Parda in Islam

Parda in Islam.
PARDA (VEIL) IN THE LIGHT OF QURAN AND SUNNAH ABSTRACT The cold war began between the religions and the best subject for west is women to create uncertainty between religions. They are continuously hitting Muslim women with the weapon of Human Rights. From last couple of years the big issue is revolving in west and it create many mess is Parda(veil). The say that parda is human rights violation and Parda humiliates the women dignity. But the Noble Quran says Parda (veil) creates respectful environment for women. If we read bible it also taught women the importance of Parda(veil).
In Old Testament we read Rebekah also looked up and saw Isaac. She got down from her camel and asked the servant, “Who is that man in the field coming to meet us? “He is my master,” the servant answered. So she took her veil and covered herself. (Genesis: 24:64-65) In New Testament And every woman who prays or prophesies with her head uncovered dishonors her head–it is just as though her head were shaved. If a woman does not cover her head, she should have her hair cut off; and if it is a disgrace for a woman to have her hair cut or shaved off, she should cover her head. 1 Corinthians: 11:5-6) Islam the religion of peace stresses the relationship between body and mind. The ultimate goal of Parda is righteousness of the heart because in covering the body one shields the heart from impurities. Women of Islam wear Parda and loose clothing to fulfill the command of Allah Subhan wa tala. It encourages them to be modest and not to dress in a manner that attracts men. The Parda (veil) can take many forms, The Hijab The Niqaab The Burqa In first hijab, generally refers to covering only head and neck, leaving face uncovered.
This covering may have many styles but its main purpose is to cover the hairs properly. In Niqaab is generally understood as clothing that covers the face as well as head, with the eyes showing. The Burqa is a complete and proper form of Parda which covers the body of women from head to toe. This form of Parda (veil) is seen in many region of Islamic world. It may have many different styles and according to the cultural and traditional influence. Key Words: Islam, Parda(veil), Quran, Hadith(Sunna) Islam: Islam is not a new religion, but the same truth that Allah revealed through all His prophets to every people.

Muslims follow a religion of peace, mercy, and forgiveness, and the majority has nothing to do with the extremely grave events that have come to be associated with their faith. All the prophets sent by Allah brought the same message, i. e. believing in the oneness of Allah and the prophet Mohammad (Sal-Allaho-Alay-hay-Wasal-lam) as his last messenger. We, Muslims, believe in the Bible as the word of God and that it’s not in its exact and right form. We believe that Old Testament, Muslims call it Torat, was revealed to Prophet Moses (Musa) and New Testament, Muslims call it Injeel, was revealed o Prophet Jesus (Isa) peace be upon them. Since they were changed by people Allah sent the last testament, that is, the Holy Quran revealed to Prophet Mohammad (Sal-Allaho-Alay-hay-Wasal-lam) and it’s been 1400 years and not even a vowel of the Quran has been changed. It’s in its exact and perfect form. Christianity is closer to Islam than any other religion. We don’t believe in Jesus Christ (May peace be upon him) as Son of God but believe in him as a mighty messenger of Allah. We believe in his miraculous birth. There is one chapter in the Quran in the name of the mother of Jesus Christ (P.
B. U. H) as “Chapter Mary”. http://www. cometoislam. com/aboutislam. htm Parda (veil): Hijab is the term used by many Muslim women to describe their head cover that may or may not include covering their face except their eyes and sometimes also covering one eye. The Arabic word Hijab can be translated into veil or yashmak. Other meanings for the word Hijab include screen, cover(ing), mantle, curtain, drapes, partition, division, and divider. http://www. pakideas. com/node/161 Socialists oppose both approaches, for us it is the right of every woman to wear or not to wear the veil.
The state and the religious right have no right to interfere in the personal lives of individuals. Every woman has the right to choose. Most Muslims think that it is wrong to force women to remove the veil, but for some it is not wrong to force women to wear the veil. Socialists oppose a ban on the veil but they also oppose the forced wearing of the veil. This debate is mainly focused on Muslim communities living in Europe. But very few things have been said about Muslim women of the so-called Islamic countries. ( http://www. socialistworld. net/doc/2554)
Quran: The Quran is a complete record of the exact words revealed by Allah through the Angel Gabriel to the Prophet Muhammad (Sal-Allaho-Alay-hay-Wasal-lam). It’s the principal source of every Muslim’s faith and practice. It deals with all subjects that concern us as human beings; wisdom, doctrine, worship, and law. But its basic theme is the relationship between Allah and His creatures. At the same time the Quran provides guidelines for a just society, proper human conduct and equitable economic principles. Apart from the Quran, Muslims also refer to the life of the Prophet Muhammad (Sal-Allaho-Alay-hay-Wasal-lam). http://www. cometoislam. om/quran. htm Hadith: Hadeeth means the words, actions, approval or attributes that have been narrated from the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). A hadeeth may either confirm things that are mentioned in the Qur’aan, such as prayer, zakaah, etc. , or it may give details of things that are mentioned in the Qur’aan in general terms, such as the numbers of rak’ahs in each prayer, the thresholds for paying zakaah, the details of Hajj, etc. It may also explain rulings which are not mentioned in the Qur’aan, such as the prohibition on being married to a woman and her (paternal or maternal) aunt at the same time.
Allaah revealed the Qur’aan to His Messenger Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and commanded him to explain it to the people, as He said (interpretation of the meaning): “And We have also sent down unto you (O Muhammad) the Dhikr [reminder and the advice (i. e. the Qur’aan)], that you may explain clearly to men what is sent down to them, and that they may give thought” [al-Nahl 16:44] http://wiki. answers. com/Q/What_is_Hadees-e-Nabawi PARDA (VEIL) IN THE LIGHT OF QURAN AND SUNNAH “O Prophet, tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to bring down over themselves [part] of their outer garments.
That is more suitable that they will be known and not be abused. And ever is Allah Forgiving and Merciful”. (33:59) In west Muslim women are not allowed to use Hijab (PARDA) because they think that Hijab is a symbol of female segregation. But if we see, in many Muslim societies wearing Hijab (PARDA) is not very common and mostly women refuse it without any solid reason. If we once again read those verses of Quran which are given in the beginning of this article, how great these Qur’anic verses are, along with their implied meanings of lofty and honorable orientations made clear to the nations in this regard.
We notice amongst the measures taken in this respect that Allah commands His Prophet (S. A. A. W) to enjoin his wives, the mothers of believers and the daughters. In these verses Allah demands women to use a big piece of cloth which at least covers her body from head to toe. There is a contradiction between the two schools of thought of Islam that is it necessary to cover the face or not? Some say it is necessary to cover the face and the others say it’s not, but I emphasize here that the permissible Hijab should have certain characteristics and conditions through which the Muslim women can be distinguished from others.
The best form of Hijab as Allah says in the Quran is the piece of cloth which covers the whole body of woman starting from the head to the toe of her feet. Allah states in Quran, “Draw their veils all over the bodies (when abroad)”(33:59) Allah also says, “And to draw their veils over their bosoms” (24:31) And says, “And stay in your houses, and do not display your selves like That of the former time of ignorance”(33:33) Further Allah addressed the believers to wear Hijab: “say to the believing women”, as well as in the verses “and the believing women”.
From the point of view of Hadith, it was mentioned that: some women came to see Sayeda Ayesha R. A, they entered Ayesha’s room while they had put on fine dresses. However Ayesha said:, “ if you are believing women then such should not be the suitable dress of the believing women, but if you are not you can enjoy wearing it. Two things can be interpreted from the above incident, one is if someone claimed that she is a believer then she must obey Allah’s order and must wear Hijab and if she is a non- believer then it’s up to her. Then the second thing is what type of Hijab? Allah says in Quran to cover your body with a garment, no special kind or type of Hijab is mentioned but Allah only commands in the Holy Quran to do Hijab, now it’s up to the believers how they cover their bodies, as in our sub-continent most women use “BURKA” as it is according to the customs that prevail in our society. In verse no 33 of surah AL-AHZAAB Allah orders Muslim women to stay at home if they don’t have any duty outside and also not to show their parts of body, their jewelry and make over as they used to do in the past.
Until now I have presented some Quranic and Hadith evidences in which Allah orders believing women to cover their bodies with Hijab (PARDA). ALLAH has clearly commanded women in the Holy Quran but what is the reason that most women do not feel this obligation upon themselves. In my view its nothing but the strong influence of modernism and colonialism that still dominates our thoughts and actions but if we once again go through the Quran and Hadith I must say that the purpose of Hijab is to ensure that the modesty of a woman is protected and that any obscene and illicit intentions towards the woman are avoided.
It is compulsory for Muslim women to wear Hijab or anything that covers the parts that can bring unwanted attention from the opposite sex. We come across many cases in the newspapers that women feel unsafe out in the markets etc. when they are alone, uneasiness is created by the opposite sex, and it is true and a big sin on part of men but if the same woman wears proper Hijab (PARDA) then the results will be different. Because Allah says in Quran do not show those parts of body which attract opposite sex, if women observe these commands then the results for sure would be different because true is Allah and True is also His Prophet.
Hijab is a sign of the completion of faith by a woman who wears it for fear of Allah and seeking HIS pleasure but not as a customary and habitual matter. The woman who covers herself will be covered with chastity, modesty and purity and all of these qualities are the integrated part of faith. In conclusion I would say that women in Islam should try seriously to be a nice symbol of representing the beautiful and desirable image of Islam by calling to Islam wherever they go, being the favored role model for their Muslim sisters, raising hereby the word of their lord, religion and the tradition of their beloved Prophet Mohammad S.
A. A. W, high over anything and throwing disappointment on the enemy of Islam, and causing their oppressing plan to fail. And a sister who is in the west can use Hijab to present the beautiful Islamic Code. This would lead to the aforementioned benefits as well. In the end I say: praise to Allah, the cherisher and sustainer of the worlds, peace to all who follow guidance, and peace and blessing be upon the most honorable and noblest Prophet Mohammad peace and blessing be upon Him, upon His family and His followers. References (MOHAMMAD UMAR MUBARIK)

Parda in Islam

The Five Pillars of Islam – Shahadah

The Five Pillars of Islam – Shahadah.
The Shahadah (profession of faith) What is it? Specific, religious description Shahadah (testimony, oath) (witness, to know and believe without suspicion) Summary and declaration of Muslim faith One enters Islamic faith when reciting the Kalima (statement of faith) “I bear witness that there is no other deity but, Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah” (in Arabic) Muslims recite the Kalima with understanding and full internal acceptance It is not sufficient for anyone to just recite these words but one should believe in it by heart with a firm conviction
Reciting the Kalima, they proclaim that : 1. Allah is the only God and Muhammad is his prophet; 2. accepts that this is true -> Should be constantly and consciously present in the heart of every muslim 3. and that they will obey all the commitments of Islam in their life These words are the first words newborns hear, and the last words heard by the dying. A Muslim lives with these sentences, hears them and utters them at least once every day Part of the ritual prayer in the 2nd pillar of Islam
For sunni Muslims, it is the first of the five pillars of faith; while the Shi’a connects it to their lists of pillars of faith The Shahadah has certain conditions that makes a person benefit from the Kalima (testimony of faith) 9 Conditions of the Shahadah: Knowledge (‘ilm) having the basic and general knowledge of the shahadah what this testimony concerns? As a normal person would have to know what they are testifying about when making an oath. because not knowing what you are testifying about is absolutely unacceptable.

It would mean nothing, basically. Certainty (yaqeen) In Islam, any kind of doubt is similar to disbelief (Kufr) Muslims have to be certain of the truth of the Shahadah Allah describes the believers in the Qur’an “the (true) believers are those only who believe in Allah and His messenger and afterward doubt not, but strive with their wealth and their lives for the cause of Allah. Such are the sincere. “? (al-Hujjarat : 15). Muslims have to be certain of the truth of the Shahadah and that there is no sense of doubt or wavering of hearts. oubts and suspicions are more dangerous than lusts and desires for a person’s faith cure: is the sound knowledge of the Qur’an and Sunnah Acceptance (qabool) after knowing and being certain of the shahadah, one must accept it believer accepts the implications of the shahadah = also means believing in what the Qur’an states or by the Prophet without any questions asked whatever comes from Allah or Muhammad, a true Muslim believes in it as the truth Submission (Inqiyad) he actual physical enactment with the deeds of the shahadah duties to be performed with sincerity to Allah and seeking forgiveness and guidance from him the meaning of Islam itself, “the submission to the will and commands of Allah” eg. performing the five daily prayers as it is compulsory for them to do so; and reciting the Kalima everyday of their lives Truthfulness (as-sidq) saying the shahadah honestly. One to mean it. Hypocrites -> not believing in it but saying it to protect themselves and gaining something from doing so Sincerity (ikhlass) eaning of sincerity is opposite of shirk (nifaaq)->(avoiding or neglecting a duty or responsibility) when making the shahadah, must do it for the sake of Allah they are Muslims only for the sake of Allah, all of their actions are done only for the sake of Allah are they Muslims for their parents and would do whatever their parents would like them to do? or are they muslims for allah’s sake and would do whatever Allah wants them to do? Love (mahabbah) love of the shahadah, its meaning and being happy with it Denial of False worship orship only Allah and deny any false deities(Taghoot) Adherence (astaqeem) adherence or support of it until death reflects in the Hereafter the shahadah is a Muslim’s banner until death to be in complete state of surrender, submission, obedience to Allah Muftah ul Jennah (Key to Paradise) Proclaims it with sincerity and devotion and acts and lives in accordance to its requirements How and why is this pillar important for the everyday life of a muslim? Most important article of faith Reinforces(strengthens, promotes) the muslim faith and represents acceptance f Allah and Muhammad and the religion, Islam The significance of this declaration is the belief that the only purpose of life is to serve and obey Allah through the teachings and practices of Muhammad Reciting the Kalima is the most essential act of Islam The Second Pillar – Prayer The faithful perform ritual prayer – which is known as Salat – at least five times each day This the expression of gratitude and love towards Allah By practicing Salat is also the recognition of the greatness of Allah and the inferiority of man Prayer offers guidance and peace of mind for the faithful
To prepare for Sadat, Muslims perform wudu or ritual washing of the face, arms and feet. Formal prayer incorporates various postures such as standing, kneeling, bowing and touching one’s forehead to the ground. This demonstrates the act of submission and surrender before Allah The five prayer times are determined by the position of the sun in the sky, and not the clock, both men and women Muslims prayer at dawn, midday, mid afternoon, sunset and before going to bed. dawn; is known as fajr and is called when there is merely the slightest glimmer of light on the eastern horizon and homes are still in total darkness.
The prayer must be performed before the sun appears over the horizon. It includes the words ‘prayer is better than sleep’ midday; is known as zuhr is just after the sun has reached its highest point or zenith mid afternoon; known as ‘asr, is just after the sun has reached the midpoint between the zenith and the western horizon sunset; known as the Maghrib is performed when the sun has touched the western horizon Before bed; known as ‘isha when the last glimmer of red has faded from the western sky Muslims usually say their prayers on small prayer mat, known as sajjada, lways facing towards the holy city of Mecca. The recitation that is essential for every unit of every prayer is the al-Fatiha – the first chapter of the Qur’an. How to pray to Allah: Make sure your body and place of prayer are clean. Perform ablutions if necessary. Make the intention to perform your obligatory prayer. Standing, raise hands up and say “Allahu Akbar” (God is Most Great). Standing with hands folded over chest, recite the first chapter of the Qur’an in Arabic. Then recite any other verses of the Qur’an that you would like. Raise hands up, saying “Allahu Akbar. Bow, reciting three times, “Subhana rabbiyal adheem” (Glory be to my Lord Almighty). Rise to standing while reciting “Sam’i Allahu liman hamidah, Rabbana wa lakal hamd” (God hears those who call upon Him; Our Lord, praise be to You). Raise hands up, saying “Allahu Akbar. ” Prostrate on the ground, reciting three times “Subhana Rabbiyal A’ala” (Glory be to my Lord, the Most High). Rise to a sitting position, saying “Allahu Akbar. ” Prostrate again in the same manner. Rise to a standing position, saying “Allahu Akbar. ” This concludes one rak’a (cycle or unit of prayer).
Begin again from Step 3 for the second rak’a. After two rak’as, one remains sitting after the prostrations and recites the first part of the Tashahhud in Arabic. If the prayer is to be longer than these two rak’as, one now stands up and begins again to complete the prayer, sitting again after all rak’as have been completed. Recite the second part of the Tashahhud in Arabic. Turn to the right and say “Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah” (Peace be upon you and God’s blessings). Turn to the left and repeat the greeting. This concludes the formal prayer. The third pillar of faith: The Poor Tax. Description:
The Poor Tax is also known as Compulsory Charity or Zakat. It requires every financially stable Muslim to give to this charity. Zakat is viewed as “compulsory charity”, for those who have received their wealth from God are obligated to give to the community in need. Islam requires man to consider his personal wealth as belonging to Allah and, therefore, to set apart a portion for Him. No maximum limit has been prescribed, but a minimum limit has definitely been fixed. According to statutory Zakat, each individual must abide by this and spend a fixed minimum percentage of his wealth every year in the way prescribed by Allah.
Zakat must be paid on different categories of property including gold, silver, money, livestock and agricultural produce. It also requires an annual contribution of 2. 5% of an individual’s wealth and assets. This money that is given as Zakat can only be used for certain specific things, like to support the poor and needy, free slaves and is a form of social security in a Muslim society. Importance: Islamics encourages the sharing of their wealth with others and helps people to stand on their own and become active members of society. In Arabic, Zakat literally means “purification” this is considered to purify one’s heart of greed.
The Zakat is also a means of helping those poor Muslims. If all Muslims paid their taxes there would be no poverty in the world. It is a system made by Islamics to help poor people and to maintain balance between luxury and poverty. It’s main purpose is to discourage the accumulation of wealth within groups in society and to fix the uneven distribution of wealth in society. Zakat, first and foremost, makes it plain to people that their entire ‘possessions’ are gifts of Allah The Zakat has great importance in the life of Muslims: It is a test of their faithfulness.
It tests how one will help a those in need with what they have been given by God’s wealth. It is obligatory for all muslims. Those who refuse to pay the Poor Tax have false claims about being Islamic It separates the believers from the non believers. Those who believe in God would not ignore their requirement to pay the Poor Tax A payment of the Zakat brings Muslims together. The money collected is spent for the welfare of needy persons It removes social evils. The poor tend to commit theft because of their lack of money and by giving them financial support the crime level is lowered.
It spreads wealth throughout the community. It gets a proportion of the money that many richer Muslim’s keep hoarded and it is then circulated throughout the market Importance: Zakat is the third ‘pillar’ of Islam. Zakat means setting apart for Allah every year a certain portion of one’s savings and wealth (generally 2. 5 percent) and spending it upon religious duties and on needy members of the community. The fulfillment of this duty is, in fact, a kind of reminder that all one has is in trust for Allah. Man should, therefore, hold nothing back from Allah.
Islam requires man to consider his personal wealth as belonging to Allah and, therefore, to set apart a portion for Him. No maximum limit has been prescribed, but a minimum limit has definitely been fixed. According to statutory Zakat, each individual must abide by this and spend a fixed minimum percentage of his wealth every year in the way prescribed by Allah. Zakat is a symbol of one’s obligation to recognize the rights of others and to be in sympathy with them in pain or in sorrow. Zakat, first and foremost, makes it plain to people that their entire ‘possessions’ are gifts of Allah.
Zakat is an annual tax, or duty, in essence and spirit: it is recognition on the part of man of the share which Allah, and other men, have in his wealth. – Zakaah purifies and cleanses wealth, and purifies the soul from stinginess and miserliness. It strengthens the love between the rich and poor, takes away hatred, makes security prevail and brings happiness to the ummah happy. The Fourth Pillar: FASTING IN ISLAM: Who must fast? Fasting ramadan is compulsory upon every Muslim, male or female, who has these qualifications: 1. To be mentally and physically fir, which means to be sane and able 2.
To be of full age, the age of puberty and discretion, which is normally about fourteen. Children under this age should be encouraged to start this good practice on easy levels, so when they reach the age of puberty they will be mentally and physically prepared to observe fasting. 3. To be present at one’s permanent settlement, your hometown, one’s farm, and one’s business premises, etc. This means not to be on a journey of about fifty miles or more. 4. To be fairly certain that fasting is unlikely to cause you any harm, physical or mental, other than the normal reactions to hunger, thirst etc.
Exemption from Fasting These said qualifications exclude the following categories: 1. Children under the age of puberty and discretion. 2. Insane people who are unaccountable for their deeds. People of these two categories are exempted from the duty of fist, and no compensation or any other substitute is enjoined on them. 3. Men and women who are too old and feeble to undertake the obligation of fast and bear its hardships. Such people are exempted from this duty, but they must offer, at least, one needy poor Muslim an average full meal or its value per person per day. . Sick people whose health is likely to be severely affected by the observance of fast. They may postpone the fast. as long as they are sick , to a later date and make up for it, a day for a day. 5. Travelers may break the fast temporarily during their travel only and make up for it in later days, a day for a day. 6. Pregnant women and women breast-feeding their children may also break the fast, if its observance is likely to endanger their own health or that of their infants. But they must make up for the fast at a delayed time, a day for a day. . Women in the -period of menstruation (of a maximum of ten days or of confinement (of a maximum of forty days). They must postpone the fast till recovery and then make up for it, a day for a day. General Recommendations ?It is strongly recommended by Prophet Muhammad to observe these practices especially during Ramadan: 1. To have a light meal before the break of the dawn, known as Suhoor. 2. To eat a few dates or start breaking the fast bu plain water right after sunset, saying this prayer Allah humma laka sumna, wa’ ala rizqika aftarna. (O God! or your sake have we fasted and now we break the fast with the food you have given us). 3. To make your meals as light as possibe because, as the Prophet put it, the worst thing man can fill his stomach. 4. To observe the supererogatory prayer known as Taraweeh. 5. To exhange social visits and intensify humanitarian services. 6. To increase the study and recitation of the Qur’an. 7. To exert the utmost in patience and humbleness. 8. To be extraordinarily cautious in using ones senses, one’s mind and, especially, the tongue; to abstain from careless gossip and avoid all suspicious motions.
No food, drink, smoke or sexual pleasures are aloud during this month of Ramadan. 5th Pillar of Islam: The Hajj Where did the belief originate from In Muslim belief, Mecca has a unique status that goes back to the dawn of time. The Qur’an tells the story of the disobedience of Adam and Eve, and their expulsion from the Garden of Eden for eating the forbidden fruit, in much the same way as does the book of Genesis. There are a number of popular stories about where they fell. One is that Adam fell on Sri Lanka, on the top of what is now known as Adam’s Peak, and that Eve fell in Arabia.
They spent many years looking for and at last met each other on the site of one of the great rituals of the Hajj, not far from Mecca: the plain of Arafat. Millions of pilgrims congregate here each year. The word Arafat in popular etymology means ‘recognition’, and the plain has this name as the place where Adam and Eve at last met, recognised each other and were reunited. Adam built the original Ka’ba, to be known as the House of God—the first place of worship on earth. It thus preceded any other sacred site on earth. Description of pillar
Hajj (pilgrimage) is a great annual event for Muslims. Hajj is an important ritual worship that should be performed by any adult Muslim (man or woman) at least once in life if one can afford it physically, financialy and safely. There are many reasons for why Hajj is important and for why Muslims perform hajj. First of these reasons is that Hajj is the fifth pillar of the Islam 5 pillars. You as adult Muslim (man or woman) is required to perform hajj at least once in your life if you can afford it financially, physically, and safely.
Hajj (pilgrimage) is a great annual event for Muslims. Hajj is an important ritual worship that should be performed by any adult Muslim (man or woman) at least once in life if one can afford it physically, financialy and safely. Performance of the rites of the pilgrimage to Mecca, the Hajj to the seventh to the 10th day of dhu’l-hajja (12th month of the muslim calendar) Obligation for every Muslim to visit Mecca once in there life, who is of age, and of stable health, who has the financial means Significance of pillar
The pilgrimage to Mecca is an important aspect of the Islamic religion. Every Muslim person with the financial means to go to Mecca are expected to visit the sacred site. Mecca is the birthplace of Muhammad but this is not the central reason for its importance to Muslim people. The central reason for the significance of the 5th pillar of Islam is that Mecca is considered by the Muslims as the city of God. At the centre of Mecca is the Sacred Mosque, built around the Ka’ba. Mecca has its own unique status as it goes back to the dawn of time.
The Qur’an tells the story of the disobedience of Adam and Eve, and their expulsion from the Garden of Eden for eating the forbidden fruit, in much the same way as does the book of Genesis. Passage that relate to it The first House [of worship] established on earth is indeed that at Bakka [Mecca], [set there] as a blessing and guidance for all peoples. In it are signs that give testimony. [In it is] the place where Abraham stood. Whoever enters it is secure from harm. The Pilgrimage to the House is a duty humankind owes to God. (Sura 3:96–97) Proclaim to humankind the Pilgrimage! They will come to you on foot, hey will come on every scrawny camel, they will come from every distant valley to behold the blessings prepared for them and recite the name of God on the appointed days, [as they sacrifice] the beasts and cattle He has provided for them. Then eat of these cattle, and feed the poor and destitute. (Sura 22:27–28) The ‘Five Pillars’ of Islam are the foundation of Muslim life: Faith or belief in the Oneness of God and the finality of the prophethood of Muhammad; Establishment of the daily prayers; Concern for and almsgiving to the needy; Self-purification through fasting; and The pilgrimage to Makkah for those who are able.

The Five Pillars of Islam – Shahadah

Mosaics and Islam Culture

Mosaics and Islam Culture.
The Mosaics’ Importance to the Islam People Islamic mosaics have had, and still have a great part in Islamic culture. Traditional mosaics had many uses in the Islamic World. They were very detailed in their patterns and designs, and had great religious meaning to the Muslim people. Mosaics had different uses in the Islamic World, as they do still in modern life. Normally, mosaics were used for decoration of mosques. They were sometimes used also for pottery. The great Mosque of Damascus has amazing mosaics decorating it and adding even more splendor and beauty to its design.
The patterns and designs on mosaics are important and of great significance. The designs often had floral images and were very geometrical. Grids were put down on hard backings to make sure of exact measurements. Beads and tiles were used; calligraphy was often seen as well on mosaics. Mosaics can have great meaning to Muslims. The Great Mosque of Damascus has a mosaic on its walls that shows a paradise. Nature and scenery is often displayed on mosaics; these scenes show meaningful places. Humans and animals were banned from being displayed on mosaics and abstract colors were shown often.
Sayings, meaningful words, and verses from the Qu’ran, the sacred book of the Muslims, were often seen. Mosaics are a great part of Islamic culture because of its many uses, detailed designs and its great meaning to the Muslim people. My mosaic fits into and connects to Islamic art and culture because it is detailed, has meaningful words and is very geometrical. Beads were used to create my mosaic. The beads are in precise locations and the Arabic words are exact. The colors correspond with Islamic art as well.

The Arabic words on either side of my template mean “Arabic Language” and are completely legible. These words represent the importance of Muslims learning Arabic. My mosaic is in the shape of an octagon, and is symmetrical, as are most Islamic mosaics. A large grid was put down on a hard foam core backing to help make the shapes more accurate. My mosaic connects to Islamic culture and traditional mosaics because of the detailed design fitting in with Islamic designs. It has words that mean something to Muslim people, and is exact and geometrical.

Mosaics and Islam Culture

The Notion of Prophethood in Islam

The Notion of Prophethood in Islam.
Only when times are at their most turbulent, when the people of Earth reach a point of living that is considered to be sinful and discordant, is there a need for a change or reform back to a virtuous lifestyle. It is evidenced in the thoughts and traditions of many different faiths of the world that this change, this revolution as it may also be referred to, is brought about by a message. Of course, a message, especially one that is meant to bring about reform and revolution, will not be heard without scrutiny on the deliverer of the message, the messenger.
In the monotheistic religions of the world, Islam in particular, emphasis is placed on these messengers as bringers of truth in times of untruth or darkness, a divinely inspired human who acts as an intermediary between God and the people to whom the message is brought. Such messengers are called Prophets. This piece will discuss the notion of Prophethood in Islam, what it means to be a Prophet, and the similar traits amongst the circumstances of the Prophets. Islam places an importance of the highest degree on the monotheistic message it delivers, that there is only one God and no other.
Thus, special emphasis is placed on the ones to deliver this message, the Prophets. However, for a person to be considered a Prophet in Islam, there are certain stipulations that they have to meet. The notion of a Prophet is generally a divinely inspired human who acts as an intermediary between God and other people, but more to it is that each and every Prophet receives their message directly from God and not from other people, not even from other Prophets. However, despite not learning of the message from other Prophets, the message being delivered is the same between each and every Prophet.

This ensures the authenticity of the message that each Prophet receives and clearly displays the link between the Prophet and God to the recipients of the message. However, there is even further divergence underneath the title of Prophet. In Islam, there are generally two degrees of Prophethood, Nabi, and Rasul. The difference between a Nabi and a Rasul is mainly that a Rasul not only receives message from God, but is charged to propagate it. A Rasul may also be a Prophet that brings God’s scripture and they are to restore Divine Law or Sharia as well.
A Nabi on the other hand is a human who brings news of the message, but the message that each brings is not necessarily universal. Both a Nabi and a Rasul has to be a pure and worthy person in order to hear God’s message, thus it can be observed that each and every Prophet is a Nabi by default, where a Rasul is a Prophet of more responsibility than that of a Nabi. Thus, it easily observable that all Prophets have similarities, but there are a few that stand out amongst others. Of the 25 Prophets mentioned in the Qur’an, there are 5 major Prophets that stand out amongst others.
These Prophets are the Prophet Noah (AS), the Prophet Abraham (AS), the Prophet Moses (AS), the Prophet Jesus (AS), and the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS). While their names appear in several passages in the Qur’an, there is a particular passage that mentions all of them: He has ordained for you of religion what He enjoined upon Noah [AS] and that which We have revealed to you, [O Muhammad (SAWS)], and what We enjoined upon Abraham [AS] and Moses [AS] and Jesus [AS] – to establish the religion and not be divided therein… The Holy Qur’an, Translated by Sahih International, 42:13
This verse addresses the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) in particular. It equates the message that was brought to the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) to the messages that were brought to the Prophets Noah (AS), Abraham (AS), Moses (AS) and Jesus (AS), establishing that the religion each Prophet was trying to propagate was the same for all of them: Islam. For example, the message that the Prophet Jesus (AS) had brought were brought to a people that had lost their way, but that message was not entirely original either, having been expressed before in some form.
It was also said that Jesus (AS) did not so much preach a message as he was a message. In a similar manner, the conducts of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) were said to contain a message themselves: There has certainly been for you in the Messenger of Allah [SWT] an excellent pattern for anyone whose hope is in Allah [SWT] and the Last Day and [who] remembers Allah [SWT] often. The Holy Qur’an, Translated by Sahih International, 33:21 This verse advises those who believe in Allah (SWT) of the patterns or the lifestyle of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) and the message that can be found herein. It can therefore be observed that the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) would be the next in line as an Abrahamic Prophet due to his similarities to the Prophet Jesus (AS). However, despite the numerous similarities between the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) and the Prophets that were his predecessors, there is one fact that sets him apart from the others, and that is that the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) is considered to be the Khatam al-Anbiya, or the Seal of the Prophets.
In the Holy Qur’an, it states the following: “Muhammad [SAWS] is not the father of [any] one of your men, but [he is] the Messenger of Allah [SWT] and last of the prophets. And ever is Allah [SWT], of all things, Knowing” (The Holy Qur’an, 33:40). It is well known that the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) did not leave any surviving male heirs, his three sons with Khadija (RA) as well his son with Mariya (RA) having passed away young, and his four daughters also having passed away in infancy (Textual Sources for the Study of Islam, p47).
The verse relates that fact by acknowledging that there could be no direct descendant of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS), thus no one could claim to be a Prophet by claiming to be descended from him. Even more so, the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) described his own status as the Seal of the Prophets: My likeness among all the Prophets is like the likeness of a man building a house. He is proficient at it, he does it well, and he leaves a single brick out. Then the people begin to go around the building, marvelling at it, and say: “It would be complete if not for this brick”.
Indeed, in the building, I am the place for that brick. Textual Sources for the Study of Islam, p48 This quote puts forth more inclinations that the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) was not only another Abrahamic Prophet (the other two being Prophet Jesus (AS) and Prophet Moses (AS)), but the final Prophet after whom there would be no other. Thus, the notion of Prophethood in Islam is clearly defined and differentiated, with all Prophets being a Nabi and a select few being a Rasul. The Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) has also been clearly established as an Abrahamic Prophet and the Seal of the Prophets in the Qur’an.

The Notion of Prophethood in Islam

Role of Media and Islam in Pakistan’s Politics

Role of Media and Islam in Pakistan’s Politics.
With the end of the cold war, the drive towards democratization assumed center state. Out of a total 206 states in the world, 195 claims to be either democratic or republican. In spite of it, the nature and function of many self pro claimed democratic systems leave much to be desired. This has led to international efforts, led by the US, to engage in the twin task of democracy promotion and democracy protection. India joined the community of the democracies in 2000, at the turn of the millennium, and later became a member of the UN democratic funds in2005.
It has sought to contribute to the efforts aimed at promotion and strengthening of democracy in its own way. The author of the book under review, Professor Muni, calls it “significant shift” in India’s foreign policy. As a close followers of India’s foreign policy he has tries to isolated the “democracy dimension” in India’s foreign policy towards its immediate neighbors on an individual country basis over three distinct phases, which makes interesting readings. Professor Muni has enough experience as an academic and a diplomat to comment on such an important issue with great care and diligence.
After a brief review of theories of democracies and its interface with foreign policy, the author situates the Indian experience over three different phases. He argues during the first phase (1947-1960s) soon after freedom from colonial rule, India emphasis “independence and nationalism”. The principal architect of Indian foreign policy, Jawahar Lal Nehru, set out to build of free, cooperative and peaceful Asia. This explained Nehru’s vociferous argument in favor of inclusion of communist china in the comity of nations as an independent state.

He went on to fashioned his policy of non alignment as a main benchmark of India’s foreign policy and try to stay out of the bipolar power politics. His policies towards neighboring countries demonstrated his predilection for democracies in spite of the compromises he made to protect the strategic and economic interests of India. The author makes a detailed analysis of Nehru’s approach towards Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, Myanmar and Pakistan and concludes that Nehru’s preferences for democracies was often trumped by India’s vital security concerns.
During the second phase (1960s-2000) the successors of Nehru, the author argues, adopted a pragmatic policy devoid an idealism that marked the Nehru years. The post 1962 (sino-indian war) years, as Nehru confessed shocked him out of his idealism and prepared the grounds for unapologetic realism in Indian foreign policy. Professor Muni demonstrate through his narrative of twists and turns of Nepalese politics that Indian supported democratic moments in Nepal when its suited its strategic interests unencumbered dilemma that characterized by Nehruvian years.
All through, the main driver of India’s policy towards neighbors was to keep the region free from adversarial influences. The security challenges post by china and Pakistan largely determined the parameters of India’s foreign policy since the 1970s. Even as India evolved as a democratic nation and institutions promoting democratic values took firm roots in the country, during this phase there was no enthusiasm to propagate democracy and encourage democratic forces in the neighborhood.
Nevertheless, India played an important role in the liberation of East Pakistan in 1971, integrated Sikkim in 1975 and supported exiled democratic forces from Myanmar in 1970s and 1980s. Democracy mattered only when it converged with India’s strategic interests. However, india choose to diassociate it self from democratic forces in the mid 1970s. in Bhutan, india’s sided with the king and discouraged the popular movement raised by Bhutanis of Nepales region. It is quiet and other india forced the nepaled king to negotiate with the democratic forces in 1988.
In the case of Myanmar, since the late 1980s, it decided to mend its relationship with the military Junta and ignore the democratic forces to balance china’s increasing proximity to Myanmar. The third phase since the start of new millennium as found India in the company of US, seeking to promote and protect democracy around the world. India has calibrated its policy towards its neighbors accordingly. Despite its aversion from the maost of Nepal, it played a critical role in the mainstreaming of this group and revived the democratic process.
Despite playing a modest but critical role in Bangladesh’s return to democracy in 1990, it has maintained a study aloofness from the rough and tumble of Bangladesh politics. In recent years a fresh wave of the democracy swept the neighborhood. The author has appreciated India’s diplomatic responses to these changes. There is also a brief discussion on India’s efforts and indo-US coordination in the process of reconstruction and democratization in Afghanistan since 9/11.
The author implies that in view of India’s strategic interests in Afghanistan, it is imperative for India to continue with its developmental work despite attacks on its citizens by paksitan-sponsopred terrorists. In some author suggest that in its conduct of foreign policy, India should not blindly follow the US at the cost of its strategic interests. The book provides useful insights to India’s neighborhood policy over the last six decades. The author brings to bear his personal interaction many leading actors in both India and Nepal to present his analysis of Nepalese politics forcefully.
His study of other neighbors of India somehow struggles to come that level of compliance and intensity. To be share to the author, given india’s leverage in Nepal and its ability to influence its politics, Nepal was certain to attract that much attention and care. However, one wondered if the author have accorded some space to India’s reaction to the imperfect nature of Srilankan democracy with its lack of emphasis on inclusivity and pluralism. Given the threat it posed to the Srilankan polity and deep Indian involvement in the 1980s, Srilanka deserved some attention in the book.
To the conclusion reader of the book finds the book and the author holds a strong grip over the material and issue it contained. The book deserve the attention of foreign policy analysts and scholars of international relations in India because in recent years India has sought to spell out its neighborhood policy tentatively with emphasis on building a web of interdependencies the neighbor and finally the book is a good depiction of India’s foreign policy specially in reference to its influences the democratic scenario in the outer world.

Role of Media and Islam in Pakistan’s Politics

Byzantine and the Impact of Islam

Byzantine and the Impact of Islam.

Byzantine is a Roman empire or the empire of Greeks in the Middle East. The history of Byzantine is a continuous line from the latter centuries of Rome to the very beginning of the modern time. It’s about the culture of the Greece and Rome that has a unique cultural history based on synthesis of Roman, European and Islamic elements when it suffered three crisis of external invasion, internal civil war and economy that later made the administrative center less important. (Bury, J. B. 1989).

The emperor of Byzantine Empire was Justinian who occupied territories by the Goths and the main occupants of the empire were Christians, but after the fall of Rome; Christians who were horribly persecuted by the Byzantines welcomed the Muslims conquerors with open arms just to tolerate their religion. (Barker, J. W. 1966) By the time justinian resigned Byzantine was in a financial crisis. Later Heraculius succeeded him. When the throne was assumed, a forty-year old Arab named Muhammad swept the streets with messages of Islam across the entire empire.

At the end of his regime Muhammad’s message came to pass and Muslims armies emerged and started making raids into Byzantine territory in Syria and began to conquer the Persian territories. (Bury, J. B. 1989) Because of the disaffected populations of Christians and Jews who had been persecuted earlier, the Muslim quickly conquered Byzantine territories in the ninth century. Their victory did not last long because of the Islamic government under Caliph deteriorated and Byzantines started to dominate the Asia Minor and by the tenth century they reconquered most of Syria and became more powerful and influential again.
The crusaders The Byzantines however saught help from the Europe against the Muslims conquerors. Europe decided to assist them despite their cultural differences as they shared a common religion with the Byzantines. In 1204 the crusaders attacked the city of Constantinople a goal that the Muslims had been trying to conquer for centuries and conquered the Muslims. In 1261 the Byzantine Empire ceased to be an empire and was known as a small kingdom that later in 1453, the Constantinople city was permanently conquered by the Ottoman Turks and was renamed Istanbul.
(Diehl, C. (1957) Byzantine Christianity Byzantine Christianity was a different religion from the Latin Christianity, what made it look different was the role of the emperor in matters regarding the faith. While for the Latin Christians the pope in matters of faith was almost solidified. Later the Byzantines inherited the roman idea and practiced a form of Christianity whereby theological authority was vested in the emperor. Through this theological authority it created a permanent breach in the world of Christianity between the west and the east.
The breach was to produce iconoclastic controversy that the worship of images and icons was a sign of pagan belief. Only Christ and God should be worshiped this was angulated by Leo the saurian who had turned the tide against the Muslim in 717. The collapse of the Byzantine empire in 1453 saw the Russians believe that they were inheritors of the Byzantine empire and later began the roman empire. (Amis, R1995).
Byzantium Empire and impact of Islam
The Byzantine Empire was able to survive for a period of time though not easily achieved through Heraculius some of the empires were kept together despite confrontation on the three sides of empire, and was able to save the empire from the Muslim. (Diehl, C. (1957) His effort worked but his 200,000 troops were killed and a lot of wealth lost during the war with the Persians. After the fight with the Persian he thought of rebuilding the empire but this was not to be as the empire was again attacked by another threat of Islam. The Muslims again got the opportunity to invade Persia and the Byzantine and this surprised both of them.
The Persia and the Byzantine Empire did not have strength to fight back the Muslims attacks and this paved way for Muslims to conquer the eastern provinces of the Byzantines. (Bury, J. B. 1989) The Muslims invasion in the empire weakened the internal division and many Christians wanted to keep their faith and always looked upon religious sects as heretics. Most of them who were persecuted to them life under Islam was good compared to Byzantines because Muslims did not look down upon other religion and this resulted to Muslims being welcomed to Byzantine Empire.
Finally when Heraculius died the Muslim got opportunity to conquer the eastern provinces of Byzantine Empire. In the 14th and 15th centuries Islam was already being accepted by the Albanians and later it was in quick acceptance by other nations. . (Diehl, C. (1957) After the death of Mohammed Islam spread very fast and outside Arabia its spread was aided by various political upheavals. The long series of wars between the Byzantine and Persian empires is always credited for this fast spread in the near east especially after the triumph of the Muslims.
The Byzantine Empire had the character of imposing Christianity on the population it conquered, for this reason the Syrians and the Egyptians resented and resisted the attempts made by the Byzantine Empire to impose Christianity on them. (Diehl, C 1957) Therefore when the Muslims came to these particular areas they were readily accepted to forestall any attempts that the Byzantine were trying to make, this led to the fall of Syria to the Arab armies to be followed soon by the fall of Iraq and Persia with Egypt falling in 640 AD with very little resistance.
With this conquest Islam soon spread to most territories of the Near East and Africa. (Diehl, C. 1957) In the Byzantine Empire there was fierce fanaticism that included interdenominational strife and religious persecution amongst the Christians themselves, compared with the practice and the doctrine of the Islamic faith that tolerated other religions it endeared itself to others. For example the Byzantines brutally attempted to suppress Christian sects who questioned the established Church.
Also there was oppression of the peasants who were heavily taxed. The Empire also suppressed non-orthodox Christian teachings. Opposition to Islam after the conquest was weakened by the fact that under the Muslims, taxes were not very heavy like before and the non-orthodox Christian sects could now operate comfortably. (Diehl, C 1957) The spread of Islam in the better part of Middle East was made possible by Arab victories over Byzantine armies. The Byzantines were the major enemies to be encountered by the Aryans from the Arabian Desert.
The encounter with the Byzantines was the first of many major battles between Muslims and Christians. It was Omar who acted as Caliph or head of the Moslem community in 634-44AD that initiated the fast expansion of the Arabs and Islam. Omar achieved the first great successes of Arab armies outside of the Arabian Peninsula when he conquered the Byzantine Empire ruled by the Emperor Heraclius. Omar’s armies attacked Syria, seizing large areas. In 636AD at the Battle of Yarmuk the Byzantine Army were greatly humiliated by the Arabs when they defeated them.
This saw the Arabs entering Jerusalem and Damascus in 638. It was during these period that it is believed Christianity replaced Christianity in this particular area as a result of the weakness of the Byzantine Empire. Arab rulers imposed a personal tax on all non-Muslims, which encouraged many to convert to the Muslim Faith. In the new Caliphate there was no forced conversions but happened later. At first the Arabs did not consider converting anyone because of the taxes they collected which provided great incomes.
(Diehl, C 1957) Cultural and intellectual factor Islam as a religion does not recognize superstitions but is a simple and rational religion that emphasize on knowledge and learning. Through learning as the foremost priority to humankind the Islamic civilization spread through many countries. The Muslim never destroyed things in middle east as the Christians in Spain what they did was to defend what was positive and eventually embrace it.
Political and economic impact
Islam was seen as a religion without any political and economic principles. However Islam preached a new concept of human relations avoiding nationalism and class divisions. Islam main concern and interest was humankind’s relations with God. Politically Islam perception was that the supreme power rests with God and equality before the law is a major principle of the political system. (Diehl, C. (1957) In Balkan nations, emergence of Islam was very important compared to the Byzantines Empire.
Islam also emphasized on the economic aspect of life and this was clearly shown through justified ways of making profits, possession of property and not overspending and everybody must earn a living in an honest way. Islam came up with obligatory and voluntary laws that have played important roles in the economic system of Islam. Before Islam spread to Balkan nation and Byzantine Empire people who lived there had some kind of social chaos but Muslims brought a new approach to the social lives of the Balkans.
For example: Muslim women played a crucial part in the institution of family and were always considered equal in every aspect to her male counterpart. A woman is always the first to show kindness, love, and sincerity and educate. While for Christians, women are seen as devils instrument to harm or hurt people. (Diehl, C. (1957) When they conquered Byzantine Islam played a role in regulating the slavery and sanctioned better conditions for the slaves and even encouraged the prohibition of slavery.
Islam also brought together the Middle East and came up with a common language known as Arabic and a common religion known as Islam. After all this positive impact of Islam in Byzantine Empire some of the rules set up are not applicable in the 21st century. At one time there were most powerful, rich and advanced people and today they have created four empires, which include Umayyad, Abbasid, Mogul and Ottoman Empire. Their decline can be traced to about 1700 when the west caught up with the Ottoman the great Muslim empire and started misinterpreting the Koran.
(Amin, H. A. 1989).
REFERENCES
Amin, Hussein Ahmad (1989).
The present state of the Muslim umma. Muslim World Amis, Robin (1995).
A Different Christianity: Early Christian Esotericism and Modern Thought. Albany: Suny Press, Barker, John W. (1966).
Justinian and the Later Roman Empire. The University of Wisconsin Press, Bury, J. B. (1989).
“Roman Emperor from Basil II to Isaac Komnenos,” English Historical Review. 41-64 & 251-286. Diehl, Charles. (1957).
Byzantium: Greatness and Decline. Rutgers University Press.

Byzantine and the Impact of Islam

The Islamic Republic of Pakistan

The Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
The Islamic Republic of Pakistan is bordered in the north-west by Afghanistan, north by the former USSR and China, east by India and south by the Arabian Sea. The Muslim state that emerged from partition of British India on 14 August 1947 included an eastern wing comprising mainly the eastern half of Bengal province and parts of Assam. (The name Pakistan is coinage representing ‘Punjab, the Afghan border states, Kashmir, Sing and Baluchistan’) For nine years Pakistan remained a dominion. It was proclaimed an Islamic republic on 23 March 1956.
A federal parliamentary system functioned until-Field -Marshal Muhammad Ayub Khan seized power in a coup in October 1958. Ayub proclaimed a presidential system in the constitution of 1962 and ruled until March 1969, when he was deposed by Gen. Yahya Khan. In the first free elections in December 1970, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto’s Pakistan People’s Part dominated the west, while Sheikh Mujibur Rahman’s Awami League swept the board in the east, winning 160 of the 162 seats. East Pakistan proclaimed sovereignty and formed the People’s Republic of Bangladesh on 26 Narcg 1971.
Civil war followed after Yahya, supported by Bhutto, ordered troops to arrest Mujib and put down the Bengali uprising. The east-west war ended in December 1971. Yahya handed over power to Bhutto, who ruled until July 1977, before being over-thrown after an opposition campaign against alleged rigging in general elections. Gen. Zia-ul-Haq took over-initially to hold elections and transfer power to a civilian regime. But elections were twice postponed and Bhutto was tried for the murder of a political opponent and executed. Gen.

Zia was killed in a plane crash on August 17, 1988 and Senate Chairman Ghulam Ishaq Khan took over as Action President. The country was placed under emergency rule. In the general election held on November 16,1998 the Pakistan People’s Part (PPP) led by Benazir Bhutto won the largest number of seats (92). Benazir assumed office as the PM on December 9. Ghulam Ishaq Khan was elected President on December 12. Benazir was dismissed in Aug. ’90 and Nawaz Sharif of Islami Jamhoori Ittehed took over as Pakistan’s 11th Prime Minister on November 5. Sharief was dismissed in 1993.
The Supreme Court annulled the dismissal leading to constitutional impasse. Moeen Qureshi took over as caretaker Prime Minister in July. PPP returned to power in Oct. ’93 and Ms. Bhotto took over as PM once again. In Apr. ;96, Imran Khan launched a new part ‘Movement for Social Justice’. In Nov. , Ms. Bhutto was dismissed as PM, the National Assembly dissolved, and M. M. Khalid appointed caretaker PM. On Feb. 17, 1997, Nawaz Sharif was sworn in as Pakistan’s 13th PM. Tensions between the military and PM Sharif ended in a coup by army chief. Gen. Pervez Musharraf on Oct. 12, 1999. Nawaz Sharif was later exiled to Saudi Arabia. e was convinced and sentenced to 25-year-long life sentence on charges of hijacking and terrorism. Pakistan was suspended (Oct. 18, 19999) from the Commonwealth. A milestone in Indo-Pak relations was the Lahore bus ride by Indian PM Vajpayee in Feb. 1999. Ethnic and communal conflict that had been raging in Karachi intensified in 1995. The Urdu-speaking Muhajirs are demanding equal rights and autonomy. in Jan-Aug, ’97, over 150 persons were killed in Shia-Sunni violence, and at least 250 were shot dead in Karachi. In Aug. , government enacted a new law to combat the growing sectarianism and terrorism.
Elections are to be held in Oct. 2002, as per Supreme Court order and judgment. Kashmir: Pakistan controls the northern and western portions of Kashmir, an area of about 84,160 sq km with a population of about 2. 8m. in 1985. The pak-occupied Kashmir has its own Assembly, its own Council, High Court and Supreme Court. There is a Parliamentary form of Government with a Prime Minister as the executive head and the President as the constitutional head. The seat of government is Muzaffarabad. The Pakistan Government is directly responsible for Gilgit and Baltistan (the north).
On May 28, 1998, Pakistan tested five nuclear devices and this was followed by a sixth one on May 3. Agriculture )including forestry and fishing) is the mainstay of Pakistan’s economy, employing about 50% o the working population and providing about 25% of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP). The entire area in north and west is covered by great mountain ranges. The rest of the country consist soft a fertile plain wintered by five big rivers and their tributaries. Agriculture is dependent almost entirely on the irrigation system based on these rivers.
The main crops are wheat, cotton, maize, sugar-cane and rice, while the Quetta and Kalat divisions (Baluchistan) are known for their fruits and dates. Pakistan is self-sufficient in wheat, rice and sugar. Industry employs about 10% of the population. Manufacturing contributes about 20% to GNP. Refined sugar, vegetable products, jute textiles, soda ash, sulphur acid, caustic soda, chip board and paper board, bicycles, cotton cloth, cotton yarn, cement and steel. Main exports are cotton cloth, cotton yarns, rice, leather, carpets and tapestries. There are international airports at Karachi, Islamabad, lahore, Peshwar and Quetta.

The Islamic Republic of Pakistan

Sayyid Qutb expression and development on Islam

Sayyid Qutb expression and development on Islam.
Quit wrote most of his Influential political works in the ass and ass, while he was frustrated with Third World state of Egypt, and Quit sought to reinvent Egypt within the context of Islam. He considered Islam political Islam especially to be the only alternative to the hills of contemporary Muslim societies. I(l) Although Quits writings incorporate many topics, including educational reform, philosophy and more, his most notable writings were those about Chlamydia, and his fear that Egypt was falling Into the grips of a Western spirituality.
Quit felt that Islam was In danger of spiritual Imperialism from the West and he sought first and foremost to preserve it. Quit believed wholeheartedly in the supreme nature of Islam, and he felt that he needed to use radical political tactics to achieve his ends. He used his power and influence with the Muslim Brotherhood to promote his agenda. I argue that Quit was above all a realistic political theorist (rather than a theologian or a philosopher), who would stop at nothing to see his vision realized.
Quit felt, first and foremost, that the Islamic way of life was the only way of life. And that the problems of modern Egypt stemmed from secular practices: realms is a complete social system which is different in its nature ND conception of life and its means of application from any Western or applied system in the world of today. Surely, Islam has not participated in creating the existing problems in today’s societies. These problems have arisen as a result of the erroneous nature of the applied systems In the modern world, and as a result of removing Islam from the context of life. (2) Quit espoused Islam as a comprehensive political and social system that Insures social Justice for the masses. He believed that it would cure all social ills because it stands against corruption, oppression, and usury. Undoubtedly, Quit believed that Islam prescribed the basic principles of social Justice. Furthermore, Quit espoused the idea that religion is not merely an novitiate of the masses but is also potentially a force of liberation. In other words, Quit believed that religion Is not simply a philosophy or metaphysic, but it is also a concrete social force.

This Is where his political Ideology Is seen most strongly. Quit felt that the detriment of Western religion was that it had separated church and state and did not endorse a far-reaching comprehensive view, and he feared that this rend was beginning to prevail in modern Egypt. Quit therefore spent much time tracing the historical development of both Judaism and Christianity and showing that nth hideous schizophrenia the separation of religion from politics had been the byproduct of Western history.
Quit argued that Islam Is a universal Ideology and hideous schizophrenia took place under lamentable circumstances, leaving its destructive traces in Europe, and from there to the whole world wherever Western views, institutions, and ways of life have conquered other human societies. I (3) Clearly, Quit saw the infiltration of Western ideals, or Childishly, as a threat. An Mama, to him, cannot exist if there is oppression.
Quit believed that Islam stands against all the passive manifestations in the world, and, as Rabbi argues, believed that Islam is a revolutionary spirit, and that once it touches the heart it causes a total change in feelings, conceptions, and perceptions. Quit furthermore tried to resist the prevailing world notion that there were only two camps of thought (capitalism and communism) and instead wanted Muslims (especially Egyptians) to see Islam as another equally viable comprehensive world-view. Because of these fears, Quit began straightening about how to realize his vision.
He understood that above all, he had to use realistic and pragmatic tactics to realize his ideal. Quit felt that the only practical solution was to find a new mentality whose task will not simply be to evaluate the existing state of things, but rather to produce a new state. I(4) He further espoused that his enforcement objective [was] to bring about a revolution in the practical system of society. The Childishly order has to be exterminated root and branch. I (5) Again, it is clear that his idealism became channeled into realist policies.
These ideals led him to ally himself with the Muslim Brotherhood. In Diarist Calamity’s, a collection of articles written between 1951 and 1953, Quits ideological commitment to the Brotherhood appears most clearly. The Muslim Brotherhood, at the time, had a great the political and intellectual influence, and this is probably the main reason why Quit Joined. However, the Muslim Brotherhood’s ideology also mimicked his ideology. AAA-Banana himself summarized the meaning of Islam in similar terms to that of Quit as a comprehensive faith that regulates matters for all mankind in every era.
Furthermore, the proclaimed goal of the Muslim Brotherhood (as established by al-Banana in 1928) was to stand against the corruption of the King and the foreign British intervention in the political and economic affairs of Egypt. The Muslim Brotherhood grew directly out of the challenge modern secularism posed to Islamic values. AAA-Banana himself felt that the weakness of Islamic society could be rued only if it returned to the sources of its strength, the Quern and the Saunas. As Bert argues, the Brotherhood sought to implement revival rather than engage in intellectual speculation.
In this sense it was fundamentalist. The organization was to be the vehicle for establishing an Islamic moral society and a truly Muslim government. These goals were clearly part of Quits idealized vision of an Islamic state. What was most important to Quit, though, was that the Muslim Brotherhood was an organization that would engage in an active struggle (or Jihad) against the Childishly. As Lee argues, Quit felt strongly that a true believer in Islam embraces the opportunity to overcome personal ambitions and instead participate in Jihad, maybe even to die.
Islam was after all for Quit a confrontation with the obstacles of life to achieve the Islamic goals. He wrote that enthuse who perceive themselves to be Muslims but who don’t struggle against the different kinds of oppression, and who don’t defend the rights of the oppressed and who don’t cry out in the face of the dictators are either wrong or hypocrites or ignorant of the rules of Islam. I (6) In the u. Although he felt strongly that the Egyptians were taken advantage of, violence was not something he endorsed.
He was a thinker by nature, but was slowly pushed by the Brotherhood into forceful tactics. Later he began to concede that although violence was often necessary to overthrow institutional obstacles. Rabbi argues that in the final phase of his life, he preaches that the struggling ranks of the believers should isolate themselves from society at large and fight against every manifestation of Childishly. By the end of his life, Quit advocated that Childishly had to be molested at all costs.
Rabbi argues that Quit felt that this could only be done through establishing new economic and political ties. He condemned modern Muslims for being so influenced by Western ideals. He began to criticize the whole of Muslim society for falling prey to Childishly. Rabbi emphatically argues that inquests pattern of thought, mainly in his last phase, represents a turning point in the doctrine of the modern Islamic revivalist movements. The masses cease to play a crucial role in his ideology. I (7) By this point, Quit was Jailed and had no political ewer left.

Sayyid Qutb expression and development on Islam

Islam and Muslim Contact Unit

Islam and Muslim Contact Unit.
The term “Islamophobia” was first used in print in 1991 and was defined in the Runnymede Trust Report as “unfounded hostility towards Islam, and therefore fear or dislike of all or most Muslims. ” The word has been coined because there is a new reality which needs naming — anti-Muslim prejudice has grown so considerably and so rapidly in recent years that a new item in the vocabulary is needed so that it can be identified and acted against. (Sajid 2005) The term “Islamophobia” was coined by way of analogy to “xenophobia”, which is a dislike or fear of people from other countries or of that which is perceived to be foreign or strange.
Some definitions suggest xenophobia as arising from irrationality or unreason; this can also be said for islamophobia. Islamophobia can be characterized by the belief that all or most Muslims are religious fanatics, have violent tendencies towards non- Muslims, and reject concepts such as equality, tolerance, and democracy. It is a new form of racism where Muslims, an ethno-religious group, are constructed as a race. A set of negative assumptions are made of the entire group to the detriment of members of that group.
During the 1990s many sociologists and cultural essay writer toronto analysts observed a shift in racist ideas from ones based on skin color to ones based on notions of cultural superiority and otherness. (Sajid 2005) In Britain and other European or Western countries, Manifestations of anti-muslim hostility has been exemplified in many verbal as well as physical attacks on Muslims in public places and attacks on mosques and desecration of Muslim cemeteries. Before 9/11, in Western countries negative stereotypes and remarks in speeches by political leaders, implying that Muslims are less committed than others to democracy and the rule of law.

There was a rise in the number of hate crimes against Muslims in London in 2010, these hate crimes were being encouraged by mainstream politicians and sections of the media, a study written by a former Scotland Yard counter-terrorism officer, published January 26, 2010, says that attacks ranging from death threats and murder to persistent low-level assaults, such as spitting and name-calling, are in part whipped up by extremists and sections of mainstream society. Lambert headed Scotland Yard’s Muslim contact unit, which helped improve relations between the police and Britain’s Islamic communities.
The study mentions no newspapers or writers by name, but alleges that the book Londonistan, by the Mail writer Melanie Phillips, played a part in triggering hate crimes. Londonistan is a book about the spread of Islamism in the United Kingdom over the past twenty years. When London was hit by suicide bombers in July 2005, the dirty little secret was finally out. Great Britain had been the European hub of Islamist extremism for more than a decade. Under the noses of British intelligence, a network of terrorists and their sympathizers had used Britain to plot, finance, recruit and train for atrocities in the United States and around the world.
The scale of this activity was so large that exasperated European security agencies dubbed Britain’s capital city Londonistan. (Phillips 2006). In Europe and in America as well, it can be seen in widespread and routine negative stereotyping in the media and everyday discourse in ways that would not be acceptable if the reference were, for example, to Jewish or black people. (Dodd 2010) Islamophobia is heightened by a number of contextual factors. One of these is the fact that a high proportion of refugees are Muslims.
Demonization of refugees is therefore frequently a coded attack on Muslims, for the words “Muslim,” “asylum-seeker,” “refugee,” and “immigrant” become synonymous in the popular imagination. In this case, the common experiences of immigrant communities with unemployment, rejection, alienation and violence have combined with Islamophobia to make integration really difficult. This has led Muslim communities to suffer higher levels of unemployment, poor housing, poor health and higher levels of racially motivated violence than other communities. (sajid 2010).
For example, in 2003, when the Home Office produced a poster about alleged deceit and dishonesty amongst people seeking asylum, it chose to illustrate its concerns by focusing on someone with a Muslim name. France has been wracked by tensions over its rapidly growing Muslim minority. Another example of this would France banning the wearing of Islamic veils and other face coverings earlier this year, claiming they were both degrading and a security risk. Belgium has passed similar legislation, and Switzerland banned the building of minarets, the tall spires which often stand next to mosques. Ghazi 2006) A large issue that fuels the fires in the battle against Islamophobia is the drawing of cartoons offending the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. More specifically, this issue began after 12 editorial cartoons, most of which depicted the Islamic prophet Muhammad, were published in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten on September 30, 2005. These Danish cartoonists targeted Muhammad as a way to attack the Muslims’ freedom of free speech and religion. In Muslim societies insulting Muhammad is the gravest of all crimes; also considered blasphemy and punishable by death.
Unfortunately, some events that followed these insults toward Muhammad ended in multiple deaths. The Organization of the Islamic Conference has denounced calls for the death of the Danish cartoonists. The obvious denial of this request caused attacks on innocents and riots all over Europe. Some acts included bombing of Christians at church, burning of churches, slaughtering innocent children and other civilians, and one specific incident included killing innocent train passengers. Even before the Jyllands-Posten riots, there were plenty of anti-Muslim acts in Europe.
One of which was the Dutch politician Pim Fortuyn’s assassination in 2002 for his anti-Islamic views. He called Islam a “backward culture” and wanted to stop Muslim immigration. After his death his party made its debut in Parliament with a 17% seat share showing how popular he was at that time. Another example of Europe’s anti-Muslim views as well as the Islam’s’ intolerance for the belittling of their culture is the assassination of Theo van Gogh In 2004. Van Gogh directed a short movie called Submission which tried to highlight the role of women in Islam.
While the movie came in for a lot of criticism, van Gogh was assassinated in the same year over the movie. Specifically, the fear of Muslims became more prevalent in the United States after the events that occurred on September 11, 2001. In order to study Muslim Americans’ framing in the news media after 9/11, it is important to focus on two specific periods; the first six-month period after the attacks and the period after the first anniversary of September 11. The two periods are very important because the news framework completely changed during these two episodes.
In the first immediate six months after 9/11, the media representation was very positive, comprehensive, frequent and contextual. However, after the first anniversary of 9/11, the media coverage changed. It became very negative, stereotypical and exclusive. By the first anniversary of September 11, the portrayal of Muslim Americans in both print and cable news had completely shifted from the more frequent, positive, contextual, thematic, descriptive and comprehensive coverage to a more frequent, negative, stereotypical, episodic and exclusive coverage.
The share of reporting on Muslim Americans declined, hate crimes skyrocketed and the positive public perception of Muslims that was created in the immediate period after 9/11 diminished. Eventually, this negative perception of Muslims manifested itself through anti-Islamic riots and hatred of Muslim Americans in upcoming years. (Amiri 2012) September 11, 2001, and the days that followed produced strong feelings amongst non-Muslims as well as among Muslims in Europe.
When people feel powerless and frustrated they are prone to hit out with violent language: “You don’t belong here,” or “Get out of my country now; England is for white civilized English people! ” are examples of the kind of violent language that was used in e-mail messages to the Muslim Council of Britain immediately following the attacks. These messages are significant, for they expressed attitudes and perceptions that are widespread amongst non-Muslims and that are recurring components of Islamophobia. Allen 2002) While over in the western hemisphere, the American government was trying to ensure the Americans citizens of their safety. In the first few days following 9/11 there were multiple news cast questioning citizens, politicians, and government officials of what exactly went on that day. But what most Americans really wanted to know was whether or not they can be safe knowing that people of the same race and religion as the terrorists were walking the streets.
Although there was fear struck into the hearts of American citizens, Americans were too decent to even consider lashing out on Muslim Americans. Not only that but American didn’t know even about their culture, religion, or race to hate them to extent that Europeans do. (Schwartz 2010). When it came time to get the point of views from the horse’s mouth, Muslim Americans were more frequently covered in the news and more often interviewed as sources than before the events of 9/11.
They were given a chance to speak for themselves rather than the commentators talking on their behalf offering their views on certain issues relating to Muslim Americans. (Abid 2011) What changed the American view of Muslims altogether was the start of the wars in Afghanistan. Americans who were considered to be Islamophobes were completely against the idea of thousands of soldiers losing their life trying to fight for a faith that what President Bush calls “A religion based on peace, but hijacked by the terrorists. (Bari 2012) But Americans had an odd response to the anti-Muslim controversy they elected a president bearing an Islamic middle name, Barack Hussein Obama. This demonstrated that for their majority, Islamophobia was moot. Too few said so, but Americans seemed to have instinctively grasped certain truths: that Islam would not simply go away, they would not change their view, they could not be defeated in a direct confrontation and that moderate Muslims would be valuable allies in defeating radical Islam. (Schwartz 2010)

Islam and Muslim Contact Unit

The Five Doctrines of Islamic Faith

The Five Doctrines of Islamic Faith.
Axia college The standard beliefs of Islam are identified as theFive Doctrines of Islamic Faith. They are documented as such, the unquestioned unity of God, the belief in the prophets, the recognition of angels, belief in scripture or koran, and belief in the coming of Final Judgment. Islam is built on the five pillars or acts of worship. These FivePillars describe the expected obligations performed by a Muslim follower. These are described as the basic framework for worship in a Muslim life.
The five are as follows declaration of faith, prayer, having concern for the needy, self-purification, and pilgrimage to Mecca. Pillar number one is Al-Shahadaor the declaration of faith. The pillar outlines that all followers must announce their faith to enter into Islam in the presence of witnesses. A kep point of this is knowing that Allah is the only one worthy of your worship. Pillar number two is Salat or prayer, which is required of all Muslims once adulthood is established. Prayer is a daily occurance to be exact five timesper day. Prayer lasts five to ten minutes each time.
Pillar number three is Zakat or charity. The islam belief is that all prosperity and wealth is only worthy of God, and God’s desire is for Muslims to express generocity in life. Zakat requires the giving of a piece of a persons financial wealth to charity at the conclusion of the year. Pillar number four is Sawm or fasting. Every Muslim is required to fast for Ramadan which falls at month number nine of the muslim calendar. The muslim reasoning for fasting is to cleanse you spiritually and physically as well as focus your attention on spiritual aspects rather than on physical ones.

Fasting for Muslims includes refraining from eating or drinking anything as well as having sexual intercourse from dawn to dusk. The last Pillar is Hajj or the pilgrimage to Mecca. Every Muslim outside of those who are physically or financially unable, must makethe pilgrimage to Mecca at least once during the course of life. My thought is that the declaration of faith would be the easiest because its a one time pillar that takes a short time. The most challenging would be the fast from dusk to dawn because I would find it difficult to focus all day with no food for 12 hours or so.

The Five Doctrines of Islamic Faith