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What are the achievements of the Gulf Cooperation Council?

What are the achievements of the Gulf Cooperation Council?

  • The removal of transaction expenses and accounting expenses. Many of these expenses are connected with offer ask spreads and commissions on outside trade transactions. For little and open economies with simple monetary markets, immediate funds in transactions in the wake of receiving solitary money are presumably more significant. Bringing transaction expenses may lead to higher yield and utilization picks up. For example, the European Monetary Unions helped Greece in 1992 to come out of its Financial Crisis and hence able to manage its transactions ((Fleming 12)
  • . A clearing of sole trade risk is viewed as a real snag to exchange what’s more cross marginal mean (Blanchard and Katz 22). It is contended that exchange products and management, particularly among small firms, will be upgraded, strengthening rivalry and increment allocated proficiency battles. For example, compared to the EU, countries such as Ukraine and Cyprus now have stable companies because of monetary unions that boost exchange value (Blanchard and Katz 22).

 

Why is the Gulf Cooperation Council influential?

  • Production of a more transparent valuing framework simplifies global cost examination.
  • Picking up a more valid monetary strategy by receiving the most robust exchange standard responsibility, For example, the Monetary union in Europe has made the exchange rate of its currency high as compared to the others hence the economic growth of the region hence extension to countries within the Union (Fleming 12).
  • Money-related union plans are less vulnerable to hypothetical assaults such as bankruptcy.
  • Then again, the expenses of receiving a Monetary value, other than the expenses of structuring the union, mostly surrender money-related self-sufficiency. These expenses are more inclined to expand the disparate stuns to part economies. Similarly, costs tend to build that bring down the adaptability of component markets, as this infers trouble acclimation to shakes. For example, this has made England one of the most prosperous countries in terms of turnover in the region (Blanchard and Katz 22).
  • Changing the exchange measure would help the methodology of investment enhancement by raising the productivity of new generation units, along these lines expanding aggressiveness by regional standards and abroad. This productivity would be accomplished because of low and stable costs that will give more focused abilities to the household item (more cost-productive, more specialization). For example, as compared to European Union (White 9)
  • Making of primary universal Union might conceivably be of incredible interest, and numerous national banks would utilize it as a component of their stores. Subsequently, the Union could have a spot among the worldwide monetary standards.  For example, when solid universal store cash is made from the bound together coin, it would heighten a single currency like that of the European Union that has an excellent Pound rate compared to others in the world. The Union made the pound the strongest foreign currency in the world.
  • It would, without a doubt, say that GCC nations have more prominent weight in worldwide financial and political enclosures. It would allow them to manage the outside world as a brought-together investment power alliance.  It would likewise enable them to barter power and empower them to accomplish more major financial and political additions (White 9).  For example, the Regions exchange rate against the dollar will improve, meaning that AED will be compared lower to the current rates

The success of Monetary Unions is evident in other nations in the world. For example, the European Monetary unions are a success globally, placing it as one of the most prosperous regions. Based on accumulated thoughts from various scholars. This has improved the region’s GDP as well as its exchange rate.

 

Work Cited

  1. Fleming. “On Exchange Rate Unification,” Economic Journal, 81, 1971.
  2. Blanchard and L. Katz. “Regional Evolutions,” Brooking Papers on Economic Activity, 1992.
  3. White. “Is Price Stability Enough?,” Monetary and Economic Department, Bank for International Settlements Working Papers No. 205, 2006.

 

 

 

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Characterization: Major Characters

Characterization: Major Characters

Characterization is yet another element of literature that is exemplary of the role of literature in society. No one can divorce characters from literary works because they help significantly in driving the plot. Their actions dictate everything that happens, from the exposition to the resolution. Therefore, they play an imperative role in directing the field and helping dictate the themes and points of view. Characterization refers to a process by which individuals act according to the preferences of poets, playwrights, and novelists, seeking to reveal character traits and personalities. A character refers to a person, an animal, or a creature in a literary composition who performs the actions that the artists direct (“Character types in literature,” 2020, Para 1). The element contributes to the flow of events (plot) and the ultimate culmination in novels, poems, and plays.

 

Characterization: Major Characters. Literary artists endeavor to show character traits directly and indirectly. Direct characterization entails the literary artist telling the audience the fundamental nature of the characters. For instance, an author may state, “John was patient and kindhearted, and his manners endeared him to many.” Indirect characterization is exemplified by the characters defining their personality through their behavior. The methods of identifying characters indirectly are through observing their speech, thoughts, actions, looks, and the effects their actions have on other surfaces. For instance, a character is regarded as impulsive if they act without thinking about the aftermath and repercussions of their actions. If they help the poor and the sick, the audience concludes that they are kind and tender-hearted.

It is important to note that physical qualities are not character traits. Therefore, it would be inappropriate to define a character as being handsome. In any case, physical attributes are subjective; what one perceives to be appealing might be disgusting to someone else. Thus, it is imperative to consider behavior and character when assigning character traits.

Major Characters

Significant characters are essential in literary work because the plot revolves around them. Often, their decisions and actions direct the flow of events. They also help in the development of conflicts. Major characters include:

  1. Protagonist- A protagonist is a significant character from whom the literary artist majors their ideas (“Character: Definitions and examples,” 2017). Their actions are essential in the formulation of motifs and significant thematic concerns. The character stands out in the cast or character list, and they are heroes without whom the actions cease (Garcia, 2015). The protagonists are the ones who have the most contradictions, speech, and interest. Such attributes make them attract more attention and affect the behaviors of other characters (Culpeper & Fernandez-Quintanilla, 2017). In most cases, literary artists give them positive attributes. An excellent example of a protagonist is Harry porter, a boy too who J.K Rowling attaches heroic traits and positive virtues that help in improving the lives of others (“Character types in literature,” 2020).
  2. Antagonist-An antagonist is a character whose actions contradict those of the protagonist. In most cases, they fail in their endeavors because they cause problems for the central character (“Character types in literature,” 2020). They assume a negative connotation and are, in most cases, the evil villain. An excellent example of an antagonist is Lord Voldemort, a character to who J.K Rowling attaches negative attributes; he tries to kill Harry Porter (“Character: Definitions and examples,” 2017).
Conclusion

In conclusion, characterization is essential because it helps employ people, animals, and creatures to drive the plot and develop the themes. Report can be direct or indirect. Protagonists and antagonists are the central characters, and they help literary works have both positive and negative inclinations in the thematic concerns. Without the major characters, literary artists cannot develop their work.

References

Character types in literature: Writing guide. A Research Guide for Students. (2020, May 5). Retrieved November 1, 2022, from https://www.aresearchguide.com/character-types-in-literature.html

Character: Definitions and examples. Literary Terms. (2017, September 4). Retrieved November 1, 2022, from https://literaryterms.net/character/

Culpeper, J., & Fernandez-Quintanilla, C. (2017). Fictional characterization. Pragmatics of fiction12, 93-128.

Garcia, B. B. (2015). Around the Function of Character in Literary Fiction. London: Universidad de Oxford.

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Elements of Literature-Plot

Elements of Literature-Plot

Elements of Literature-Plot. Literature comprises various elements. These elements are also referred to as elements of fiction. They include plot, setting, style, characterization, Point of View, and themes. The elements are important because they help literature have an aesthetic value, appealing to the audience/ readership. Literature is didactic, implying that it entails using language in an aesthetic and orderly manner to communicate various human experiences. That being the case, the elements of literature help to make literature appealing and mimetic. The plot is one of the important elements of literature.

The Conventional Plot Structure

Plot refers to the flow of events in a literary work. In a plot, characters face external or internal conflicts, obliging them to engage in activities that drive a story to the climax and eventually to resolve conflicts therein. Plot refers to the arrangement of actions in works of fiction in an aesthetic way that helps a reader have a proper experience with the literary work they are reading.

The conventional plot structure comprises the exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and dénouement/resolution. The structure assumes a triangular structure to show how the elements fall into place.

 

 

The image shows the elements of a plot
Plot Structure

 

Elements of Literature-Plot: What are the 5 types of plot structure?

Exposition                                                                                                    

An exposition gives background information about the characters, setting, and situations that help direct the flow of events. The exposition shows the setting (place and time where a story takes place), identifies the characters, and develops a conflict that helps the plot flow.

Rising Action

Rising action refers to the story’s development and conflicts, whose aftermath lead to the climax/ turning point. Rising action contributes to the complication of ideas, obliging readers to go on reading as they head for the climax.

Climax

Climax refers to the highest point in a story where the conflicts are at their highest point, and the literary artist heightens the interest of their readers. The events that occur in the climax arise from the rising action and dictate how the activities that follow dictate the ideas that help deal with the complications. The climax is the turning point, and Aristotle refers to it as Peripeteia.

Falling Action

Falling action refers to the events that follow the climax. The stage helps show how characters resolve the conflicts that have arisen in the climax before works of fiction conclude.

Resolution/dénouement

The resolution refers to the stage where the conflicts and complications from the rising action, climax, and falling action come to a solution, and authors alter them greatly. The characters resolve the conflicts positively or negatively. For instance, tragic heroes in tragedy die or come to their ultimate downfall.

Other Plots

Besides the conventional plot, media res is another plot structure in fictional works. The word is a coinage from Latin, meaning ‘amid things. The plot structure entails having conflicts and ideas at the beginning of a literary work, after which the introduction/exposition follows. The author often introduces the exposition by way of a flashback, detailing why the existing conflicts came to be.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the plot is an important element of literature/ fiction. It helps show the order of events in a literary work, contributing to the aesthetic nature of literature. The conventional plot structure is well structured into steps, including the exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution. In media res is an unconventional structure that some authors use to heighten the curiosity of the readers, obliging them to read more and understand why the existing events came to be.

References for plot structure

Blanca, C. F., Caselli, T., & Broersma, M. (2021). Finding Narratives in News Flows: The Temporal Dimension of News Stories. Digital Humanities Quarterly, 15(4) https://www.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/finding-narratives-news-flows-temporal-dimension/docview/2633786507/se-2

Elements of plot – bainbridge island school district. (n.d.). Retrieved November 1, 2022, from https://www.bisd303.org/cms/lib3/WA01001636/Centricity/Domain/1342/Elements%20of%20Plot.pdf

Hutomo, S. A. (1970, January 1). The concept of catastrophe, Anagnorisis and Peripetia in The book of job. USD Repository. Retrieved November 1, 2022, from https://repository.usd.ac.id/17757/

Murphy, T. P. (2015). The fairytale and plot structure. Springer.

O-Joun, L., Eun-Soon You, & Jin-Taek, K. (2021). Plot Structure Decomposition in Narrative Multimedia by Analyzing Personalities of Fictional Characters. Applied Sciences, 11(4), 1645. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041645

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What is a responsibility of the leader of a healthcare organization?

What is a responsibility of the leader of a healthcare organization?

What is a responsibility of the leader of a healthcare organization?

It is important that health care leaders be able to articulate policy positions and recommendations and garner buy-in and support from stakeholder groups for policy and practice changes in their organizations. Unfortunately, effective communication is often lacking. Consequently, it is important for health care leaders, when leading change, to ensure that clear and open communication is ongoing and informative.

An important aspect of change leadership is the ability to address diverse groups of stakeholders and create buy-in and support for your ideas and proposals for change. This assessment provides you with an opportunity to demonstrate and hone these skills.

 

Summarize your proposed organizational policy and practice guidelines.
Identify applicable local, state, or federal health care policy or law that prescribes relevant performance benchmarks that your policy proposal addresses.
Keep your audience in mind when creating this summary.
Interpret, for stakeholders, the relevant benchmark metrics that illustrate the need for the proposed policy and practice guidelines.

 

Why is leadership important at all levels throughout a healthcare organization?

 

What is the responsibility of the leader of a healthcare organization?

Make sure this is a brief review of the evaluation you completed in your Assessment 1 Dashboard Benchmark Evaluation.
Make sure you are interpreting the dashboard metrics in a way that is understandable and meaningful to the stakeholders to whom you are presenting.
Explain how your proposed policy and practice guidelines will affect how the stakeholder group does its work.
How might your proposal alter certain tasks or how the stakeholder group performs them?
How might your proposal affect the stakeholder group’s workload?
How might your proposal alter the responsibilities of the stakeholder group?
How might your proposal improve working conditions for the stakeholder group?
Explain how your proposed policy and practice guidelines will improve quality and outcomes for the stakeholder group.
How are your proposed changes going to improve the quality of the stakeholder group’s work?
How will these improvements enable the stakeholder group to be more successful?
What evidence supports your conclusions or presents alternative perspectives?
Present strategies for collaborating with the stakeholder group to implement your proposed policy and practice guidelines.
What role will the stakeholder group play in implementing your proposal?
Why is the stakeholder group and their collaboration important for successful implementation?
Deliver a persuasive, coherent, and effective audiovisual presentation.
Address the anticipated needs and concerns of your audience.
Stay focused on key policy provisions and the impact of practice guidelines on the group.

 

What characteristics do healthcare leaders need to succeed in today’s healthcare policy environment?

What is a responsibility of the leader of a healthcare organization?

 

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the course competencies through the following assessment scoring guide criteria:

Competency 1: Analyze relevant health care laws, policies, and regulations; their application; and their effects on organizations, interprofessional teams, and professional practice.
Explain how a proposed policy and practice guidelines will affect how a stakeholder group does its work.
Competency 2: Lead the development and implementation of ethical and culturally sensitive policies that improve health outcomes for individuals, organizations, and populations.
Summarize a proposed organizational policy and practice guidelines.

 

 

Explain how a proposed policy and practice guidelines will improve quality and outcomes for a stakeholder group.
Competency 3: Evaluate relevant indicators of performance, such as benchmarks, research, and best practices, to inform health care laws and policies for patients, organizations, and populations.
Interpret, for stakeholders, the relevant benchmark metrics that illustrate the need for a proposed policy and practice guidelines.
Competency 4: Develop strategies to work collaboratively with policy makers, stakeholders, and colleagues to address environmental (governmental and regulatory) forces.
Present strategies for collaborating with a stakeholder group to implement a proposed policy and practice guidelines.
Deliver a persuasive, coherent, and effective audiovisual presentation.

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What is the purpose of an ecological model?

What is the purpose of an ecological model?

What is the purpose of an ecological model?

Identify how the social worker might have used the ecological model to understand Brandon’s situation based on a person-in-environment perspective. Explain the use of the ecological model in this case on micro, mezzo, and macro levels.
Describe strengths that the social worker may have missed in assessing Brandon and his mother.
Explain how the social worker applied social work ethics and values in the case.
Review the challenges that the social worker identifies and explain the impact the abuse could have had on Brandon had his strengths not been identified and addressed.

Brandon is a 12-year-old, Caucasian male who currently resides with his mother and her boyfriend.
Brandon
Brandon is a 12-year-old, Caucasian male who currently resides with his mother and
her boyfriend. Six years ago, Brandon disclosed that his father had repeatedly sexually
abused him between the ages of 4 and 6. Brandon’s mother called law enforcement
immediately after the disclosure, and his father has been incarcerated since. Brandon
has previously participated in therapy to address challenging behaviors, including
physical aggression, difficulty following rules at home and school, and using
inappropriate language with sexual overtones toward female peers. Brandon and his
mother report that they ceased participating in therapy in the past after there was no
change in Brandon’s behavior. Brandon’s teachers have suggested that his behaviors
are similar to those of peers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but his
mother has declined educational or psychological testing because she does not want
her son to be labeled and is unsure if she agrees with the use of psychotropic
medication with children.

 

 

What is the purpose of an ecological model?

Brandon began attending trauma-focused treatment after demonstrating an increase in
argumentative behavior and minor property destruction at home. His mother reported
that the majority of undesired behaviors were initiated during interactions with her
boyfriend during lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic, when all three people were
confined to home. Brandon’s use of physical aggression has not increased since
returning to in-person school; however, a female peer recently reported him for using
sexually explicit language toward her. Brandon admitted to using inappropriate
language toward the female peer but appeared to have a limited understanding of what
the phrases used meant.

 

Ecological approach in social work

 

 

Brandon’s mother noted during intake that she is concerned
that her son will become a violent sexual offender or a pedophile and noted that his use
of sexual language was likely the start of sexual behavior problems.
At the beginning of treatment, Brandon reported that he frequently feared for his
physical safety but often could not pinpoint what made him feel unsafe. He had
searched the Internet to find registered sexual offenders in his neighborhood, and he
had begun sleeping with a loaded BB gun under his pillow in case someone entered the
home to assault him again. Brandon had flashbacks when trying to fall asleep and
described feeling like he was floating outside of his body when he thought of his abuse.
He had seen a television show where victims spoke at the parole hearings of their
perpetrators, and he spent many hours thinking about what he would say if he went to
his father’s parole hearing in 3 years. Brandon felt like he loved his father very much
and that his father was a great father except for when he hurt him. Brandon identified
wanting to feel less worried, sleep better, and fight less with his mother as primary
treatment goals.
Individual and Family Sessions
Brandon’s Sessions

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Describe the differences between a board of nursing and a professional nurse association

Describe the differences between a board of nursing and a professional nurse association

Describe the differences between a board of nursing and a professional nurse association. Nursing is a very highly regulated profession. There are over 100 boards and national nursing associations throughout the United States and its territories. Their existence helps regulate, inform, and promote the nursing profession. With such numbers, it can be difficult to distinguish between BONs and nursing associations and overwhelming to consider the various benefits and options offered by each.

 

Describe the differences between a board of nursing and a professional nurse association:The Impact of State Regulation on Nurse Practice

a board of nursing
Both boards of nursing and national nursing associations significantly impact the nurse practitioner profession and scope of practice. Understanding these differences helps lend credence to your expertise as a professional. In this Assignment, you will practice the application of such expertise by communicating a comparison of boards of nursing and professional nurse associations.

 

Describe at least one state regulation related to Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRNs)

• Assume that you are leading a staff development meeting on regulation for nursing practice at your healthcare organization or agency.
• Review the NCSBN and ANA websites to prepare for your presentation.

• Describe the differences between a board of nursing and a professional nurse association.
• Describe the board for your specific region/area.
o Who is on the board?

 

How the regulation influences the nurse’s role?

a board of nursing and a professional nurse association
o How does one become a member of the board?
• Describe at least one state regulation related to general nurse scope of practice.
o How does this regulation influence the nurse’s role?
o How does this regulation influence delivery, cost, and access to healthcare?
o If a patient is from another culture, how would this regulation impact the nurse’s care/education?
• Describe at least one state regulation related to Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRNs).
o How does this regulation influence the nurse’s role?
o How does this regulation influence delivery, cost, and access to healthcare?
• Has there been any change to the regulation within the past 5 years? Explain.

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Example of Critical Review of Journal Article

Example of Critical Review of Journal Article

Example of Critical Review of Journal Article

Introduction
 What was the objective of the study?
Methods
 What methods were used to accomplish this purpose (e.g., systematic recording
of observations, analysis and evaluation of published research, assessment of
theory, etc.)?
 What techniques were used and how was each technique performed?
 What kind of data can be obtained using each technique?
 How are such data interpreted?
 What kind of information is produced by using the technique?
Results

 

 What objective evidence was obtained from the authors’ efforts (observations,
measurements, etc.)?

 

Example of Critical Review of Journal Article

  • What were the results of the study?
  • How was each technique used to obtain each result?
  • What statistical tests were used to evaluate the significance of the conclusions
    based on numeric or graphic data?
  • How did each result contribute to answering the question or testing the
    hypothesis raised in the introduction?
    Discussion

 

 

 

  • How were the results interpreted? How were they related to the original problem
    (authors’ view of evidence rather than objective findings)?
  • Were the authors able to answer the question (test the hypothesis) raised?
  • Did the research provide new factual information, a new understanding of a
    phenomenon in the field, or a new research technique?
  • How was the significance of the work described?
  •  Do the authors relate the findings of the study to literature in the field?
  • Did the reported observations or interpretations support or refute observations or
    interpretations made by other researchers?

Example of Critical Review of Journal Article

2
2. Establish the research context
Once you are familiar with the article, you can establish the research context by asking
the following questions:
 Who conducted the research? What were/are their interests?
 When and where was the research conducted?
 Why did the authors do this research?
 Was this research pertinent only within the authors’ geographic locale, or did it
have broader (even global) relevance?

 

 

Were many other laboratories pursuing related research when the reported work
was done? If so, why?

Example of Critical Review of Journal Article

 For experimental research, what funding sources met the costs of the research?
 On what prior observations was the research based? What was and was not
known at the time?
3. Evaluate the research
Remember that simply disagreeing with the material is not considered to be a critical
assessment of the material. For example, stating that the sample size is insufficient is
not a critical assessment. Describing why the sample size is insufficient for the claims
being made in the study would be a critical assessment

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Which ranked data column represents the correct ranking for these data?

Which ranked data column represents the correct ranking for these data?

Which ranked data column represents the correct ranking for these data?

A psychologist wants to investigate whether children with Foetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) have different working memory performance compared to matched controls (children of the same age and sex without FAS). The task used was a computerised task where the children need to find six different ‘tokens’ hidden in boxes. The outcome measure was the total number of errors (returning to boxes previously checked).

 

In the table below (Output 1), the scores presented in the left hand column represent each participant’s error score. The second column contains the group that each participant was in. The final four columns represent possible rankings for the scores that will be used in non-parametric analysis.

 

Output 1

 

  1. a) Which ranked data column represents the correct ranking for these data? Explain your answer.

 

  1. b) Report the result of the analysis used to test the hypothesis, making an appropriate conclusion. See the Output 2 below and on the following page.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Output 2

QUESTION 2

 

Previous research has focused on the experiences of mothers in the first year of their child’s life. A researcher is interested in exploring the lived experiences of first time fathers. They have a completely open mind about what they might find and are interested in the individual perspective of participants.

 

  1. State which epistemological approach you would take to answer this research question, and explain why you think this is the most appropriate approach. (Positivist approach or Phenomenological approach or Constructionist approach)

 

  1. State which method you would advise the researcher to use to collect the data, and explain why you think this is the best method. (Quantitative methodology or Qualitative methodology)

 

  1. State which data analysis technique you would advise the researcher to use, and explain why you think this is the best technique.

 

 

 

QUESTION 3

 

Researchers were interested in whether keeping a record of symptoms would improve adherence to taking medication (with adherence measured as a percentage of the total medication prescribed).

The degree to which participants adhered to their medication was measured using an inhaler that records each time the participant takes their medication.

The researchers hypothesised that keeping a record of symptoms would result in participants remembering to take their medication more regularly than before they started keeping a record.

 

  1. Explain what assumptions you would need to check to assess whether a parametric or non-parametric test should be conducted. Explain what graphs you would use to come to your decision.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Output 3

  1. b) Report the result of the analysis (see Output 3 above) and make an appropriate conclusion.

 

 

  1. Give the effect size and discuss what this means in relation to the hypothesis

 

  1. Taking the whole output into consideration (comparing the means, the t-test outcomes and effect size), explain whether the effect of this intervention is meaningful or not in the context of cystic fibrosis treatment.

 

 

 

 

QUESTION 4

A team of researchers want to carry out a study with health care professionals to see whether there is a relationship between their levels of perceived stress, levels of mindfulness and their levels of job satisfaction.

The output from the analysis (Output 4) can be found on the following page.

  1. Report a full analysis of the results with an appropriate conclusion.

 

  1. A government think tank states that all workers need to engage in mindfulness to ensure they have good job satisfaction and low levels of stress. Is this a valid statement to make? Explain your answer in full.

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A Bronx Tale A Christmas Carol Essay Examples Free Sample

What is an abstract?

What is an abstract?

What is an abstract?

It is a self-contained, short, and powerful statement that describes a larger work. Components vary according to discipline. a social science or scientific work may contain the scope, purpose, results, and contents of the work. An  summary of a humanities work may contain the thesis, background, and conclusion of the larger work. An abstract is not a review, nor does it evaluate the work being abstracted. While it contains key words found in the larger work, the abstract is an original document rather than an excerpted passage.

Types of abstracts

There are two types : descriptive and informative. They have different aims, so, therefore, they have different components and styles.

A descriptive  indicates the type of information found in the work. It makes no judgments about the work, nor does it provide results or conclusions of the research. It does incorporate key words found in the text and may include the purpose, methods, and scope of the research. Essentially, the descriptive abstract describes the work being abstracted. Some people consider it an outline of the work, rather than a summary. Descriptive abstracts are usually very short—100 words or less.

Most  are informative. While they still do not critique or evaluate a work, they do more than describe it. A good, informative abstract acts as a surrogate for the work itself. That is, the writer presents and explains all the main arguments and the important results and evidence in the complete article/paper/book. An informative abstract includes the information that can be found in a descriptive abstract (purpose, methods, scope) but also includes the results and conclusions of the research and the recommendations of the author. The length varies according to discipline, but an informative abstract is rarely more than 10% of the length of the entire work. In the case of a longer work, it may be much less.

 

 

When preparing to draft your abstract, keep the following key process elements in mind:

 

 

  • Reason for writing:What is the importance of the research? Why would a reader be interested in the larger work?
  • Problem:What problem does this work attempt to solve? What is the scope of the project? What is the main argument/thesis/claim?
  • Methodology:An abstract of a scientific work may include specific models or approaches used in the larger study. Other abstracts may describe the types of evidence used in the research.
  • Results:Again, an abstract of a scientific work may include specific data that indicates the results of the project. Other abstracts may discuss the findings in a more general way.
  • Implications:What changes should be implemented as a result of the findings of the work? How does this work add to the body of knowledge on the topic?

An abstract is a short statement that describes a larger work (article, book, report).  If the article describes an experiment, the abstract will be divided into these sections (called a “structured abstract”):

  1. Scope
  2. Purpose
  3. Methodology
  4. Results
  5. Conclusion

 

include:

  • A full citation of the source, preceding the abstract.
  • The most important information first.
  • The same type and style of language found in the original, including technical language.
  • Key words and phrases that quickly identify the content and focus of the work.
  • Clear, concise, and powerful language.

If you are abstracting someone else’s writing:

When abstracting something you have not written, you cannot summarize key ideas just by cutting and pasting. Instead, you must determine what a prospective reader would want to know about the work. There are a few techniques that will help you in this process:

Identify key terms:

Search through the entire document for key terms that identify the purpose, scope, and methods of the work. Pay close attention to the Introduction (or Purpose) and the Conclusion (or Discussion). These sections should contain all the main ideas and key terms in the paper. When writing the abstract, be sure to incorporate the key terms.

Highlight key phrases and sentences:

Instead of cutting and pasting the actual words, try highlighting sentences or phrases that appear to be central to the work. Then, in a separate document, rewrite the sentences and phrases in your own words.

Don’t look back:

After reading the entire work, put it aside and write a paragraph about the work without referring to it. In the first draft, you may not remember all the key terms or the results, but you will remember what the main point of the work was. Remember not to include any information you did not get from the work being abstracted.

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What are the legal requirements for nursing documentation?

What are the legal requirements for nursing documentation?

What are the legal requirements for nursing documentation?
What are the legal requirements for nursing documentation? Ms Amy Jones was a 55-year-old woman being treated for depression at a mental health facility. She was alert, oriented, ambulating without difficulty, and interacting appropriately with staff. The patient’s family was scheduled for a meeting with her treatment team in the afternoon. During the day Ms. Jones met with her psychiatrist, Dr. Ian Smith, in Ms. Jones’s room. When her roommate came in, Dr. Smith suggested that they complete their session in his office, and Ms. Jones accompanied him to that space. On the way she complained that she felt weak but could make it. During the session she reported that she had a headache, which Dr. Smith attributed to anxiety. He went to look for a nurse to provide medication for Ms. Jones. On his return with Ms. Mary Sullivan, a registered nurse, Ms. Jones was on the floor on her knees vomiting. A physician working across the hall came and assisted Dr. Smith and Nurse Sullivan with Ms. Jones, who was now quite somnolent, into a wheelchair. Dr. Allen, the primary care physician, ordered that Ms. Jones be given Phenergan IM for the vomiting and that the nursing staff monitor her bowel sounds. Dr. Allen reported that she was not informed of Ms. Jones’ complaints of headache or loss of bowel control. Dr. Allen thought that she was dealing with gastrointestinal symptoms so she had the nurses check for bowel sounds and softness of the patient’s belly. She reports that she received a second callback and was told bowel sounds were normal, the patient’s stomach was soft, and the patient was resting comfortably. Ms. Jones was bathed and returned to her bed. She took the prescribed Phenergan after which she vomited several more times during that shift. She was incontinent of stool once. No one considered conducting neurologic checks because the staff thought Ms. Jones was suffering from a virus.

 

What is the legal implication of documentation?

What are the legal requirements for nursing documentation?

When Ms. Jones’s family members arrived, the nurses advised them that their mother was sick and was sleeping, and would not be able to attend the meeting. The family members could not arouse the patient. The staff said that Ms. Jones had been administered Phenergan for vomiting and would be awake by evening. Family members returned that evening and found the patient still unresponsive with vomit in her mouth. The family checked Ms. Jones’ pupils and found them unequal. The family reported to the registered nurse at the desk, and another nurse checked Ms. Jones’ vital signs and reported them to be normal. The family telephoned Ms. Jones’ primary care physician, Dr. Allen, and the nurse gave him a report. Soon after this call, an ambulance transported Ms. Jones to the hospital for evaluation. Ms. Jones subsequently died at the hospital.

Ms. Jones’ daughter stated that the registered nurse did not assess her mother; on arrival in the unit, the EMT assessed Ms. Jones. Ms. Jones’ daughter did not believe that her mother had been adequately monitored from noon to 6:30 PM. She also complained that the nurses were laughing at the family’s concerns about the condition in which they found their mother.

Ms. Cherie Hoffman, a registered nurse, had been employed at the facility for 25 years. She began her career as a nursing assistant, a title she held for 7 years. She then served as a licensed practical nurse for 10 years and then as a registered nurse for the past 6 years. She was familiar with all of the policies and procedures of the facility. On the day of the event Ms. Hoffman was working as the charge nurse; she noted that it was a particularly busy day. She returned from lunch and was informed by Nurse Sullivan that Ms. Jones was ill and had vomited. She was bathed, and the staff had documented her vital signs, completed the Glucoscan, and medicated Ms. Jones with Phenergan per Dr. Allen’s order. The family was not notified of a change in Ms. Jones’ condition because they were expected for a family conference at 3 PM, and Nurse Sullivan hoped that Ms. Jones would feel better by then and could participate in the conference. Nurse Hoffman assisted Nurse Sullivan in monitoring Ms. Jones throughout the rest of the shift. Nurse Hoffman had understood that Ms. Jones had not been sleeping well and thought it would be good to let her sleep. Nurse Hoffman thought Nurse Sullivan had last assessed Ms. Jones at 7 PM.

 

What are the guidelines for documentation?

What are the legal requirements for nursing documentation?

Nurse Hoffman states she was never informed that Ms. Jones had collapsed prior to vomiting or that she had a headache, or that Ms. Jones was somnolent after the episode. She reported that Ms. Jones had a history of headaches, nausea, and dizziness, all of which had been attributed to medications.

Nurse Sullivan recalls reporting everything to Nurse Hoffman. Nurse Sullivan said she had checked bowel sounds as directed. Ms. Jones was incontinent of stool at 2 PM. and was bathed and repositioned. Around 6 PM. Nurse Sullivan straightened Ms. Jones in bed and said that Ms. Jones looked comfortable. Nurse Sullivan said that she did not feel anxious about the patient, as she thought Ms. Jones was sleeping. Ms. Jones was not on 15-minute checks, but Nurse Sullivan recalled checking on Ms. Jones frequently throughout the shift to assess for vomiting.
According to what you learned on this documentation presented by the healthcare provider and provide examples of whether the nurse follows or did not follow documentation requisites.

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