroom turnovers, and in little quantity it may be found in Tater Tots and ice cream.
So she should eat more vegetables to supply the organism with necessary amount of dietary fiber. To increase the amount of vitamin A, that one day is completely absent from her diet, the woman should eat more potato, carrot, greens, and especially liver as it is number one among the products that contain this vitamin (HealthAliciousNess). Apricots are also a good source of vitamin A. In order to increase the amount of calcium the woman should eat more meat – but not fast food. The best variant is steamed meat dishes.
The fast food items should be excluded from the diet at all as they lack indeed useful and healthy elements though are abundant in harmful ones. One more essential aspect comprises obligatory use of fruit and vegetables. Regular grain consumption is also important. The woman does not follow these recommendations in her daily diet: there are at least some vegetables present, but there is complete absence of fruit. Protein consumption is enough, though the diary products are still needed. Green and orange vegetables are the best choice.
Moreover, it is strongly recommended to reduce fats and sugar consumption as it interferes with the healthy diet approach. The presence of beans and peas is also essential. The question of consumed calories presents the following data: one day the calorie level amounted to 1993 calories while the other day presented the figure of 2773. The average figure is 2383 calories per day. The most caloric food item was cheeseburger (790 calories). The least caloric product except water and coffee with creamer was sauerkraut and then mashed potato (100 and 125 calories respectively).
Thus, the woman’s average daily intake of calories is 2383 calories. The average daily intake of calories is supposed to be 2000 calories for a woman while for a man the figure is 2500 (NHSchoices). Though, this figure greatly depends upon the peculiarities of lifestyle and age. The conclusion is as follows: the average intake is not excessive, but the choice of food items should be carefully reconsidered taking into account the recommendations according to the reduction and increase rates in product list.
References
Cyber Recovery (2006). What does vitamin B12 do in your body? Retrieved from http://www.cyberrecovery.net/forums/showthread.php?t=317 HealthAliciousNess. Top 10 foods highest in vitamin A. Retrieved from http://www.healthaliciousness.com/articles/food-sources-of-vitamin-A.php NHSchoices (2012). What should my daily intake of calories be? Retrieved from http://www.nhs.uk/chq/pages/1126.aspx?categoryid=51

Nutritional Assessment Project

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Approximately 250 words

Total price (USD) $: 10.99

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Nutrition

Nutrition Log Reflection

Nutrition Log Reflection.
In addition to the lack of fats that I was consuming on day one, my milk intake was Daly rather low as well. Although, this TLD come quite as a surprise to me, because I tend to be lactose intolerant at times, and don’t always necessarily lean towards foods containing dairy. However, since I have learned the importance of the vital nutrients found in dairy products such as calcium, potassium, Vitamin D, and protein, I have decided to take calcium supplements as a start.
Also, I have decided to incorporate more lactose- free alternatives Into my diet such as low-fat cheese, and low-fat yogurt. In contrast to my seemingly deficient Intake of total fats on day one. I seemed to eve made up for my lack thereof by surpassing my recommended intake by 24. 6% on day two. Needless to say, that could not have been good for my health, considering that the majority of the fats ingested that day were the non-good ones. My intake of total calories from saturated fats was supposed to be less than 10%, I exceeded the recommendation by 3. 6%.
In order to decrease the amounts of saturated fats that I consume from now on, I am going to choose foods with less or no saturated fat thereby helping myself malting blood cholesterol levels within a normal range, and decreasing my risk for heart disease. In spite of all of the negative aspects of the foods that I had consumed during the three days of logging, I am happy to say that there were a few areas that I met the recommendations of. For example, on day three, my sodium intake was only (and I say only loosely) 1 882 MGM, even though the upper limit recommendation for me Is 2300 MGM.

This was more of a personal triumph for me, considering that I am well aware of the fact that I only need 500 MGM of sodium a day to survive. Nevertheless, I always thought that I was consuming well above the upper limit recommendation, and was quite pleased with my findings regardless. In addition to my lower sodium consumption, I was also happy to discover that my diet was well under the recommended limit for cholesterol, not only on day three, but all of the days.
In conclusion, I found that this assignment was highly beneficial not only for my health, but also because of the extra knowledge It helped me obtain to help me create and maintain a better lifestyle for myself. What stood out to me in particular were my fluctuations of total fat and saturated fat intakes. One of my goals is to try and sustain a healthy balance of the two, and making sure that I include more of the DOD fats that help lower OLD cholesterol, and help raise HAD cholesterol.

Nutrition Log Reflection

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Diabetes and Nutrition

Diabetes and Nutrition.
Introduction
Diabetes mellitus is a continual disorder of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in which blood levels of glucose and lipids are elevated. This abnormal metabolism results from a relative lack of insulin, either too little insulin is secreted or the insulin that is secreted is not effective. In addition, diabetes is associated with chronic systemic complications, which, over time, can affect the retina, kidneys, nerves, and cardiovascular system. The most common classifications of diabetes mellitus include type I, or insulin-dependent, diabetes mellitus (IDDM); type II, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM); and gestational diabetes (GD).
How it is Developed

The problems of diabetes originate in an organ located behind the stomach about the length of a human hand called the pancreas. The pancreas is necessary for both digesting food and regulating energy. It is the regulation of energy for the body that is important in the development of diabetes. The pancreas produces hormones that metabolize food. These hormones regulate the use of glucose, a simple sugar, which is used for most of the activities in our bodies. The pancreas regulates energy in a variety of behaviors in which humans engage such as exercise and movement, responding to trauma and stress, and infections.
The pancreas emits three different types of hormones. Insulin is the first hormone that is produced when glucose rises in the blood. Insulin usually rises after eating a meal, and excess glucose that is not used is stimulated by insulin to be stored in muscles and fat cells so that energy can be used later. The liver also stores excess glucose in the form of a carbohydrate called glycogen. The second type of pancreatic hormone is glucagon. Glucagon breaks down glycogen stored in the liver so that it can be used as energy when blood glucose supplies are down. The third type of pancreatic hormone is called somatostatin, thought to be important in regulating both insulin and glucagon.
When diabetes develops, this balanced control system does not operate properly. The glucose in the bloodstream increases, and the cells are not able to utilize it. The individual develops hyperglycemia (excess glucose in the blood). This can be detected by measuring the glucose in the blood from a blood sample, or if the glucose is elevated enough, it can be detected in the urine as spillover. This sort of situation occurs when there is not enough insulin to permit the cells to utilize the glucose, or there is resistance most likely at the cellular level to the presence of insulin. Both cases produce diabetes.
Symptoms of Diabetes
Some of the symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus are increased thirst, increased urination, weight loss even though the individual is eating more, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting, skin infections, vaginitis, blurred vision, bladder infections, and impotence in men and cessation of menses in women.
One severe symptom of diabetes is diabetic ketoacidosis. This symptom sometimes produces slightly sweet-smelling breath that is caused by acetone, a metabolic byproduct, when the body is forced to burn fatty acids rather than glucose. This process becomes more and more toxic to the body as it continues; the individual may develop diabetic coma and die. Ketoacidosis occurs when individuals are either not getting enough insulin or the insulin is not adequate to allow cells of the body to utilize the glucose.
Effects of Diabetes
Diabetes has two types of long-term effects. One type is associated with blood vessel involvement. Damage to the large vessels puts the diabetic at greater risk of stroke, heart attack, and gangrene of the feet. When small blood vessels are damaged, eyes, kidneys, and nerves become damaged. The other long-term effect is nerve damage usually in the feet, but also occasionally in the hands. This nerve damage is called diabetic neuropathy. This damage may cause a painful burning sensation with loss of sensation over time, making the body part more subject to injury and infection. Foot ulcers and gangrene can develop, with further damage in the extremities. In men, diabetic neuropathy may cause erectile impotence.
Nutrition for Diabetes
Consultation with a dietitian familiar with children and with type 2 diabetes is important for all patients. The dietitian should assess the nutritional status and practices of the patient and then counsel them to provide a meal plan which, at least initially, does not deviate in a major way from their usual eating practices. Changes made gradually, through subsequent appointments and interviews, frequently achieve compliance more successfully than does radical and rapid change.
Individuals providing counseling must be clear about the differences in the management of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Because obesity is a typical finding in type 2 diabetes and caloric restriction results in improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity, modest caloric restriction and weight loss or maintenance are important goals: so is correction of the dyslipidemia, which frequently accompanies the metabolic syndrome or IRS.
In general, calories from dietary fat should not exceed 30% of energy intake, and calories from saturated fat should not exceed 10%. An effort is also made to limit cholesterol in the diet to <300 mg/day, and <200 mg/day if hypercholesterolemia is present. Monounsaturated fats can be increased to up to 15-20% of total calories and may have beneficial effects on triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Protein should account for 15-20% of total calories. The remainder of calories is made up of carbohydrate.
Dietary advice for people with diabetes has changed over recent years. Old regimen instructions demanded that all foodstuffs were weighed and their energy content calculated according to standard tables. Everything was assigned a specific value, and patients were expected physically to weigh each constituent of every meal. This fashion of numerical quantification has now been relaxed with the realization that it is impossible to quantify every factor in what is now conceived of as a lifestyle disease, and that, far from assisting patients, the strategy was itself a major cause of distress that impeded compliance. The focus now is on education, integrating medical advice within the patient’s existing lifestyle rather than attempting to supplant it.
What health professionals denote is that since the objective is to ‘live a normal life’ patients should not become over-obsessed and not be excluded from special occasion foods such as at weddings and birthdays. A treat for patients, however, is often the regular, habitual tonic that they use as a focus in their day-to-day lives. It is tempting to think that for diabetics it is because certain foods should be eliminated that they are desired. However, many state that sweet foods, such as confectioneries and cakes, were regarded as personal rewards even prior to diagnosis.
These special foods are defined not solely by their sweetness, but in combination with their place in people’s diets as extras: not satisfying hunger so much as providing sensual pleasure at certain times in daily routines. This reward dimension is fully incorporated into the rhythms of their lives, supplying markers between periods of labor, such as mid-morning breaks or afternoon snacks. That it is precisely these which are banned is interpreted as belief-affirming; treats always were seen as transgressions from labor, and the medical advice derived from the diabetes merely confirms their status. When pressed, patients admit that they are aware the advice does not really condone regular misdeeds. Yet, leaving the message sufficiently unquestioned serves to absolve them morally.
In the early years after the discovery of the disease, there was carbohydrate restriction, then an increase in carbohydrates and reduction in fat intake. Now the American Diabetes Association recommends 10% to 20% protein in the diet but no specific limitations on carbohydrates and fats. An individualized dietary plan is recommended, including occasional indulgences in small amounts of sucrose. The effects of drugs on blood sugar must be given serious consideration in the management of diabetes because a number of medications commonly used for elders affect blood sugar in adverse ways.
The probability of developing diabetes increases if someone eats many foods that have a high glycemic index score-foods that quickly increase blood sugar levels, for example soda, ice cream, and chocolate cake. Thus it shouldn’t be surprising that eating in the opposite way, that is, eating foods that don’t quickly increase blood sugar levels-high-fiber foods such as beans, whole-wheat bread, and oranges-may help normalize blood sugar levels and control diabetes. Recent findings indicate that people who eat lots of fiber are less likely to have gained weight or to have abnormal insulin levels a decade later. So eating lots of fiber may help to prevent or control diabetes. People who perceive themselves as generally able to accomplish their goals are relatively successful at controlling what they eat so as to live reasonably well with diabetes.
Conclusion
The majority of patients fail to keep within the desired range of blood sugar levels, and although medication can easily be altered, it is the diet that is the first thing to come under scrutiny. In this way, food, the means of success rapidly comes to serve also as a means of symbolizing guilt and failure. Its dual function is useful in this way to both professional and patient, since it provides a common site on which both can focus, distilling the vast range of possible lifestyle factors into clear elements that can be acted upon.
Reference
Hiser, Elizabeth N. (2002). The Other Diabetes: Living and Eating Well. New York: William Morrow.

Diabetes and Nutrition

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Meat Science and Animal Nutrition

Meat Science and Animal Nutrition.
I want to get a masters degree in animal industries in order to prepare for my future career. There were two options I’ve been considering, consisting of meat science and animal nutrition. Both options, I believe, would help me land a career in concerned government agencies. It would also open the doors to further studies, such as veterinary medicine, should I decide to pursue it.
From the two options I am leaning more in favor of taking up meat science, as it is more concerned with food safety and nutrition. I am interested in understanding factors that affect the nutritional value and consumer acceptability of meat, which eventually lead to consumer health and satisfaction.
I believe that meat science is not a popular choice for people, but it is equally important to ensure the health of the public. I could gain knowledge that should be shared and disseminated to people.

Thus, this course could equip me with the knowledge I need to serve in government agencies such as the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service, and be a food safety specialist who answers questions of consumers regarding food preparation, storage, and handling. The importance of the role I could play towards protecting the health and safety of the public is a good reason for me to pursue this course.

Meat Science and Animal Nutrition

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Nutrition and Dietetics Proposal-Discussion/Conclusion

Nutrition and Dietetics Proposal-Discussion/Conclusion.
Introduction
The main aim of this project was to assess the relationship of CVD risk factors and diet in Cuban Americans. More specifically, this project was aimed to see the association of omega 3 fatty acid with CVD biomarkers, homocysteine and CRP in Cuban Americans with and without type 2 diabetes. These aims were targeted with the views to providing information on cardiovascular disease risk factors and its association with diet and type 2 diabetes.The results suggested positive association between omega 3 fatty acid andhomocysteine quartiles, suggesting the significant role of omega 3 fatty acids in the regulation of homocysteine level. However, the association of omega 3 fatty acid was not found with CRP levels, which suggested the very little or no role of omega 3 fatty acid in lowering the level of CRP. Moreover, diabetic status was not found to be associated with either homocysteine quartiles or CRP levels. This finding concluded that homocysteine and CRP may not be involved in regulating the blood circulating blood sugar.
The result of the statistical t-test showed that waist circumference was directly associated with diabetes, which indicated obesity as a major indicator of diabetes. This finding supported several other previous findings that studied the association between obesity and type 2 diabetes (Daousi, et.al. 2006 and Yajnik and Ganpule, 2010).

Interestingly, another CVD risk factor, total blood cholesterol was found to be significantly higher in non-diabetics. However, whether HDL or LDL was higher non-diabetics was not measured, making it difficult to draw any conclusion from this finding. Other factors, such as BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, were not found to be associated with diabetes. These results seemed slightly contradictory as previous studies have found the correlation between these parameters and diabetes (Bays, et.al. 2007 and Mancia, 2005)., Interestingly, linkage was found between diabetes and glycosylate haemoglobin and omega 3 fatty acids, which suggested the implication of thee tow factor in diabetes risk. These findings corroborate with similar other findings. Edelman, et.al (2013) reported that high level of HbA1c was associated with higher incidence of type 2 diabetes. Similarly, another study by Virtanen, et.al (2013) suggested that intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid was associated with long-term lower risk of type 2 diabetes.
Furthermore, the results showed no association between CRP and diabetes, which contradicted the inflammatory pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (Muqabo and Renier, 2010). Another important finding was that diabetic status was directly associated with the distribution of homocysteine quartiles, which supported the previous findings by Ndrepepa, et.al (2008) and Badiou, et.al (2012) as explained earlier.
Relationship between omega 3 fatty acid and homocysteine
This study showed positive association between omega 3 fatty acid and homocysteine level, suggesting the role of omega 3 fatty acids in regulating the level of homocysteine in the body. As discussed earlier, homocysteine is an important biomarker of CVD and control of which may reduce the risk of CVD. These findings support previous finding by Kulkarni, et.al (2011) who studied the association of omega 3 fatty acid with homocysteine concentrations. In the study they found that altered omega 3 fatty acids (mainly docosahexaenoic acid) may lead to increased homocysteine concentration. However, majority of studies have focused on the association between omega 3 fatty acids and other CVD markers such as LDL, blood sugar and clotting factors (Yeh, et.al. 2009; Etherton, et.al. 2002). Thus, further long term studies should be done to unravel the possible association between omega 3 fatty acid and homocysteine.
Limitations
Despite some interesting findings, the study had few limitations. The association of omega 3 fatty acids with homocysteine and CRP was only studied in diabetics and non-diabetics. The study would have given much clearer conclusion if the implication of omega 3 fatty acids and its biomarkers was also investigated in CVD patients. Moreover, although the study found the correlation between cholesterol and diabetes, it did not assess whether HDL or LDL had greater implication in diabetics.
Clinical implications of the findings and future research
Diabetes and CVD disease are two chronic conditions that are the major killers among all the diseases. Preventive measures and early diagnosis remains the key for proper management of the disease. This study suggests the beneficial role of omega 3 fatty acids in diabetes and cardiovascular disease. More so, the study also showed the association of omega 3 fatty acids with CVD markers such as homocysteine, cholesterol, as well as diabetes marker such as HbA1c. Thus, people who are at risk of developing CVD and diabetes can be encouraged to intake diet rich in omega 3 fatty acids. But , the association of omega 3 fatty acid with inflammatory maker, CRP remained inconclusive. Also, whether increased homocysteine in diabetics was associated with CVD was beyond the scope of this project and demands further studies. Future studied should be done to see the effects of omega 3 fatty acids in altering homocysteine level and CRP in CVD patients.
References
Bays, H.E., Chapman, R.H., Grandy, S. & SHIELD Investigators’ Group 2007, “The relationship of body mass index to diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidaemia: comparison of data from two national surveys”, International journal of clinical practice, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 737-747.
Daousi, C., Casson, I.F., Gill, G.V., MacFarlane, I.A., Wilding, J.P. & Pinkney, J.H. 2006, “Prevalence of obesity in type 2 diabetes in secondary care: association with cardiovascular risk factors”, Postgraduate medical journal, vol. 82, no. 966, pp. 280-284.
Edelman, D., Olsen, M.K., Dudley, T.K., Harris, A.C. &Oddone, E.Z. 2004, “Utility of hemoglobin A1c in predicting diabetes risk”, Journal of general internal medicine, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 1175-1180.
Etherton, P.M.K., Harris, W.S andAppel, L.J, 2002. AHA Scientific Statement. “Fish Consumption, Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Cardiovascular Disease”, vol. 106, pp. 2747-2757.
Kulkarni, A., Mehendale, S., Pisal, H., Kilari, A., Dangat, K., Salunkhe, S., Taralekar, V. & Joshi, S. 2011, “Association of omega-3 fatty acids and homocysteine concentrations in pre-eclampsia”, Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland), vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 60-64.
Mancia, G. 2005, “The association of hypertension and diabetes: prevalence, cardiovascular risk and protection by blood pressure reduction”, ActaDiabetologica, vol. 42 Suppl 1, pp. S17-25.
Mugabo, Y., Li, L. &Renier, G. 2010, “The connection between C-reactive protein (CRP) and diabetic vasculopathy. Focus on preclinical findings”, Current diabetes reviews, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 27-34.
Virtanen, J.K., Mursu, J., Voutilainen, S., Uusitupa, M. &Tuomainen, T.P. 2013, “Serum Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Risk of Incident Type 2 Diabetes in Men: The Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study”, Diabetes care.
Yajnik, C.S. &Ganpule-Rao, A.V. 2010, “The obesity-diabetes association: what is different in indians?”, The international journal of lower extremity wounds, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 113-115.
Yeh, E, Wood, R.D, Leeson, S and Squires, E.J, 2009.British poultry science. “Effect of dietary omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids on clotting activities of Factor V, VII and X in fatty liver haemorrhagic syndrome-susceptible laying hens”, vol. 50, no.3, pp. 582-392.

Nutrition and Dietetics Proposal-Discussion/Conclusion

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Related To Malnutrition And Obesity Health And Social Care Essay

Related To Malnutrition And Obesity Health And Social Care Essay.

A literature reappraisal is a digest of resources that provide the land work for farther survey. It is often found as a subdivision of a published research survey. Literature reappraisal refers to the activities involves in seeking for information on a subject and developing a comprehensive image of the province of the cognition on the subject.
Reappraisal of literature is a written sum-up of the survey conducted antecedently related to the present survey subject. ( Polit and Hungler, 1999 )
The research worker did an broad reappraisal of literature on the research subject in order to derive deeper penetration into the job and to roll up maximal relevant information for constructing the foundations of the survey.

In the present survey the reappraisal of literature is organized under the undermentioned headers ;
Section-I: Surveies related to malnutrition and fleshiness at school degree.
Section-II: Surveies related to consequence of planned nursing intercession.
Section-III: Surveies related to knowledge and pattern on Healthy Food Habits among kids.
Section-IV: Surveies related to Pender ‘s Health Promotion Model Theory
Section-V: Surveies related to Conceptual model based on Pender ‘s wellness publicity theoretical account ( 2002 )
SECTION-I: STUDIES RELATED TO MALNUTRITION AND OBESITY
Malnutrition in early childhood causes irreparable harm to the development of kid and consequences in wastage of human resources. Hence decrease in the high rate of kid mortality and morbidity due to malnutrition becomes an of import undertaking of policy shapers and societal development contrivers study conducted in rural countries of India revealed that abut 90 % of the kids suffer from different classs of malnutrion and about 15 % of them are in utmost grades of malnutrition.
Shetty, P.S. , ( 2000 ) concluded that in an person a series of physiology & A ; behavior response can happen. as a consequence of low energy consumption that is below the acceptable degree of demands. If they individual seek to follow the lower energy consumption so it is good for the endurance of single.
Hensrud, DD. , ( 2000 ) reviewed a journal nutrition showing and appraisal which revealed the both under nutrition and over nutrition which leads to increased morbidity and mortality rate.
Rio-Grande Dosul. , ( 2004 ) conducted that because of the excess helping of sugar sweetened bevarage, there is an increased opportunity of acquiring fleshiness in most of the in-between school kids. that is approximately 60 % due to the alterations in the feeding wonts, the individuals who are populating in the developed states are more prone to acquire fleshiness. Depending on the composing & A ; the quality of the diet the nutrient consumption has to be related with the fleshiness.
Rodriguez, NR. , ( 2005 ) concluded that the kids assorted nutritionary demands in relation to the growing. For the normal growing of the immature kids they should take equal sum of energy & A ; indispensable aminoacids.A broad scope of protein consumption of about.6 to2.9gm/kg should be given for the immature kids.
Charles. , ( 2005 ) concluded that since 1960 ‘s the prevalence rate of fleshiness has increased more among the kids in U.S.One of the of import factor that is lending to the paediatric fleshiness is ingestion of sugar sweetened drinks.
Veteri, F.E. , ( 2010 ) concluded a series of inquiry associated with the equal energy & A ; protein intake. that is necessary for the growing & A ; proper operation of the children.Inorder to fulfill the protein demands big sum of protein must be ingested along with energy consumption.
The present survey shows that there is an associated between the eating wonts and fleshiness.
SECTION-II: STUDIES RELATED TO EFFECT OF PLANNED NURSING INTERVENTION
Piffer.S, Kaisermann.D. , ( 2003 ) presented paper reports the consequences of a study on dietetic wonts of 1,398 kids go toing first category of primary school in Trento state ( Northern Italy ) the undermentioned points were investigated. Frequency of interruption fast and nutrient intake.frequency of nutrients at school the construct of tracer nutrients as veggies, fruits, and Sweet was besides investigated. The consequences were analysed harmonizing gender, country of abode, learning method and educational degree of parents. The information about nutritionary manner are satisfactory even if they are strongly associated to education degree of parents, above all of the female parent. The adequateness of nutritionary manner is increasing with the increasing of educational degree. School repast, offering selected nutrients to all kids go toing fulltime learning subdivision, can re-equilibrate nutritionary manner, diminishing the differences associated to education degree of the parents.
Delisle, H. , ( 2010 ) conducted a survey sing the importance of placing the healthy and culturally relevant dietetic forms. which helps in advancing wellness & A ; forestalling diet related chronic disease. The surveies shows that a limited no of nutrients determines the quality of diet & A ; result of wellness. The traditional diets are more fitter & A ; utile when comparison to untraditional dietetic forms. Apart from this healthy feeding wonts are more executable if the attack to the nutrient consumption is equal.
Present informations can be used for implementing and bettering wellness publicity action on right dietetic wonts in kid goon, maintaining count of the function of instruction degree of the parents. During the development of kids they need equal proportion of healthy nutrients as like the grownup eat.
SECTION-III: STUDIES RELATED TO KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE ON HEALTHY FOOD HABITS AMONG CHILDREN:
This article shows the dietetic pattern that is following by the kids.Who are go toing the farm school. The findings shows that proper dietetic patterns determines the nutritionary position it besides influence the societal economical & A ; psychological development of the kids.
Gil, A. , ( 2009 ) They identified that the consumption of traditional nutrient has no relation the normal dietetic pattern.They were considered as giving small protection from diseases.The survey findings showed that the organic structure mass index exercisings and the assorted diseases status has no important association with the dietetic form.
SECTION-IV: STUDIES RELATED TO PENDER ‘S HEALTH PROMOTION MODEL
Austin David, R. , ( 2000 ) it describes that assorted elements are involved in the Pender ‘s wellness publicity model.It shows the advantages every bit good as the disadvantage of the theoretical account. For the support of the theoretical account assorted literature surveies has taken.
Calderon, ( 2002 ) The determination showed the belief and patterns of breastcancer among aged adult females & A ; their perceptual experience towards this.It consist of both educational & A ; environmental support which areconductive to wellness behavior.For the wellness publicity in the older population co-ordination of assorted services adapted.
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK BASED ON PENDER ‘S HEALTH PROMOTION MODEL ( 2002 )
Conceptual model is interrelated constructs on abstractions that are assembled together in some rationale strategy by virtuousness relevancy to a common subject ( Polit and Beck, 2004 ) . It is a device which to excite research and the extension of cognition by supplying both way and drift. A model may function as a spring board for scientific findings meaningful and generalizable. The present survey is aimed at developing and measuring the effectivity of planned nursing intercession in footings of cognition and pattern on wellness nutrient wonts among primary school kids in selected school at Salem. The conceptual model of this survey is based on Pender, Murdaugh, C and Parson. , ( 2002 ) Health Promotion Model.
Pender, ( 2002 ) defines wellness as the realization of built-in and acquired human potency through end directed behavior, competent ego attention and fulfilling relationships with others, while accommodations are made as needed to keep structural unity and harmoniousness with relevant environment.
Health Promotion Model is based chiefly on three theories of human behavior the theory of sound action, the theory of planned behaviour and societal cognitive theory. Theory of reasoned action explains that the major determiner of behaviour is the individual ‘s purpose for that behaviour, when she believes that she has control over the state of affairs.
Prior Related Behavior:
It highlights the experience with the advancing behaviour. In this survey prior related behaviour of cognition and pattern of primary school kids on 1st twenty-four hours. It includes equal -inadequate cognition and pattern towards wellness nutrient wonts, conveying / non conveying healthy nutrients will be assessed by pre-test on 1st twenty-four hours.
Personal Factors:
Factors about the individual, that influences wellness advancing behavior. This includes biological and socio-cultural factors in this survey.
Biological Factors:
Includes age of the sample, gender, type of the household.
Socio-cultural factors:
Education of the female parent, business of the female parent, faith.
Health Promoting Behavior:
Behaviours ( or ) actions that people carry out with the purposes of better their wellness. In this survey is specified, wellness advancing cognition and pattern of healthy nutrients to kids pamphlet distributed to the kids giving information sing healthy nutrient wonts to the female parents of kids. Regular practicing of wellness nutrient wonts.
Perceived Control of Health:
Childs can understand about the in effects of taking debris nutrients.
Perceived Health Status:
The research worker perceived that there is little betterment in the nutrient wonts of kids of conveying wellness bites.
Perceived Benefits of Action:
Belief about the positive or reenforcing effects of a wellness advancing behavior. Here it includes kids will comprehend benefits of good balanced diet, sample develops the wellness nutrient wonts and betterment in cognition sing wellness nutrient wonts, stay wellness and energetic.
Sensed Barriers of Health Promoting Behavior:
Belief about kids reduced attending p, more attracted to advertizements, working female parents.
Interpersonal Influences:
Belief about learning programme on wellness nutrient wonts and advancing pattern of conveying wellness nutrients on 3, 6, 10th twenty-four hours of pattern appraisal by this research worker.
Situational Influences:
Peer group.
Immediate Competing Preferences:
Distracting thought about other attractive activities to make instantly before prosecuting in a wellness promotes behaviour. In this survey, it includes kid ‘s wellness, taking healthy nutrients.
Committedness to a Plan of Action:
Committedness to transport out a wellness promotes bahaviour. The program should be specific to clip and topographic point, and stipulate whether it will be with identified individual or entirely. Practice healthy nutrient wonts at school scene after learning, this survey describe about the preparation of a realistic program to pattern healthy nutrient wonts by conveying healthy nutrient wonts by conveying healthy bites, and healthy tiffin daily ( forenoon and afternoon ) to the school with the supervising of research worker in alternate yearss.

Related To Malnutrition And Obesity Health And Social Care Essay

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Dietitians and Nutritionists – Nutrition Analysis

Dietitians and Nutritionists – Nutrition Analysis.
Perhaps you’re looking to boost your physical performance; or maybe you want to drop a few extra pounds. What if you Just want to learn how to eat healthier? When you’re In need of nutrition advice, who should you turn too? A registered tattletale? A nutritionist? Who’s the qualified nutritional professional? (Don’t forget to look up) Throughout this presentation, Ill be discussing the terminology In the name; reasons why It should It should be regulated In Arizona, and Impact It has to the public. . This can be a confusing topic for the public.
Aren’t dietitians and nutritionists the name thing? NO Although often used interchangeably, “registered dietitian” is not synonymous with “nutritionist. ” Nutritionist is not a professionally regulated term?there are no minimum academic or training qualifications; which means that anyone can use the title “nutritionist “and give nutrition advice, even If they have absolutely no background In nutrition In the state of Arizona . In contrast, registered tattletale Is a professionally regulated term. The registered tattletale credential Is earned by completing a minimum of a four-year nutrition degree In an American Dietetic
Association accredited program: a minimum of 1200 hours of supervised practice experience in dietetics, and the successful passage of the nationally administered board exam. In addition, the registered dietitian is required to complete 75 hours of approved continuing education credits every five years to maintain their registration. This is because as a dietitian you need to stay on top of the game, and know what’s going on. However, if you’re looking to work with someone always do background information, and if thieve with an accredited program that’s based off science and not the latest fad.

Currently some, but not all states provide licensee to nutrition professionals, Limiting the use of a particular title, such as tattletale, to those meeting certain academic and training requirements few states mandate that only licensed nutritional professionals can provide nutritional counseling. It seems ironic that there are licenses regulating the practice of over 100 professionals from manicurist and barber to mortician, yet, in many states anyone can call them self a nutritionist and give out nutrition advice. You should also be aware that certification is not the same as censure. Next slide with state map) Why haven’t states such Eke Arizona licensed dietitians in the past? Unfortunately, the vital link between nutrition and health has only recently received the attention it deserves. In addition, science has proven that nutrition plays an important part in the prevention and treatment of many serious diseases. Dietitians are now more recognized as healthcare professionals because of their educational background and experience. This Is Indicated by the fact that since 1984, 41 states have passed laws recognizing as nutrition experts. But In Arizona, there Is no statue.
If I want to call myself a nutritionist today, I can. And a major concern of unqualified nutrition misinformation. Their nutritional claims can be without scientific support, and it can lead to misinterpretation of nutrition science as whole – in a way discredit their hard work that they’ve put into the research. Such misinformation can be used to fuel food faddish, quackery, (Quackery is the promotion of unproven or fraudulent medical practices. ) health fraud, and can negatively impact the health and economic status of consumers. Which lead me to How has the public been harmed by Arizona not accessing dietitians.
With the explosion of interest in healthy eating and nutrition, consumers have been faced with a dizzying array of products and information. The public deserves to know that the information being given by “experts” is based on science and is being given by individuals with appropriate education and experience. This is especially true of individuals who have medical conditions, which could be adversely affected by improper nutrition counseling. Several states have documented cases of unqualified individuals giving improper nutritional advice, which has harmed patients.
Unfortunately, many cases of healthcare fraud are never reported. A Congressional study on Quackery noted that state offices on aging ranked healthcare fraud (quackery) first as the area of abuse of most concern and with the greatest impact on seniors. The report also acknowledged that the great majority of cases are never reported. Misinformed consumers are placing themselves at major nutritional and health risks by not only delaying appropriate, effective healthcare but replacing it with products, procedures or behaviors that are, at best, ineffective, and at worst harmful to their health.
In addition many of the products and services promoted by unqualified nutrition consultants such like in the gym setting and can expensive. And this may cause excessive financial burden to the consumer. And again, unqualified nutrition consultants often use testimonials and unpublished or fabricated research to support their claims, while as registered dietitians use evidenced-based practice that is supported by data published in peer-reviewed scientific Journals.
And that leads us to a huge concern with Nutrition “experts” thrive in the athletic arena; yet few of these self-proclaimed experts would qualify as such eased on academic training and professional practice. While few athletes would consider taking strength training or fitness advice from a dietitian, many have no problem taking nutrition advice from a strength coach, personal trainer or equally unqualified individual. BUYER BEWARE Even if the information handed isn’t free, the consumer would be wise to evaluate the information: The Source ? is it from a qualified nutrition professional (I. . , registered dietitian) or one that lacks appropriate qualifications (I. E. , a nutritionist, personal trainer, strength coach, etc. ) The Content ? s it credible? You should seek to determine if the information is supported by scientific research published in peer- reviewed scientific Journals. If the answer to either or both of these questions is no, then your health and sports performance will likely take a hit. In conclusion, 1. Why should dietitians and nutritionists be licensed?
Licensing of dietitians and nutritionists protects the public health by establishing minimum educational and experience criteria for those individuals who hold themselves out to be experts in food and nutrition. The state has an obligation to protect the health and safety of the public and licensing of dietitians and nutritionists is consistent with this obligation. We have the ability and responsibility to urge consumers and lawmakers to learn about the positive role nutrition plays in healthy lifestyles and in disease management and treatment.
For both individuals and society, the benefits of eating right and exercising include improved qualities of life and lower health-care costs. Your activism is extremely important to the success of our national and state agenda – and there are numerous ways to get involved. Reach out and contact our state and federal representatives: Write your legislator a letter Send your legislator a fax Send your legislator a direct e-mail Call an elected official directly And also educate others by spreading the word about important issues Like on media sources, such as faceable and twitter.
Possible Questions from Short Answers – Gotten from : http://www. Deteriorate. Org/images/stories/documents/licensee/ Licensee_Full_Backgrounder_2011 . PDF 5. Would licensee prohibit anyone except dietitians from giving nutritional advice? No. Licensee would not affect anyone that simply describes the nutritional value of products nor would it affect other latherer professionals. It would, however, provide recourse for victims of unqualified and unscrupulous individuals dispensing improper advice. 6. Aren’t too many professions and occupations already licensed by states?
It is the obligation of state legislatures to determine which professions and occupations should be licensed. A compelling case can be made for licensee of dietitians and nutritionists as healthcare professionals. 7. Isn’t licensee an attempt to monopolize the nutrition industry? No. The first obligation of registered dietitians and nutritionists is to serve the public, not sell rodents or services. Licensee is necessary because the public deserves to know which individuals have the educational background and experience to give nutritional advice.
The health food and dietary supplement industry is booming, even in states that have had licensee for many years. The key issue in licensee is accountability. The monopolizing argument is a desperate attempt to obscure the real issues of licensee. 8. Will licensing reduce competition or result in costlier services? No. Once again, licensee is not an attempt to control any market. Licensee allows the public to now which individuals are qualified by education and experience to provide nutritional services.
If unqualified individuals disseminate harmful nutrition information, licensee allows the state to take action on behalf of the public against those unqualified individuals. Competition among open and honest individuals with the publics health and safety foremost in their minds will continue to grow and the Won’t licensee cost the state a lot of money? No. Fees will provide most of the revenue. Many states have approved legislation or rules to make licensee revenue neutral. Amendment ‘X, U. S. Constitution The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. Notice and Declaration of 9th Amendment Rights l, the undersigned, hereby declare the following natural and God-given rights, as reserved to the people, under the 9th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America and which rights I reserve as follows: I reserve the right to seek or ask nutritional advice, counsel, information, recommendations, assessments, evaluations, tests and/or treatment(s), regimen(s), or modality(s) from the nutritionist(s) or doctor of my choice for any health reason or repose.
I reserve the right to select or reject any individual(s) as my personal nutritionist(s) whether that individual be a Medical Doctor, Herbalist, Chiropractor, Health Food Store Clerk, Druggist, Nurse, Salesperson of health products, Naturopath, Naturopath, Radiologist, Colon Therapist, Priest, Pastor, Indian Medicine Man, Relative, Friend, Dietitian or anyone from the general citizenry who has, or has not, any known formal training or claimed knowledge, education, insights, or qualifications to be my nutritionist.
I reserve the right to Freedom of Choice in Medicine in its most liberal construction including the right to choose my own diet; obtain, purchase and use any treatment, therapy, regimen, modality, herb, drug, food, medicine or health product for any health condition I have or may have as evaluated by myself, the doctor, nutritionist, or therapist of my choice. Citation – Dietitian vs. Nutritionist . (n. D. ). Dietitian vs. Nutritionist .

Dietitians and Nutritionists – Nutrition Analysis

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