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Legalization of Marijuana Critique Essay

Legalization of Marijuana Critique Essay.
Marc English 101 Mallis Preliminary Arguments The legalization of marijuana has been an ongoing topic of debate in this country. Some states have recently approved marijuana for medicinal purposes. This in turn has reignited the debate on legalization. Both sides put forth arguments supporting their position. Following are some of the arguments for and against legalization of marijuana. Argument for Legalization of Marijuana Marijuana is not more harmful, dangerous or addictive than cigarettes or alcohol if used in moderation. In fact, marijuana has been shown to have medicinal benefits for patients suffering certain aliments (Cancer, Depression… ). Yet Marijuana is illegal while cigarettes and alcohol are not. Furthermore, Marijuana users are often treated more harshly than cigarette and alcohol users. * Keeping marijuana illegal will not stop people from using it, growers from growing it, and sellers from selling it.

Prohibition does not work as we saw with alcohol in the 1920s and early 1930s. Prohibition has the opposite effect in that it tends to increase interest or graving rather than curbing production or use. Prohibition also creates a black market and the associated criminal elements. * Legalization would eliminate the criminal elements, lead to Government regulation of the drug (i. e. , purity, concentration… ), significantly increase government revenues through taxation, and put more money in our economy. Legalization would also result in significant savings in our Justice and Law Enforcement systems. Currently significant money and resources are spent on marijuana related arrest and processing. Both money and resources can be freed-up or redirected to more serious crimes or other beneficial programs. I believe that the arguments advanced above make for a strong position on legalizing marijuana. Furthermore, we should have the freedom to do with our bodies what we want so long as we do not hurt others as a result.

Legalization of Marijuana Critique Essay

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Why the Illegalization of Marijuana Was a Corrupt Decision

Why the Illegalization of Marijuana Was a Corrupt Decision.
Why the Illegalization of Marijuana was Corrupt For most of human history marijuana has been legal and has actually only been illegal for 1% of the period of time of which it has been in use. Many people assume that marijuana was made illegal through some kind of process involving scientific, medical, and government hearings, and that it was to protect the citizens from what was determined to be a dangerous drug. However, some of the actual reasons that marijuana was wrongly banned include racism, protection of corporate profits, and corrupt legislators along with illegitimate widespread fear among citizens of the United States.
Throughout the 20th century racism towards Hipics, Negroes, and even Mormons greatly influenced the negative outlook on the use of marijuana. In the early 1900’s, western states developed high tensions towards the increase of Mexican-Americans that took business from small American farmers because they worked for cheaper wages. One “difference” that many Americans highlighted during this time was the fact that many Mexicans smoked marijuana and brought the plant with them. However, one of the first state laws outlawing marijuana may have been influenced, not just by Mexicans using the drug, but because of Mormons using it.
Mormons who traveled to Mexico in 1910 came back to Salt Lake City with marijuana. The church’s reaction to this may have contributed to the state’s marijuana law. In Texas, a senator said on the floor of the Senate: “All Mexicans are crazy, and this stuff (marijuana) is what makes them crazy. ” In the eastern states racism was again one of the charges connected to marijuana. Some newspaper editorials in 1934 stated that: “Marijuana influences Negroes to look at white people in the eye, step on white men’s shoes and look at a white woman twice. During heavy tensions between whites and all minorities, racism made people fear anything that affected the social order, and as a result many people started to blindly connect marijuana to increases of inappropriate conduct between whites and minorities. Along with rising fears of social disorder, the protection of profits for some major corporations also contributed to the increasing belief that marijuana should be illegalized. Many people across the nation were already losing profits because of Prohibition and didn’t need something else to affect their businesses as well.

William Randolf Hearst, the owner of a major newspaper company had many reasons to want marijuana to be banned. First, he had invested heavily in the timber industry to support his newspaper chain and didn’t want to see the development of hemp paper in competition. He also was extremely prejudiced towards Mexicans because he lost nearly 80,000 acres of timberland to Pancho Villa. As a result of this, he told lies about Mexicans and marijuana and how they were causing an increase in violence across the country.
This yellow journalism enabled him to sell an extremely high amount of newspapers which made him very wealthy. In one column sold nationwide, Hearst stated: “Users of marijuana become stimulated as they inhale the drug and are likely to do anything. Most crimes of violence in this section, especially in country districts are laid to users of that drug. ” Another corporation, Dupont chemical company, wanted to help Hearst outlaw marijuana for two main reasons. For one, Dupont had patented nylon and wanted hemp removed as competition.
Also, people could grow hemp themselves and would therefore not have to buy medication from Dupont and other pharmaceutical companies. These companies fearing marijuana competition led to many results, one being the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937. A man named Harry J. Anslinger was an extremely ambitious man and saw the Bureau of Narcotics (a new government agency) as an excellent career opportunity. His main goal was to bring the illegalization of marijuana to the federal level. After two years of planning, Anslinger brought his plan before Congress where the only opposition was from Dr.
William C. Woodward who argued that Harry Anslinger and the Bureau of Narcotics were distorting earlier AMA statements that had nothing to do with marijuana and making them appear to be AMA endorsement for Anslinger’s view. Committee members then proceeded to attack Dr. Woodward, questioning his motives in opposing the legislation. After this yellow journalism won over medical science and the bill was passed on where on the floor of the House an American Medical Association committee member stated that the association supported the bill 100 percent.
Thereafter, on the basis of that lie, on August 2, 1937, marijuana became illegal at the federal level. Roger Roffman, a professor of social work at the University of Washington, asserted in July 2009 that “approximately 3. 6 million Americans are daily or near daily users. ” Peter Reuter, a professor at the School of Public Policy and the Department of Criminology at the University of Maryland, College Park, said that “experimenting with marijuana has long been a normal part of growing up in the U. S. ; about half of the population born since 1960 has tried the drug by age 21. A World Health Organization survey found that the United States is the world’s leading per capita marijuana consumer. The 2007 National Survey on Drug Use & Health prepared by the U. S. Department of Human Health and Services indicates that over 100 million U. S. citizens over the age of 12 have used marijuana. The 2008 survey found that 35 million Americans were willing to tell government representatives that they had used marijuana in the past year. In 2009, according to a Zogby poll and an ABC News/Washington Post poll, between 46% and 56% of US voters would support legalization.
While many people support the fact that marijuana is illegal, they are uneducated in the history of the process to ban the drug. Even though it is proven to have negative effects, if taken in moderation, marijuana has been proven to be less harmful than alcohol. This shows that the large majority of the population does not realize that in the end, a narcotic was banned for reasons that only appealed to certain people, and that because of ignorant members of legislation, the bill was passed without truly being studied in depth.
This was a stupid mistake by our federal government which was backed by people with personal issues without any direct relation to the drug marijuana. Works Cited * Guither, Pete. “Why is Marijuana Illegal? “. drugwarrant. com. Retrieved 17 January 2011. * “Senate”. New York Times (New York City). February 15, 1860. * Gieringer, Dale H. (2006-06-17). “The Origins of Cannabis Prohibition in California”

Why the Illegalization of Marijuana Was a Corrupt Decision

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Analyze the Legalization of Marijuana Essay

Analyze the Legalization of Marijuana Essay.
Marijuana Background and Use in U.S.
Marijuana is by far the most commonly used illegal drug in the United States and in most other countries as well. More than seventy million Americans have tried marijuana, and more than twenty million have smoked it in the last year, but does marijuana really affect people and their thinking process, and should pot be legal in the United States. I believe that marijuana should be legal because people should live life how they want, even though it could lead to harm. Marijuana hit the United States big in the 60’s and 70’s. (Wikman) Through this time period many people thought this drug was harmless. Today we know that pot is much more dangerous than previously believed. There are many slang terms used for marijuana, some are pot, weed, cannabis, Mary Jane, hash, dope, bud, green, smoke, to name a few. (Zimmer, Morgan)
Pros and Cons to the Use of Marijuana

There are many pros and cons to the use of marijuana. Many people use this drug for medical use, and others use it for entertainment. In the United States, using marijuana for medical purposes is illegal. Since the 1970’s thirty-five state legislatures have passed laws supporting marijuana’s use as a medicine. (“Legalizing Marijuana-The Pros and Cons.”) People suffering from nausea and vomiting, who are unable to swallow and hold down a pill, smoking marijuana is often the only reliable way to deliver THC.
Another pro to the use of marijuana is diminishing glaucoma; it also can be affective in stimulating appetite in AIDS patients. There is also evidence that smoked marijuana and THC reduce muscle spasms from spinal cord injuries and multiple sclerosis. Physicians have reported that smoked marijuana provides relief from migraine headaches, depression, seizures, insomnia, and chronic pain. (“Medical Marijuana Truth and Lies”) I think marijuana should be legal because if people sold pot in their stores, pot smokers would buy it, and it would boost the economy. I also think some drug crimes and innocent killings would go down an enormous amount.
Effects of Marijuana on Health and Activity
Even though I think pot should be legal, it does cause harm to your lungs. The effects of one marijuana joint on the lungs are equivalent to four tobacco cigarettes, placing the user at increased risk of bronchitis, emphysema, and bronchial asthma. A single joint contains the same amount of tar and other noxious substances as approximately fourteen to sixteen filtered cigarettes. Marijuana smokers typically inhale more deeply and retain smoke in their lungs longer than tobacco smokers.
As a result, marijuana smokers get more dangerous material in the lungs each time they smoke. Smoking pot is very harmful to your health, family, and friends. Some myths of marijuana and highway safety are marijuana-like alcohol- seriously impairs driving in some respects; pot is even more impairing than alcohol. (“The Effects of Marijuana.”)  I think this is true because marijuana does affect perception and driving ability. I believe that pot makes many people drive different, and it makes you a dangerous person at the wheel, while on this drug.
Conclusion
There are very little problems associated with the legalization and there is no mad scramble for the drug since it is legalized.  In conclusion, marijuana has very little harmful effects, and the effects it does have are very similar to tobacco and alcohol.  It also has medicinal uses where people can have significant benefits by using marijuana for their illnesses.  By prohibiting marijuana billions of dollars are being spent and people’s lives have been ruined.
Legalization of Marijuana.
In the year 1937, the United States government made the drug marijuana illegal.  This ban had little effect on people until the mid 60’s and 70’s.  This was a time where many mind altering drugs where experimented with and widely used.  During this time was also when marijuana research took place.  Early researches was vague and bias, but in the years after many legitimate studies have been conducted, and both sides of the issues have been revealed.  While looking at these studies with an open mind, one can conclude that marijuana should be legalized.  Even though there are some health risks associated with marijuana, it is no different than legal drugs like alcohol and tobacco. (Wikman)
Ever since marijuana has become illegal, enforcing it has been an issue.  The federal government of America spends millions of dollars each year trying to keep it off the streets and into dealer’s hands, but their tactics barely do a thing.  The amount of money the federal Drug Enforcement Agency spends each year is $1.3 billion a year.  Overall, federal anti-marijuana efforts have cost taxpayers $30 billion (Zimmer, Morgan).  All of this money can be easily saved if the federal government can just legalize marijuana and regulate it.  Also, the government would be making money off taxes, as they do with alcohol and tobacco.
Moreover, this would allow for farmers to grow marijuana and sell it to the government or individual buyers.  By allowing the cultivation of marijuana, farmers who grow tobacco would be helped because tobacco farmers these days are struggling because of the high taxes put on cigarettes.  The climate for growing tobacco is the same climate needed to grow marijuana, so this would help their incomes.  (“Legalizing Marijuana-The Pros and Cons.”)
I think people that get caught with marijuana should not be punished as hard as they do. Marijuana arrest in the United States has doubled last 10 years. Tens of thousands of people are now in prison for marijuana offenses. An even greater number are punished with probation, fines, and civil sanctions, including having their property seized, their driver’s licenses revoked, and their employment terminated. Under federal law, possessing a single joint (or less) of marijuana is punishable by a fine from $1,000 to $10,000 and up to a year in prison . (Wikman)
For people on probation or parole for any criminal offense, a marijuana arrest can result in their immediate incarceration. For people who live in public housing, the arrest of any family member for a drug offense can cause eviction of the entire family. Under state and federal law, mere investigation for a marijuana offense can result in the forfeiture of property, including cash, cars, boats, land, and houses. Despite these civil and criminal acts, pot continues to be readily available and widely used. (Wikman)
Another reason legalizing marijuana would help the economy is the fact that there would no longer be dealers.  The use of dealers makes the price of marijuana much higher than it should be.  Mainly this is only due to the fact that marijuana is currently illegal, and dealers can set high prices.  By legalizing marijuana the price would drop to a more reasonable price, and the people who use to strain their money to buy the drug will no longer have to.  Legalizing marijuana would help the economy as a whole and for the individual.
In 1996 voters in both California and Arizona approved ballot measures exempting physicians and patients from criminal prosecution when marijuana is prescribed for medicinal purposes in the relief of pain or other symptoms caused by cancer, AIDS, glaucoma, arthritis, and other illnesses and chronic conditions.   Four other states passed similar ballot initiative that year, including Washington, Oregon, Alaska, and Nevada, and legislatures in 37 states have passed bills in support of medical marijuana.  Medicinal purposes for marijuana give people who have tried all different types of drugs for their illnesses hope for relief. (Wikman)
In order for marijuana to be legal, the government would have to regulate it as they do with alcohol and tobacco.  First the government should set an age limit on the purchasing of the drug.  This age should start off at eighteen, like tobacco, and if there seems to be a problem with the age then raising the age limit should be considered.  Overall, the government should first look at countries in the world where marijuana is currently legal.  In the Netherlands, the city of Amsterdam allows the usage of marijuana.  (Zimmer, Morgan)  The usage comes with many regulations though.  For example smoking marijuana can be only smoked in coffee shops administrated all over the city.  Also people can only buy a certain amount at one time, so the distribution of it illegally can be reduced.
Marijuana is still the most commonly used drug in the United States and probably will be for years to come. Marijuana is on the rise and will increase in popularity throughout the United States. I’m sure that our government will eventually legalize marijuana, but not soon. Many people argue the pros and cons of pot. I think our government should at least try to see what would happen to the economy if pot was legal, even though it is a huge risk to take.
This problem is argued as much as should the alcohol age be lowered again, many teenagers argue this because if there old enough to go to fight in a war, then you should be able to drink. Many younger kids smoke pot without a care and they don’t realize the affects of the drug. America needs to start taking a larger action, and try to get the point across to the youth of America. This will always be a huge argument throughout the world. The question that everyone asks, should pot be legal in the United States.
Bibliography:
Zimmer, L., Morgan, J. Marijuana Myths, Marijuana Facts: A Review of the Scientific Evidence. New York: The Lindesmith Center, 1997
“Medical Marijuana Truth and Lies.” Drug Watch International. Atlanta: DWI, 1995
“Legalizing Marijuana-The Pros and Cons.” Growing Marijuana Seeds. 2002. <http://www.growing-marijuana-seeds.com/legalizing-marijuana.html>
 

Analyze the Legalization of Marijuana Essay

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Legalization Of Illegal Drugs

Legalization Of Illegal Drugs.
There are simply no positive reasons to criminals any illegal drugs and plan to show you why. The fact that keeping the same laws on drugs won’t change anything is a pretty basic concept. To put it another way, people already take drugs and if we don’t change anything people will continue to take drugs, get addicted and potentially commit any crime from petty thievery to murder. That may seem an exaggeration, but a report back in 2003 from the Joseph Renowned Foundation found that 50% of people in custody and awaiting trial admitted they were dependent on a drug.
Given that the Scottish Social Attitudes survey of 2009 found an increase of 6% from 2001 (41% to 47%) in Scottish adults close to someone who has used illegal drugs, it would be safe to assume this figure has also risen. So, with it now established that people take drugs despite it being against the law, we need to try and make drug consumption more structured, more stable and ultimately safer. As production is illegal, the drug trade lacks all health and safety restraints put on other legitimate markets such as quality control and warning labels.
Therefore if someone decides they want to sample cannabis, et their weekly heroin fix or even buy some cocaine for a night in as if it were a box of Principles, they have almost literally no idea what they are buying from a drug dealer. The value is so high that drugs are often diluted with similar looking substances thus leaving consumers with drugs like heroin that’s only 3 to 6% pure. This opens up a whole host of other problems- if you’re used to a 3% intake of heroin and your drug dealer changes to a 6% you’ve unknowingly doubled your intake.

In a system of controlled legalization (that I will detail later) these problems and a few others become history. Don’t take drugs. You (hopefully! ) don’t take drugs. Yet despite this we are both still at risk from drug related crimes and street violence related either directly or indirectly to drug use. Due to the illegality of drugs the supply and manufacture is obviously limited, meaning the price rises. As an example, a kilogram of cocaine worth $3000 in Colombia (where cocaine is legal) sold at retail price in the USA for $300,000.
This type of money isn’t obtainable through legitimate means for most ordinary people, especially when they become addicted and have to keep coming back for more. Therefore they turn to crime, whether organized or not. These people steal whatever they can to fund their habit and depending on the severity of their addiction could end up killing in order to try and collect funds. This puts completely uninvolved members of the general public, like you and me, at risk and means any one could be harmed by the drug trade. As well as that, those purchasing the drugs legitimately or not find themselves in completely unnecessary danger.
The drugs or so valuable they became targets for theft and assault. This is another thing that can be avoided by the controlled legalization will outline soon, as prices will collapse and with it the need to teal or commit other crime to obtain drugs. I’ve mentioned it a few times, and it’s now time for me to outline what I mean by controlled legalization and the positives think it would bring to our country. Drug consumption rooms are a very successful method of controlled legalization that is growing in popularity in Europe.
Consumption rooms in Copenhagen, Denmark Consumption rooms allow people who want to take drugs to inject them under supervision and in a safe environment. In the Danish rooms, despite over 1 00 overdoses there has not been a single death to date. The major positive is the government can now control drug use. An alternative to drug consumption would be a more full and dramatic method of controlled legalization. Legalize all aspects Of the trade surrounding a particular drug, but in doing so create strict controls on manufacturing and sale, not unlike the current prescription system.
Starting with the likes of Cannabis and Cocaine and if this is successful soon moving on to harder and more serious drugs. Lord Sugar is one well known businessman and role model who supports this. In his Autobiography he talks of selling Cocaine and Cannabis in small sachets in pharmacies for just E, with around El tax on each. As well creating safer drug use, being rid of dealers and cartels it also creates more money which the government could then spend on genuine issues like poverty and education.
Who knows, if people are educated better and grow up in nicer environments they may not even turn to drugs in the first place. As means of a summary of all this, if we want to improve our drug culture and the way they are treated here then something needs to change. Personally I lean towards full controlled legalization, in the form of selling drugs to over ass through pharmacies in a controlled, stable and educated way, but I see he merits of consumption rooms and would be for their use in the UK.

Legalization Of Illegal Drugs

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Bcom275 Legalization of Marijuana

Bcom275 Legalization of Marijuana.
Debate Paper Legalization of Marijuana Cannabis, also referred to as marijuana, is the third most popular recreational drug, behind only tobacco and alcohol, in the United States (Whitehouse. gov, 2013). Efforts to legalize marijuana as medicine and recreational use in the United States have grown exponentially in recent years. According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) marijuana may help decrease nausea, stimulate appetite, and decrease pain (2006). Alternately, the American Medical Association (AMA) does not support smoked marijuana as medicine (1995-2013).
With such conflicting opinions around this highly controversial drug, there are many questions to be answered in order to decide the steps the federal government can/should be made for a final resolution. Argument For Nearly one in ten Americans used marijuana in 2010; however, our nation spends over seven billion per year to enforce the illegalization of this natural substance. A recent poll taken in 2011 shows marijuana has increasingly become the preferred drug for Americans. Overall, 6. 9 percent, or 17. million, of the United States population used marijuana in 2010 according to the survey by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (Increase Use of Marijuana, 2011, para. 2). Dr. Jeffrey Miron, an economics professor at Harvard University, completed a study which determined the approximate cost of enforcing the illegalization of marijuana. The report estimates legalizing marijuana would save, “$7. 7 billion per year in government expenditure on enforcement of prohibition. $5. 3 billion of this savings would accrue to state and local governments, while $2. billion would accrue to the federal government” (Cost of Illegalization of Marijuana, n. d. ). The United States has been engaged in a losing battle against marijuana since the implementation of the Uniform Narcotic Act in the 1930’s (Bonnie & Whitbread, n. d). We are not only wasting $7. 7 billion per year, but losing potential revenue. Americans could stand to profit a substantial amount of income if marijuana were to be legalized and regulated by the Department of Agriculture. “Revenue from taxation of marijuana sales would range from $2. billion per year if marijuana were taxed like ordinary consumer goods to $6. 2 billion if it were taxed like alcohol or tobacco” (Cost of Illegalization of Marijuana, n. d. ). Marijuana is not addictive and has a stark contrast of addictive properties when pitted against the addictive characteristics of legalized tobacco and alcohol. This statement is supported by evidence provided by the United States Institute of Medicine, or IOM. The IOM states “fewer than one in 10 marijuana smokers become regular users of the drug, and most voluntary cease their use after 34 years of age.
By comparison, 15 percent of alcohol consumers and 32 percent of tobacco smokers exhibit symptoms of drug dependence” (Supporting evidence, n. d. , para. 2). The IOM also observed cannabis withdrawal symptoms are rare and do not require substitution medicine to stop usage. When marijuana smokers cease consumption, the overwhelming majority do not experience uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms demanding re-initiating use of marijuana according to the IOM. President Richard Nixon commissioned the National Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse in 1972.

The primary objective the commission was to expose dangers of drug use and provide a detailed report on marijuana. Nixon’s commission issued a report titled, “Marijuana: A Signal of Misunderstanding,” which reviewed existing marijuana studies and determined marijuana does not cause physical addiction (National Commission on Marijuana, 1974). Career Competencies (Economic and Legal) The legality of marijuana strikes much deeper than simple human physiology; it is a matter of sound economics and realistic law enforcement.
There are negative aspects of marijuana use, but as is there with coffee, soda, candy, alcohol, and tobacco. Americans need to revaluate old rhetoric where marijuana was deemed evil and a gateway drug. The only reason marijuana could be considered a gateway drug is because often time’s consumers are exposed to shady drug dealers on a substance deemed as illegal. If Americans opened their eyes and minds to see how much money and effort is wasted to fight a losing battle become aware of how much could be profited from the legalization of marijuana the decision is straightforward; marijuana should be legalized.
Argument Against Contrary to popular belief, marijuana is addictive, and can lead to other health problems such as; lung cancer, low sexual drive (libido), and of utmost importance is to address the concern of marijuana as a “gateway” drug. Addiction has been redefined and continually evolving for decades. Whether a given substance is defined as “addictive” in a given society or culture, has to do largely with social custom and political convenience. Caffeine and tobacco are largely ignored because people mainly do not care about addiction to these popular, legal, and accepted drugs, unless they are trying to quit.
According to the American Psychological Association, APA, addiction “is a condition in which the body must have a drug to avoid physical and psychological withdrawal symptoms” (2013). Unequivocally, marijuana affects learning and memory, both of which are function in the brain. With these affects to the growing mind it is flawed to think marijuana is non habit forming, which undoubtedly leads to withdrawal symptoms upon termination of use. Marijuana is sex-inhibiting. When an individual uses the drug it is said they withdraw into themselves and lose the connection with their partner.
Research into this phenomenon dates back to the 1970’s in which one report showed it reduces testosterone enough to impair the libido in many women and in some men. According to this research, some of the responses included: “My boyfriend and I have smoked (fairly heavily) for the past year and I would say that it 100% has a terrible effect on our sex life. It’s been a huge libido killer for our relationship”; “As I’ve continued to use marijuana (been almost five years smoking now) it’s inhibited sex for me more and more” (Castleman, 2012).
Furthermore, there is scientific evidence to support that long-term marijuana smoking alters the reproductive system. The gateway theory postulates the use of less harmful drugs (such as marijuana) may lead to future risk of using more dangerous hard drugs. To test this theory a group of researchers in Sweden administered rats the equivalent of the THC (the chemical found in marijuana delivering the “high”) in one joint to lab rats.
After this administration of THC the rats were allowed access to heroin by pressing a lever. According to this study, the rats who were administered the THC took larger doses of heroin than the rats who did not receive the THC injection (Ellgren, 2007). Upon inspection of the rat’s brain, it was discovered the brain cells associated with positive emotions were altered by the THC dosage, thus lending the need for higher drive for more heroin than those without the THC.
Ethical Issues More research is needed in order to legislate the use of marijuana. Contemporary medicine and pharmacology are based upon the application of scientific principles and extensive clinical research to determine the safety and efficacy of a drug. Marinol, a synthetic version of the naturally occurring component of marijuana, is a well accepted, well researched, and more effective treatment than marijuana (Kraus, 2007).
This approved drug, like marijuana, helps alleviate chronic pain, reduces chemotherapy-related nausea, and with HIV/AIDS treatment it helps with symptoms known as “wasting syndrome”. Many proponents of legalizing marijuana for these specific illnesses have not looked into marinol as a safe alternative. As a matter of fact the only difference between marinol and marijuana is that marinol does not stimulate the “high” associated with marijuana. Career Competencies (Psychology) Psychologists from all over the United States attest to the negative effects of cannabis.
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) a cannabis user can develop; cannabis intoxication- development of maladaptive behavior that developed shortly after or during cannabis use; cannabis intoxication delirium- a disturbance of consciousness with reduced ability to focus, sustain, or shift attention; cannabis-induced psychotic disorder, with delusions- prominent hallucinations or delusions in excess of those usually associated with the intoxication; and cannabis-induced anxiety disorder- prominent anxiety, panic attacks, or obsessions or compulsions that causes significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning American Psychiatric Association, (2000).
The DSM has other classifications for cannabis use; however the mental disturbances highlighted promote the more severe effects of continued marijuana use. Conclusion Marijuana has the reputation of being a gateway drug, although not every heroin addict started out smoking marijuana. Marijuana is prohibited and it puts individuals in circumstances where they are exposed to harder drugs, therefore if the FDA had regulations on marijuana, those individuals would never have to be exposed to those situations. In regards to the effects of marijuana, like a low sex drive, just like every medication whether it is over the counter or prescribed, there will be side effects which will affect everyone differently. Marijuana has the ability to alleviate aliments such as nausea, and other types of pain.
Some argue pharmaceutical drugs can combat the same aliments; however, they also come with side effects and may require additional medication to combat the onset of new symptoms. Taxation of marijuana alone would help the economy. The fact the U. S. is wasting 7. 7 billion dollars enforcing the prohibition of the substance is persuasive enough in its self, as well as the potential revenue brought in by taxing the substance like tobacco or alcohol. Keeping marijuana illegal is only keeping drug dealers in business. While law enforcement continues to chase these petty drug dealers it is costing our taxpayers millions of dollars to put and keep drug dealers behind bars.
The legalizing of marijuana would benefit the economy greatly, therefor marijuana should be legalized. The use of Marijuana and Cultural difference between Japan and The United States The history of Cannabis in the country of Japan can be traced back to 300 – 500 BC. Cannabis was a widely used plant for the majority of Japanese culture and daily lives. Cannabis fibers were used to not only create baskets and fishing tools, but were also used in creating divine clothing for the Emperor’s. Burning of cannabis was also used for old traditions, for example rooms of worship were purified by burning cannabis leave by the entrance. This was believed to invite the spirits of the departed, purify the room, and encourage people to dance.
Japan’s cultivation of Cannabis came to a halt at the end of World War II when allied forces occupied and began to help rebuild Japan. It was America General Douglas MacArthur and his colleagues who re-wrote the Japanese constitution in 1948 and mirrored many of the United States laws. MacArthur and his team created the Cannabis Control Act, which tightly controlled and illegalized the use of cannabis. Due to the extreme cultivating of cannabis and its widely uses in daily lives, Western companies found a market with providing synthetic products to replace cannabis. Today, cannabis is a drug guarded and considered taboo among the Japanese culture.
The use and history of cannabis is all but forgotten within today’s Japanese society, and when it is discovered people have, or are using it recreationally, they are shunned and casted as “stone-cold drug addicts” (Uno, 2011). Many Japanese people consider marijuana and other ‘hard drugs’ to be the exact same and believe all drugs have the same effect. This ideal thinking of marijuana has lead Japan to be one of the strictest laws and punishments compared to other developed countries. In 1993 a Disc Jockey from New York, Christopher Lavinger, was arrested and was sentenced to 16 months in prison and 35 days in solitary confinement after Japanese police found 1. 5 grams of marijuana, 3. 5 grams of cocaine, and some LSD (Hays, 2009). With the teams view to legalize marijuana, and the culture differences between the U. S. nd Japan, the first step to move towards a ‘Pro-Marijuana’ Japanese country would be to educate the people on the benefits cannabis can provide. As described above, the financial profit gained would be tremendous and can go back to the people in various ways. The people would also need education on their history of using cannabis within their ancient traditions and target many high-profile figures to support the use of marijuana. Because of the strict laws and taboo views Japan has of cannabis, it would be a hard road, but the understanding and education used properly, Japan could create legislation that would override, or amend their constitution and current laws banning its use. References American Medical Association (AMA). (1995-2013). Retrieved from http://www. ama-assn. rg/ American Psychiatric Association, (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder (4th ed. ). American Psychological Association (APA). (2013). Retrieved from http://www. apa. org/topics/addiction/index. aspx Argument: Marijuana is not addictive. (n. d. ). Retrieved March 24, 2013, from http://dbp. idebate. org/en/index. php/Argument:_Marijuana_is_not_addictive Bonnie, R. , & Whitbread, C. (n. d). The Forbidden Fruit and the Tree of Knowledge: An Inquiry into the Legal History of Historian of American Marijuana Prohibition. Schaffer Library of Drug Policy. Retrieved from http://www. druglibrary. org/schaffer/Library/studies/vlr/vlr3. htm Castleman, Michael. Marijuana’s Effects on Sex Vary with Individuals. ” Marijuana. Ed. Noah Berlatsky. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2012. Opposing Viewpoints. Rpt. from “Marijuana and Sex: Surprising Results of This Blogger’s Informal Survey. ” Psychology Today (1 May 2011). Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 8 Mar. 2013. Ellgren, Maria. “Neurobiological effects of early life cannabis exposure in relation to the gateway hypothesis” (2007). Retrieved from http://publications. ki. se/xmlui/handle/10616/38245? locale-attribute=en Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (2006). Retrieved from http://www. fda. gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/2006/ucm108643. htm Hays, J. (2009).
Marijuana, Legal Highs and Illegal drugs in Japan. Retrieved from http://factsanddetails. com/japan. php? itemid=664 Kraus, Mark L. “Legalizing Medical Marijuana Is Not a Good Idea. ” Medical Marijuana. Ed. Noel Merino. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2011. Current Controversies. Rpt. from “The Dangers of Legalizing Medical Marijuana: A Physician’s Perspective. ” 2007. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 22 Mar. 2013. Marijuana use rising in U. S. , national survey shows. (2011). Retrieved March 24, 2013, from http://www. reuters. com/article/2011/09/08/usa-drugs-idUSN1E7870N520110908 Olson, D. (1998). Hempen cultrue in Japan. Retrieved from http://www. cannabisculture. om/articles/101. html/ Stirring the Pot: Could Legalizing Marijuana Save the Economy?. (2013). Retrieved from http://www. forbes. com/sites/kellyphillipserb/2012/04/20/stirring-the-pot-could-legalizing-marijuana-save-the-economy/ The first report of the National Commission on marihuana (1972): signal of misunderstanding or exercise in ambiguity. (1974). Retrieved from http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC1749335/ The White House President Barak Obama. (2013). Retrieved from http://m. whitehouse. gov/ondcp/marijuana Uno, M. (2011). WEED CRISIS: Enter Japan’s Void. Retrieved from http://www. thestarklife. com/2011/06/17/weed-in-japan/

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Marijuana Legalization or Prohibition

Marijuana Legalization or Prohibition.
White House, it is the most commonly used recreational drug in the United States. It has been proven to be less harmful than alcohol, which is currently legal; and prohibition caused a black market to arise leading to an increase in an organized criminal activity. The fght against those organizations is costing a great amount of money and was cause for the loss of many innocent. While there are strong arguments in support of prohibition there are stronger arguments in support of the legalization if marijuana than there are counterarguments to keep the substance illegal.
When comparing the Alcohol Prohibition in the 1920s and compare hat situation with the current situation with the legal status of marihuana, we cans ee that a repetition of history is occurring. According to Douglas McVoy, at the beginning of prohibition, the consumption of alcohol fell, however eventually it increased again. Since the drug was illegal and only the black market could sell it, a significant amount of tax revenue was removed and crime rates increased in addition to become more organized.
Consumption, illicit production, and distribution grow exponentially; therefore courthouses and prison systems were exhausted from such an increase in crime due to illicit alcohol. Government spent great amount of money devoted to enforcement, in fact, the annual budget of the Bureau of Prohibition went from $4. 4 million to $13. 4 million during the 1920s, while the Coast Guard spending on Prohibition averaged over $13 million per year. (McVoy). This are some reasons that proved that alcohol prohibition was a failure to the United States.

Comparing the alcohol with the cannabis prohibitions. Marijuana is the most used recreational drug in the United States, as reported by the White House (Marijuana). One could say that after a long term of prohibition, the consumption rates have increased. Like in the 1920s with alcohol, there is now a huge black market that sells marijuana and its essentially lead by organized criminal groups. According to Steve Nelson, Marijuana offenses accounted for 48. 3 percent of all drug arrests in 2012 (Nelson) and more than 80 percent of marijuana arrests are now for simple possession (Kilmer,etc. . United States government spends enormous amounts of money in the fght against drugs and the criminal groups grow more and more each day. Alcohol prohibition was considered a failure and, actually, we are experiencing some situations today that the United States taced in the 920s Since betore marihuana was prohibited, the drug was used in a medical way. It has been proven that cannabis used as a medicine can relieve chronic pain, which is cause by a significant number of pain- producing illnesses.
Marijuana can assist many mental health problems, such as attention deficit disorder (ADD), post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and depressions. It can also be used as an analgesic (painkiller) or an anti- inflammatory drug for autoimmune diseases, diseases that arise when the body cannot create an appropriate immune response to substances or tissues present ormally on the body. Such diseases could be rheumatoid arthritis, complex sympathetic dystrophy, and so on (Bearman). California was the first state in the United States that legalized medical marijuana.
One of the negative results of this legalization is the significant increase of individuals seeking treatment for marijuana abuse or dependence (Kilmer, etc. ). This could mean that there has been an increase in consumption. One interpretation of this phenomenon is that people which use marijuana as a recreational drug rather than a medical drug, seek treatment not to eal with a substance abuse but to manage a legal problem (Kilmer,etc. ). Even though marijuana can be used as a medical supplement, this does not mean it do not have secondary effects on human ‘s bodies.
Marijuana can also get to be harmful. In fact, THC (The major component in cannabis that gets you “high”) by binding to receptors in the basal ganglia and cerebellum can disrupt coordination and balance of the body. Therefore doing complicated tasks such as driving, participation in sports, or learning is affected. One of the long lasting effects cannabis can produce on you is psychotic disorder such as schizophrenia. This illness alters a person’s ability to make good Judgments, understand reality, communicate or think clearly.
Memory can also be affected by marijuana consumers, studies has proven that THC alters how information is processed in the hippocampus, a brain area responsible for memory information (National drug Institute). According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, marijuana also affects your cardiovascular system. After a few minutes of inhaling marijuana smoke, the heart rate, which is normally between 70 to 80 beats per minute, may increase by 20 to 50 beats or even double in some cases. Mixing marihuana with other drugs can amplify this effect.
This means that a person’s risk of heart attack during the first hour after smoking is about four times his usual risk. (National Institute on Drug Abuse) Before legalizing and decriminalizing the use and possession of marijuana, a regulation system should be instituted, that, like Douglas Mcvay stated, should not be the same as systems used during the legalization of tobacco and alcohol. Those models of legalization taught the world and the United States a lesson of how not to regulate the use of these drugs (McVay).
Cigarettes and alcohol advertising companies spend significant amounts of money to promote the use of their products which ultimately contributes to many health problems and eventually the death for many users. An example of a non-regulated drug after it was legalized was after the repeal of alcohol prohibition, where the death rate from liver cirrhosis increased dramatically (McVay). To prevent the abuse of marijuana, governments should build a system to regulate its use. An important part of the system build for legalization according to RAND Corporation is the price the drug is going to have.

Marijuana Legalization or Prohibition

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Legalization of Marijuana for Recreational Use

Legalization of Marijuana for Recreational Use.
Hewlett-Packard| Legalization of Marijuana for Recreational Use| Introduction to Ethics: Theory and Application| | HP| Assignment # 4 | Nichole Hysel| Legalization of Marijuana for Recreational Use On a cold January afternoon in a small community, a police officer is called to a residence for suspected domestic issue. As he arrives, he can hear shouting coming from the house. He knocks on the door and a boy of about five years old, who is dressed in nothing but shorts, comes to the door. He stands with the door open, a slice of bread in his dirty hand, smiling at the officer. He has seen the officer at the home a few times in the past.
The child has also been over to the officer’s house to play with his children. The officer’s wife and the boy’s mother work together at the local grocery store and the boy’s father looks after him while his mother is at work. After the officer talks to the parents about their issues, which always seem to be basic domestic issues, he heads for the door. The boy follows him, hugs his leg, looks up and says, “Can I come with you? ” The officer responds, “Sorry buddy, not today. ” Two weeks later, on a bitter cold afternoon, the mother comes home from work to discover the child is gone.
The same police officer searches along with the majority of the community. The boy is found an hour later on a rural country road. He is taken to the emergency room and treated for hypothermia. He is then taken in by Child Protective Services. The father is charged with possession of marijuana, his 2nd offense, along with intent to deliver. The mother has had enough and has turned the father in for growing a few plants in the basement and selling it to his buddies. After 7 days, the child is returned to his mother. He had been under the care of the police officer and his wife.

Marijuana is the most widely used, illegal drug in the world. “It is estimated that 119 million to 224 million people used cannabis in 2011,” reports, Glenn D. Braunstein, M. D. and Vice President of clinical innovation at Cedars Sinai Hospital. Marijuana is considered a depressant, stimulant and hallucinogen. It has recently been legalized, as a recreational drug in two out of 50 states, Colorado and Washington. In these states, those who are 21 and older can possess up to an ounce of marijuana, it will be sold and taxed in state-licensed stores, much the same way alcohol is sold.
In the state of Colorado, cultivation of up to six marijuana plants per person is allowed. Both states prohibit public use. Is it morally acceptable for marijuana to be legalized as a recreational drug? After exploring my own experiences, the possible pros and cons of legalization, and the social contract, utilitarian, and the ethics of care theories, I do not think it is morally acceptable. My personal opinion about the legalization of marijuana is that it should not be legal. While I have seen both negative and positive effects of marijuana use, it has affected me and my family in a negative way.
I am aware that it can be used recreationally and have no affects. I also know that it can be addictive and have negative effects, both physically and mentally, when used on a regular basis. It is my personal opinion that the negative effects associated with marijuana outweigh the positives. I believe that if something has the potential to do harm to those who chose not to partake, it shouldn’t be legalized. I don’t believe that we should take the stand that because it is less harmful than alcohol, it should be legal.
I believe that marijuana is dangerous, especially to today’s youth who use marijuana without considering the consequences. It is my fear that legalization could send the message to youth that it is acceptable to use marijuana as a coping mechanism. I do not want my children to be tempted to use a drug as a crutch, to relax or temporarily solve their problems. There are several reasonable arguments for legalization of marijuana. They are based on the idea that attempting to control its use causes more problems than it solves. The argument seems to be, that it isn’t going away so we may as well benefit from it.
It is projected that by legalizing marijuana we could reduce the strain on our justice system, drastically cutting crime and possibly eliminating drug trafficking of marijuana. The production and sales of marijuana, by the government would save lives, create jobs and generate money that could be used for social progression, education, and healthcare which would in turn better the lives of everyone in society. Laws against use for those under 21 will prevent youth from obtaining the drug. I feel that benefitting from anything that is already illegal and proven to be a problem is immoral.
Since we cannot guarantee that society will benefit from legalizing marijuana, it should not be legal. Age restrictions do not prevent youth from obtaining alcohol; therefor I do not believe age restrictions on pot will deter them either. It is important that we use what we know about alcohol abuse as a whole, rather than use it as an excuse, due to the fact that it is perceived as more harmful, to legalize marijuana. Other arguments for legalization are based on free will and respect for autonomy. The belief is that, we all have the right to make choices for ourselves, using our own rational thought.
If we are the only person who knows our needs, we can be the only person that can decide what is best for us. Marijuana users take the stand that,” If we are in our own homes, using marijuana, who are we harming? ” I respect an individual’s right to choose as rational beings, unfortunately, not everyone is rational. Laws are put in place to protect us and benefit us as a society. Children suffer when parents use drugs in their presence. When children are under the care of a parent who is under the influence of a drug, their safety is sometimes being compromised.
A few examples could be, a parent choosing to use money to buy marijuana instead of food or clothing, an inability to drive in an emergency situation and lack of focus and reasoning. I am not saying that pot use automatically makes a parent neglectful. I know several daily users who seem to be acceptable parents, even while under the influence. Yet I ask myself, could they be better parents? When a parent uses marijuana or any drug, legal or not, in the presence of their children, it sends the message that it is ok. Legalizing the drug will cause more parents to use in front of their children.
I believe this will cause more children to use. Arguments against the legalization of marijuana tend to weigh heavily on the slippery slope argument, that any softening of the laws as they pertain to drugs will cause a bigger problem. It is anticipated by The Office of National Drug Control Policy that legalizing marijuana will increase use of the drug and, consequently, the harm it causes, thus adding to the burden on the criminal justice system. They also report that legalizing the drug will make it less expensive and more attainable to youth.
Because it is illegal in most countries, we have far less clinical evidence about pot’s effects than many other drugs. The only authorized source of marijuana research comes from the University of Mississippi and is controlled by the National Institute of Drug Abuse, they report that use of marijuana impairs memory in regular users, especially in youth. It impairs driving, inhibits productivity, causes depression, and can be addictive. It is also thought that those predisposed to addiction, will have an easier time obtaining and using the drug as a possible gateway drug.
These are problems we face while it is not legal, if legalization will increase usage, these will become a more widespread problem. Utilitarianism states that we ought to choose the action which is the one that maximizes the overall “good” of the greatest number of individuals. The problem of drug use, from the utilitarian perspective, rests on the consequences of using the drug and whether or not it will benefit the majority of the population, now and in the future. In order for us to say that it is morally bad, we need to prove that the consequences in legalizing marijuana will be bad.
The problem is, we cannot definitively say what the consequences will be. But, we can use what we learn from other areas that have or are in the process of regulating pot for recreational use. Studies done by the Drug Free America Foundation, report that based on experiences where marijuana has been legalized, the number of marijuana users tend to double or triple. This could mean an additional 17 to 34 million young and adult users in the United States. Recently, Here and Now, a talk show on local public radio in Colorado, had guest Dr. Christian Thurston, medical director for an adolescence substance abuse treatment program in Denver.
He stated, “Young patients seeking addiction treatment for marijuana tell me that pot helps them with their anger, ADHD and that it helps them to sleep. ” Thurston also said, “While marijuana can have medicinal value for adults, it can be very harmful to teens. ” He also states that, “We’ve seen, starting in the late 1980s, that adolescents exposed to marijuana have about a two to four-fold increase of developing psychosis. We have good evidence now that adolescence exposure to marijuana affects intelligence, cognition, learning and memory. ” Jann Gumbiner, Ph. D. licensed psychologist at the University of California, Irvine College of Medicine, who specializes in adolescent and child psychology reports, “About 10% of users will develop problems that impair their work and relationships. Many more will come to depend on pot for relaxation and social purposes. This will be problematic if they don’t learn more effective coping mechanisms and come to rely on marijuana instead of solving their problems. ” It is my fear that legalization could send the message to youth that it is acceptable to use marijuana as a coping mechanism.
Since we know teens are likely to suffer long term affects, and that legalization will cause more teens to use the drug, we are likely to see serious negative effects that could greatly impact society in the future. Social Contract theory also plays a big role in legalization of marijuana. Social Contract theory is based on the set of rules governing behavior that all rational people accept, on the condition that others accept the rules as well. What the majority of society feels and believes plays a very big role in our lawmaking process. Lawmakers tend to go with what their constituents want, in order to get votes.
In the past society has placed a negative stigma on marijuana use, making it hard for those rallying for legalization to be heard. Recent statistics show society’s view on marijuana is changing. A Gallop Poll recently found that 50% of Americans think marijuana should be legal for adult use. This percentage is up by 4% from the previous year. This is in large part due to the fact that our younger generation is more supportive, while opposition generally comes from the older generation. It makes sense that as the older generation leaves, the younger generation’s opinion will be the majority.
As popular opinion changes, it makes sense that we will be likely to see more states attempt to legalize marijuana. It is troublesome to me that information about marijuana is usually either directly for or against the drug. Internet articles are almost always directly for or against legalization. It is very hard to get unbiased facts. It is my concern that people, especially impressionable youth, aren’t getting the facts and are using how they feel as a basis for their opinion on marijuana. These youth, will soon decide what laws will govern society. The minimum conception of morality says we ought to at he very least, do what are the best reasons for doing while giving equal weight to the interests of each individual affected by our decision. I do not believe we should make something that is illegal, legal based on the idea that we might be able to control it even possibly benefit from it. We cannot say what the consequences will be. This is the major defect of the utilitarian theory of ethics. It does not take in to consideration that often times we cannot project the outcome of moral decisions. We cannot guarantee that the majority of society will benefit from legalization of recreational marijuana.
There are too many questions involved. Could it make dealers even more competitive? Are there unforeseen costs that will take away from the suspected benefits? Will current dealers stop growing and selling? What will the effect on society be, given that legalization will most likely cause usage to greatly increase? If we don’t know the answers to such serious issues, we shouldn’t act. It is important that we use past experiences as examples. It is proven that history can be a valuable tool when attempting to predict an outcome of a hypothetical act.
It is my hope that we learn what is best, by using what we learn from the areas that have legalized pot. I am aware that my personal perspective has a lot to do with having children and my sense to protect them from all things negative, taking the ethics of care position. Carol Gilligan, internationally acclaimed writer, psychologist, American feminist and ethicist, believes a woman’s basic moral orientation is one of caring, in a personal way, not just being concerned for humanity, in general. She believes that an ethic of caring for those close to you should not be inferior to that of an ethic of principle.
I tend to agree; if we want for everyone, what we want for those we love and care for won’t the world be a better place? In summary I believe, based on what we do not know about the effects of legalizing marijuana, we should not legalize it. To say the problem isn’t going way so we may as well legalize it and benefit, is irresponsible. There is a trend showing increased usage with legalization. We aren’t able to predict the affect that increased usage will have on society. If we are to use alcohol as a guide at all, it should be as an example of what legalizing harmful substances can do to society.
It is anticipated that legalizing marijuana will entice youth even more, causing future issues. While marijuana use will always be a problem in youth, I believe educating youth with factual information about marijuana will help them make better choices and allow us to have laws that will most benefit society in the future. As Walt Disney quoted, “Our greatest natural resource is the minds of our children”. Work Sited “187,000 Lb. of Marijuana Annually? Legal Pot Business to Bloom in Washington. ” Business Money 187000 Lb of Marijuana Annually Legal Pot Business to Bloom in Washington Comments.
N. p. , 08 Jan. 2013. Web. 15 Apr. 2013. Braunstein, M. D. , Glenn D. “Weeding Through Marijuana Facts and Fiction. ” The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost. com, 01 Feb. 2013. Web. 15 Apr. 2013. “Legalizing of Marijuana Raises Health Concerns. ” Well Legalizing of Marijuana Raises Health Concerns Comments. N. p. , n. d. Web. 15 Apr. 2013. “Marijuana: An Unbiased Analysis. ” Marijuana: An Unbiased Analysis. N. p. , n. d. Web. 15 Apr. 2013. “Medical Marijuana: The Government’s View. ” National Drug Prevention Alliance & PPP » USA. N. p. , n. d. Web. 15 Apr. 2013. “Principles and Theories.  Principles and Theories. N. p. , n. d. Web. 15 Apr. 2013. Rachels, James, James Rachels, and Stuart Rachels. The Elements of Moral Philosophy: 7th Revised Edition. London: Mcgraw Hill Higher Education, 2012. Print. Swanson, Emily. “Marijuana Legalization Poll Finds Americans Want Federal Government To Leave States Alone. ” The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost. com, 07 Dec. 2012. Web. 15 Apr. 2013. Turner, Dan. “Marijuana Legalization: States Send Message, Feds Aren’t Listening. ” Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times, 13 Nov. 2012. Web. 15 Apr. 2013. The White House. N. p. , n. d. Web. 15 Apr. 2013.

Legalization of Marijuana for Recreational Use

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Sex Workers: the Legalization of Prostitution

Sex Workers: the Legalization of Prostitution.
Iya Clarke Mrs. Peacock 4 December Sex Workers: The Legalization of Prostitution Prostitution, one of the most controversial jobs created, is often revered as one of the lowest jobs of the career totem pole. Sex workers are counted out and their voices are rarely, if ever, listened to, but no longer should sex workers be ignored. They are people too and have a lot to offer the America. Other countries have legalized prostitution and it has simply become a part of the culture, no longer looked down upon. Perhaps, the U. S. hould revisit the job of sex working, and if stigmas and judgments about the field were removed and prostitution was viewed with unbiased eyes, then the positive aspects of legalization could be considered. Sex is simply another commodity that can be bought and sold, just like anything else that is traded, and should be treated as such. With certain restrictions, if brothels were designated for certain places, had their own district outside the major cities, it could help uplift a forgotten community. With certain regulations and laws put in place, not only sex workers, but society as large can benefit.
Sex workers are not hurting anyone and should be allowed to do what they love. the Declaration of Independence it clearly states that, “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. ” So if sex workers are happy doing their job then who is the government to try and outlaw it? Prostituting is their way of gaining life, liberty and it is their personal way of pursing happiness.
If sex workers are doing what they love, not hurting anyone, and prostituting in a safe manner then the only ethical thing to do is to legalize it. But the only reason this will not happen is because of the negative stigma attached to it. Legalizing prostitution would normalize it and the mystery about sex workers would quickly dissipate. But if it became just a regular job then a lot of the taboo allure about it would be lost. After a certain amount of time most Americans would become indifferent to the issue, similar to how the Dutch now view prostitution.

According to Melanie Abrams of History Today, “research has shown that 74 per cent of the Dutch population regards prostitution as an acceptable job and prostitution has been legal in the Netherlands since 2000. ” If prostitution is normalized than stereotypes and judgments will decrease about the workers, making them feel less ostracized from society and help to create a richer place with diverse groups of people. The United States claims to be an accepting place, a “melting pot,” of all kinds of people with different ideas and lifestyles, so why sex workers be put on the outskirts of society?
So many of sex workers are taken advantage of and abused physically, but if prostitution was legalized than not as many woman would be injured. Everyday sex workers are beaten and abused, and the intuition who is supposed to be stopping this type of behavior, the police, is often a main perpetrator of it. The police use the power in their job title to coerce the women into illicit sexual acts so that they aren’t arrested and taken to jail. Sex workers live in fear of the possible threats from their customers and threats from the governing force, the police.
Legalizing prostitution would help to eliminate abuse from both of these groups because prostitution would be seen as a legitimate job. Just as other jobs have laws to ensure the protection of them, sex workers would be granted the same rights. The workers would be able to stand up for themselves and not be afraid to call out the people who take advantage of them. Also, the countless tax dollars spent on picking up sex workers and holding them in jail could be used for something more useful.
Because honestly, if a sex worker really enjoys their job, they are just going to go back out on the streets. This will only encourage a viscous cycle, that will never ever stop, and simply waste money that needs to be used in something more important. The spread of STDs, if prostitution was legalized, would decrease, due to mandatory testing. One of the greatest fears about sex workers is that the spread a large number of diseases to their customers because they do not have to use protection. But if prostitution was legalized then a system could be set up to curb the spread of STDs and STIs.
The workers would have to be checked periodically to insure the spread of diseases decreased, as opposed to workers who do not have to follow any rules, because they are participating in an illegal business. In parts of Australia, where prostitution is legal, sex workers “undergo regular examinations for STIs. If these tests are not done, the brothel will not permit the sex worker to work,” and in Queensland, Australia, “sex workers in brothels are required to wear a prophylactic during any type of sexual activity. As a result, Australian sex workers now have a very low incidence of STI’s. ” With many jobs people have to go undergo certain requirements whether it is periodically drug testing, or getting a background check. Prostitute are going to do their job, legal or not, so imposing a way for it to be done in healthy manner, can only be for the better and help to curb the spread of unwanted STDs and STIs. If prostitutes became a legal then sex workers could help the economy. Just as with any other job, prostitutes would become a part of the tax paying population.
Rather than making all the money under the table, which is what they do now, sex workers could help the Unites States out of the economic downturn of the past few years. They could play a vital part in helping to alleviate the billions of debt that the United States is in imagine the millions of unpaid tax dollars that is being overlooked annually because prostitution is not considered a “real job. ” Finally, the United States need to understand that prostitution is as a real of a job as any and rid themselves of the judgments that have been in the culture for years.
Yes, some of the workers are coerced into selling themselves on the street, but there is also a percentage of the woman enjoy the work. Some women enjoy the thrill, or simply enjoy having sex. It is their body, so who is the government to tell them what to do with it; what not to do with it? If the government was able to see past these judgments then America would be a better place for it. The spread of unwanted STIs and STDs would lessen within this field, millions; possibly billions of dollars could be made by taxing the work.
And the great melting pot, which is spoken so fondly of, would become even more diverse and accepting of people. In addition, there is no legal reason for it not to be legalized. Most of the reasons for why prostituting is illegal has to deal with morals. But if people do not like the idea of sex work, then they do not have to participate in it, but ultimately it is not their decision to make. If the sex workers are of the legal age, have made this decision on their own, without being forced or coerced, then they should be able to do what makes them happy.
That’s all most people search for, the thing that makes them happy, so everyone should be able to experience that without being treated terribly and dealing with the constant oppression from the society from which they live in. Works Cited Abrams, Melanie. “City Of (Red) Lights. ” History Today 59. 11 (2009): 6-7. Academic Search Complete. Web. 4 Dec. 2011. Sullivan, Barbara. “When (Some) Prostitution Is Legal: The Impact Of Law Reform On Sex Work In Australia. ” Journal Of Law & Society 37. 1 (2010): 85-104. Sociological Collection. Web. 5 Dec. 2011.

Sex Workers: the Legalization of Prostitution

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Calls for marijuana legalization

Calls for marijuana legalization.
The debate on whether or not to legalize marijuana trade and consumption has been ranging on for a long time with calls for its total ban equally as loud as those that fight for its legalization. This debate a times takes a religious and an emotional perspective. This paper seeks to strengthen with factual support, the calls that support its legalization. It will give reasons behind those views as well as analyze the opposing sentiments. All this is in the believe that marijuana, if legalized, stands to be more beneficial to the society that the way it is today.
My first argument towards legalization of marijuana will take an economic perspective. Billions of tax payer’s money is going to waste in the process of arresting and prosecuting people accused of consuming marijuana. This money should be channeled towards other important purposes like healthcare and providing education to our children (Barnett P.G 166-171).
Every year in America, thousands of people are huddled in drug courts faced with all manner of charges ranging from consuming to trafficking marijuana, then handed undeserving sentences. Process requires millions of dollars. This is money that should be spent in giving counseling and treatment to the affected rather than trying to catch the few of the majority that smokes. It is apparent that our money is surely going to waste; the war against drugs has never been won and is not going to be won any time soon.

The cost of maintaining prisoners arraigned in court over marijuana related cases each year is estimated at 1.2 billion dollars ever year. “This does not include the cost of investigating, arresting, a prosecuting and hundreds of thousands of marijuana users arrested every year” (Wayne Hall 7) this to me is a waste of scarce resources, money that otherwise should not be used had we legalized marijuana.
Still in economics, the marijuana is a multibillion industry that continues to place food on the table for millions of people world wide, illegally of course. I this industry can operate legally; it would be able to secure jobs to millions more as well as contributing billion of dollars through taxation. About 11 billion dollars would be gained from the tax. (Douglas Mc Ray58). The marketing of marijuana has its illegal form is left to black marketers this meaning that currently their proceeds go untaxed.
Economic benefits of legalized marijuana will be two fold. First it will be from the funds saved from the efforts to suppress and eradicate its use and then secondly benefits arising form its taxation. Marijuana should be legalized, either way whether legalized or illegal consumption still takes place. There are no statistics available to indicate that its continued legal suppression over maybe the last 30 years has had any consequent impact. Prohibition does not decrease its use. Its popularity does not wane. Netherlands has done it. It’s a good case study that “marijuana legalization would not be the disaster that opponents say it would be” (Douglas Mc Kay29-32)
Debate still rages on possible effects of legalizing marijuana on the health of the users. There are those who argue that it has adverse effects on health while others argue that the overall effects are insignificant. Without looking at the worst case scenarios and moderation cases, both studies indicate that there are no known risks associated with its overdose; possible side effects can only be exhibited in the behaviors of the user. (Douglas Mc Kay) these results indicate that marijuana use is not more hazardous than alcohol consumption unlimitedly.
Tobacco use is equally harmful and yet it is legal. The reason why marijuana remains illegal is due to its peeved adverse effects on the users. The government in its social responsibility role has to limit its use/abuse. This to me is based on flimsy grounds. Alcohol and tobacco are also harmful, then why ban one poison and out rightly allow the usage of the other one. This is illegal.
Marijuana decriminalization will allow people to explore the possible medicinal values it has.  Studies have shown, according to Baker D.(2003 561-567),that “cannnabinoids” (contained in marijuana) provide a novel therapeutic target, not only for controlling symptoms, but also slowing disease progression through inhibition of neurodeneration.” Disregarding its side effects, marijuana is hailed to have many therapeutic benefits like subsiding pain in cancer patients; it is basically used with pain and muscle stiffness in patients.
Criminalization of marijuana literally closes these windows of research. Doctors and health experts are barred from researching with it or administering on any of their patients despite indications that it can effectively be used for medical purpose with only some mile side effects. We are making it inaccessible to millions of people out there who are maybe suffering form cancer and would want some relieve.
This country boasts of respect and exercising fundamental freedoms for all persons. Freedom of worship is a key right that should be exercised by all and is guaranteed by the constitution. Rastafaricinism, a dominant faith in Jamaica openly advocates for marijuana usage citing its religious importance. Criminalization of marijuana clearly is in contravention of people right not only to exercise their right of worship but also their basic right to choice as long these choices do not affect others negatively.
I believe it should be left to the respective individuals to make an informed choice on whether consume or not.  They should be left alone to exercise the individual liberty. People to, are left alone to choose on whether to drink or smoke, despite their known harms, people too, I think should be given leeway over marijuana.
As I had noted earlier, the proponents of marijuana criminalization are equally vocal and belief they have solid reasons as to why the status quo should remain. Marijuana just like most drug is known to induce addictive tendencies, this is where it’s continued use results to the user being hooked to it to an extent that they are unable to function normally without it. I must say however, that addiction is not limited to marijuana alone alcohol, tobacco and also other prescribed drugs are known to cause addddiction even of a higher degree than cannabis.
There is also the argument that it legalization is tantamount to sending a message especialy to underage that its consumption is indeed good. It will remove the stigma currently associated with it making it attracitve to most persons. Although this point contains some truth in it, legalization of cannabis in Netherlands failed to indicate this. Although there were a few new users, occassioned by its decriminalization, their numbers were not significantly high to warrant any concerns.Initial lifting of the ban would see maybe attraction of new users but this would later change as Clement k(1999,p49) says,..on the other hand,the disappearance of the forbidden fruits characteristics of marijuana would tend to lower consumption.”This waters down the argument that lifting the ban would see increased use.
Marijuana too if allowed will lead to more expenses on the government to cope with its abuse. There will be increased allocations for the rehabs and medical facilities tao cope with its possible rampant usage. It would also mean more investments to cope with drug related crimes resulting from drug abuse. I must insist however, that findings doen do not ling marijuana to any violent crimes more than they do other drugs or specifically to alcohol. Also, a simple lsot benefit analysis refutes that the government stands to spend more on rehabs. By legalising it, any additional investment on rehabs is surpassed by the savings on marijuana policies and prosecutions in additional to the likely benefits emanating from taxes. (Aldrich, M. et al, 75-81).
Conclusion
There is a need to review the current laws banning marijuana use in total.It is more beneficial to the general society and particularly the government.The benefits gained through taxation and employment creation surpasses the negative effects of rehabilitating the abusers.In addition too are the millions of dollars the federal government would save.
The resources used to fight marijuana through prosecutions,arrests and maintaining thousands in jail would be rechanelled to other vital sectors.The benefits outweigh the costs,this should be the sole logic behind its legalisation.More benefits too stand to be reaped through the possible advances made in the medicine sector.It will see more research being done to establish ways in which marijuana can be used to ease pain in cancer patients as well as other medicinal values being explored.
Works Cited
Aidriach, M. and T. uikuriya. “Savings in Carlifornia Marijuana law enforcement costs
attributable to the Moscone Act of 1976”. Journal of Psychoactive drugs 20, 1998.
75-81. Appraisals of the adverse health effects of cannabis use: Ideology and
Evidence. June 1999.
The FAS Drug policy Analysis Bulletin. Washington DC. Accessed on 3rd August 2007.

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Baker D. Pryce G. The therapeutic Potential of cannabis in multiple sclerosis. Expert
opinion on investigations drugs. 2003, 561-567.
Barnett, P.G. “The cost-effectiveness of substance abuse treatment”. Current psychiatry
reports. 1999. 166-171.
Thornton, M. “Prohibition US. Legalisation: Do Economists reach a conclusion of drug policy? Ludwig Von Mises Institute 2002. pp.27
Marijuana Legalisation: the time is now. 1998. The psycheditic Library home page.
Clement K W; Daryal M.: The Economics of Marijuana Consumption.Crawley, Australia: University of Western Australia Economic Research center.1999, p 49. indicate that marijuana resutls aviors of the user. ases, both studies indicate that there are no known risks associated with it

Calls for marijuana legalization

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Argument for the legalization of Marijuana

Argument for the legalization of Marijuana.
Can I see a show of hands how many people have ever smoked Cannabis, also known as Marijuana? I see none of you have raised your hands. Well evidently no one would want to admit to a criminal action in front of others from their community. But why is it that smoking ‘pot’ is so forbidden in our society? George Washington said, “Make the most of the Indian hemp seed, and sow it everywhere! ” Marijuana is a natural plant, known to grow in the wild in Central and South Asia.
Traces of people smoking Marijuana go back as far as 3,000 B. C so, what had changed over the years to make cannabis illegal? When considering the legalization of marijuana, the normal reaction would be to think about the negative factors of the drug. But what people forget is, marijuana’s positive features overrule the negatives by far. There would be many benefits if the ‘drug’ where to be legalized, especially for the government and the economy as a whole.
Our government spends 500 million pounds a year on ‘overall response to drugs’, but receive no taxes from the estimated 1. 8 billion pound illegal drug market. If our government were to legalize marijuana, they could place high taxes on it because people are used to buying the drug at a high price anyway because of the risk of selling it illegally. This would be very beneficial to the government because they would have a larger increase of tax that then could be fed into the NHS and other funds, which are beneficial to the general public.

This brings me neatly onto my next point, I am fully aware of the abuse potential of the drug, but its value to the medical world outweighs this potential by far. Although the argument of legalizing marijuana is extremely controversial, without knowing it, hundreds of people around you are in desperate need of its medical side, and are suffering dramatically without it. How would you feel? Marijuana would be of high value to the suffering, distressed, and disheartened cancer patients fighting for their lives.
Let me try and paint you a picture: imagine there is only one medication that will relieve you from the pain you are caused by nausea, marijuana will free you of this pain and will give you a little bit of assurance and courage that you need to keep on believing that you are going to be safe. But yet, we still refuse to believe that the drug is acceptable, but there is something I must ask you all. Do you know what ‘the black market’ is? Well let me tell you, the black market is a market in goods or services in violation of legal structures defining the scope of appropriate forms of trade.
It is a market for products that are illegal or stolen. Marijuana appears frequently in the market, and has become extremely popular. The problem with the drugs produced in the black market is that they are not manufactured under any safety or health regulations, this can result in unsafe drugs being produced and users experiencing problems from consuming unknown substances. If the government where to legalize marijuana they could potentially safe lives, as the drug could be bought in shops from legal proprietors, this would assure users of good quality and information about what you are buying and consuming.
Jeffery Miron, the visiting professor of economics at Harvard University estimates the national marijuana market at about 10 billion pounds per year. When will the public and government realize? Marijuana is only dangerous and harmful when sold and consumed illegally, and the government is preventing and keeping us from a product that is so beneficial not only to cancer patients, but also to the paper and clothing industries, the government itself, and for the crime rate of our country.
Long gone are the days when we could go outside at night and not be worried about our safety, long gone are the days when we didn’t have to worry about our kids getting involved in gang activity, and long gone are the days in which we had the freedom to consume a substance which satisfied us. I am thoroughly aware of how high the UK’s crime rate is, and how terrifying and worrying it is for the citizens of our country. I am aware that the amount of crime that goes on in our country impacts and affects almost every single person in the country, which is why legalizing marijuana would be extremely helpful.
The crime rate in the Netherlands is generally low, especially compared to other European countries with tougher crime polices such as the UK. Indeed, in the UK they have found that 60% of inmates in British jails have served a jail sentence previously. In the UK where the consumption of marijuana is illegal the crime rate is actually higher than in Amsterdam where it is legal and the consumption is lower. This proves that, if our government was to legalize marijuana, it would result in the use actually decreasing, as it is known that when humans are not allowed to do something it appears much more attractive, and have a larger urge to do it.

Argument for the legalization of Marijuana

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