What is an abstract?

What is an abstract?

What is an abstract?

It is a self-contained, short, and powerful statement that describes a larger work. Components vary according to discipline. a social science or scientific work may contain the scope, purpose, results, and contents of the work. An  summary of a humanities work may contain the thesis, background, and conclusion of the larger work. An abstract is not a review, nor does it evaluate the work being abstracted. While it contains key words found in the larger work, the abstract is an original document rather than an excerpted passage.

Types of abstracts

There are two types : descriptive and informative. They have different aims, so, therefore, they have different components and styles.

A descriptive  indicates the type of information found in the work. It makes no judgments about the work, nor does it provide results or conclusions of the research. It does incorporate key words found in the text and may include the purpose, methods, and scope of the research. Essentially, the descriptive abstract describes the work being abstracted. Some people consider it an outline of the work, rather than a summary. Descriptive abstracts are usually very short—100 words or less.

Most  are informative. While they still do not critique or evaluate a work, they do more than describe it. A good, informative abstract acts as a surrogate for the work itself. That is, the writer presents and explains all the main arguments and the important results and evidence in the complete article/paper/book. An informative abstract includes the information that can be found in a descriptive abstract (purpose, methods, scope) but also includes the results and conclusions of the research and the recommendations of the author. The length varies according to discipline, but an informative abstract is rarely more than 10% of the length of the entire work. In the case of a longer work, it may be much less.



When preparing to draft your abstract, keep the following key process elements in mind:



  • Reason for writing:What is the importance of the research? Why would a reader be interested in the larger work?
  • Problem:What problem does this work attempt to solve? What is the scope of the project? What is the main argument/thesis/claim?
  • Methodology:An abstract of a scientific work may include specific models or approaches used in the larger study. Other abstracts may describe the types of evidence used in the research.
  • Results:Again, an abstract of a scientific work may include specific data that indicates the results of the project. Other abstracts may discuss the findings in a more general way.
  • Implications:What changes should be implemented as a result of the findings of the work? How does this work add to the body of knowledge on the topic?

An abstract is a short statement that describes a larger work (article, book, report).  If the article describes an experiment, the abstract will be divided into these sections (called a “structured abstract”):

  1. Scope
  2. Purpose
  3. Methodology
  4. Results
  5. Conclusion



  • A full citation of the source, preceding the abstract.
  • The most important information first.
  • The same type and style of language found in the original, including technical language.
  • Key words and phrases that quickly identify the content and focus of the work.
  • Clear, concise, and powerful language.

If you are abstracting someone else’s writing:

When abstracting something you have not written, you cannot summarize key ideas just by cutting and pasting. Instead, you must determine what a prospective reader would want to know about the work. There are a few techniques that will help you in this process:

Identify key terms:

Search through the entire document for key terms that identify the purpose, scope, and methods of the work. Pay close attention to the Introduction (or Purpose) and the Conclusion (or Discussion). These sections should contain all the main ideas and key terms in the paper. When writing the abstract, be sure to incorporate the key terms.

Highlight key phrases and sentences:

Instead of cutting and pasting the actual words, try highlighting sentences or phrases that appear to be central to the work. Then, in a separate document, rewrite the sentences and phrases in your own words.

Don’t look back:

After reading the entire work, put it aside and write a paragraph about the work without referring to it. In the first draft, you may not remember all the key terms or the results, but you will remember what the main point of the work was. Remember not to include any information you did not get from the work being abstracted.

What are the legal requirements for nursing documentation?

What are the legal requirements for nursing documentation?

What are the legal requirements for nursing documentation?
What are the legal requirements for nursing documentation? Ms Amy Jones was a 55-year-old woman being treated for depression at a mental health facility. She was alert, oriented, ambulating without difficulty, and interacting appropriately with staff. The patient’s family was scheduled for a meeting with her treatment team in the afternoon. During the day Ms. Jones met with her psychiatrist, Dr. Ian Smith, in Ms. Jones’s room. When her roommate came in, Dr. Smith suggested that they complete their session in his office, and Ms. Jones accompanied him to that space. On the way she complained that she felt weak but could make it. During the session she reported that she had a headache, which Dr. Smith attributed to anxiety. He went to look for a nurse to provide medication for Ms. Jones. On his return with Ms. Mary Sullivan, a registered nurse, Ms. Jones was on the floor on her knees vomiting. A physician working across the hall came and assisted Dr. Smith and Nurse Sullivan with Ms. Jones, who was now quite somnolent, into a wheelchair. Dr. Allen, the primary care physician, ordered that Ms. Jones be given Phenergan IM for the vomiting and that the nursing staff monitor her bowel sounds. Dr. Allen reported that she was not informed of Ms. Jones’ complaints of headache or loss of bowel control. Dr. Allen thought that she was dealing with gastrointestinal symptoms so she had the nurses check for bowel sounds and softness of the patient’s belly. She reports that she received a second callback and was told bowel sounds were normal, the patient’s stomach was soft, and the patient was resting comfortably. Ms. Jones was bathed and returned to her bed. She took the prescribed Phenergan after which she vomited several more times during that shift. She was incontinent of stool once. No one considered conducting neurologic checks because the staff thought Ms. Jones was suffering from a virus.


What is the legal implication of documentation?

What are the legal requirements for nursing documentation?

When Ms. Jones’s family members arrived, the nurses advised them that their mother was sick and was sleeping, and would not be able to attend the meeting. The family members could not arouse the patient. The staff said that Ms. Jones had been administered Phenergan for vomiting and would be awake by evening. Family members returned that evening and found the patient still unresponsive with vomit in her mouth. The family checked Ms. Jones’ pupils and found them unequal. The family reported to the registered nurse at the desk, and another nurse checked Ms. Jones’ vital signs and reported them to be normal. The family telephoned Ms. Jones’ primary care physician, Dr. Allen, and the nurse gave him a report. Soon after this call, an ambulance transported Ms. Jones to the hospital for evaluation. Ms. Jones subsequently died at the hospital.

Ms. Jones’ daughter stated that the registered nurse did not assess her mother; on arrival in the unit, the EMT assessed Ms. Jones. Ms. Jones’ daughter did not believe that her mother had been adequately monitored from noon to 6:30 PM. She also complained that the nurses were laughing at the family’s concerns about the condition in which they found their mother.

Ms. Cherie Hoffman, a registered nurse, had been employed at the facility for 25 years. She began her career as a nursing assistant, a title she held for 7 years. She then served as a licensed practical nurse for 10 years and then as a registered nurse for the past 6 years. She was familiar with all of the policies and procedures of the facility. On the day of the event Ms. Hoffman was working as the charge nurse; she noted that it was a particularly busy day. She returned from lunch and was informed by Nurse Sullivan that Ms. Jones was ill and had vomited. She was bathed, and the staff had documented her vital signs, completed the Glucoscan, and medicated Ms. Jones with Phenergan per Dr. Allen’s order. The family was not notified of a change in Ms. Jones’ condition because they were expected for a family conference at 3 PM, and Nurse Sullivan hoped that Ms. Jones would feel better by then and could participate in the conference. Nurse Hoffman assisted Nurse Sullivan in monitoring Ms. Jones throughout the rest of the shift. Nurse Hoffman had understood that Ms. Jones had not been sleeping well and thought it would be good to let her sleep. Nurse Hoffman thought Nurse Sullivan had last assessed Ms. Jones at 7 PM.


What are the guidelines for documentation?

What are the legal requirements for nursing documentation?

Nurse Hoffman states she was never informed that Ms. Jones had collapsed prior to vomiting or that she had a headache, or that Ms. Jones was somnolent after the episode. She reported that Ms. Jones had a history of headaches, nausea, and dizziness, all of which had been attributed to medications.

Nurse Sullivan recalls reporting everything to Nurse Hoffman. Nurse Sullivan said she had checked bowel sounds as directed. Ms. Jones was incontinent of stool at 2 PM. and was bathed and repositioned. Around 6 PM. Nurse Sullivan straightened Ms. Jones in bed and said that Ms. Jones looked comfortable. Nurse Sullivan said that she did not feel anxious about the patient, as she thought Ms. Jones was sleeping. Ms. Jones was not on 15-minute checks, but Nurse Sullivan recalled checking on Ms. Jones frequently throughout the shift to assess for vomiting.
According to what you learned on this documentation presented by the healthcare provider and provide examples of whether the nurse follows or did not follow documentation requisites.

What are the three basic parts of a position paper?

What are the three basic parts of a position paper?

What are the three basic parts of a position paper? a position paper presents one side of an arguable opinion about an issue. The
goal of a position paper is to convince the audience that your opinion is valid and defensible.
Ideas that you are considering need to be carefully examined in choosing a topic,
developing your argument, and organizing your paper. It is very important to ensure that
you are addressing all sides of the issue and presenting it in a manner that is easy for your
audience to understand. Your job is to take one side of the argument and persuade your
audience that you have well-founded knowledge of the topic being presented. It is
important to support your argument with evidence to ensure the validity of your claims, as
well as to refute the counterclaims to show that you are well informed about both sides.


What are the three basic parts of a position paper?
Sample Outline
I. Introduction
___A. Introduce the topic
___B. Provide background on the topic to explain why it is important
___C. Assert the thesis (your view of the issue). More on thesis statements can be
found below.
Your introduction has a dual purpose: to indicate both the topic and your approach to
it (your thesis statement), and to arouse your reader’s interest in what you have to
say. One effective way of introducing a topic is to place it in context – to supply a
kind of backdrop that will put it in perspective. You should discuss the area into
which your topic fits, and then gradually lead into your specific field of discussion
(re: your thesis statement).
II. Counter Argument
___A. Summarize the counterclaims
___B. Provide supporting information for counterclaims
___C. Refute the counterclaims
___D. Give evidence for argument
You can generate counterarguments by asking yourself what someone who disagrees
with you might say about each of the points you’ve made or about your position as a
whole. Once you have thought up some counterarguments, consider how you will
respond to them–will you concede that your opponent has a point but explain why
your audience should nonetheless accept your argument? Will you reject the
counterargument and explain why it is mistaken? Either way, you will want to leave
your reader with a sense that your argument is stronger than opposing arguments.
When you are summarizing opposing arguments, be charitable. Present each
argument fairly and objectively, rather than trying to make it look foolish. You want
to show that you have seriously considered the many sides of the issue, and that you
are not simply attacking or mocking your opponents.
It is usually better to consider one or two serious counterarguments in some depth,
rather than to give a long but superficial list of many different counterarguments and
Be sure that your reply is consistent with your original argument. If considering a
counterargument changes your position, you will need to go back and revise your
original argument accordingly.
III. Your Argument
___A. Assert point #1 of your claims
_____1. Give your educated and informed opinion
_____2. Provide support/proof using more than one source (preferably three)
___B. Assert point #2 of your claims
_____1. Give your educated and informed opinion
_____2. Provide support/proof using more than one source (preferably three)
___C. Assert point #3 of your claims
_____1. Give your educated and informed opinion
_____2. Provide support/proof using more than one source (preferably three)
You may have more than 3 overall points to your argument, but you should
not have fewer.
IV. Conclusion
___A. Restate your argument
___B. Provide a plan of action but do not introduce new information
The simplest and most basic conclusion is one that restates the thesis in different
words and then discusses its implications.

Stating Your Thesis STatement

A thesis is a one-sentence statement about your topic. It’s an assertion about your
topic, something you claim to be true. Notice that a topic alone makes no such
claim; it merely defines an area to be covered. To make your topic into a thesis
statement, you need to make a claim about it, make it into a sentence. Look back
over your materials–brainstorms, investigative notes, etc.–and think about what
you believe to be true. Think about what your readers want or need to know. Then
write a sentence, preferably at this point, a simple one, stating what will be the
central idea of your paper. The result should look something like this:
Original Subject: an important issue in my major field
Focused Topic: media technology education for communication majors
Thesis: Theories of media technology deserve a more prominent place in this University’s
Communication program
Or if your investigations led you to a different belief:
Thesis: Communication majors at this University receive a solid background in
theories of media technology
It’s always good to have a thesis you can believe in.
Notice, though, that a sentence stating an obvious and indisputable truth
won’t work as a thesis:
Thesis: This University has a Communication major.
That’s a complete sentence, and it asserts something to be true, but as a thesis it’s a
dead end. It’s a statement of fact, pure and simple, and requires little or nothing
added. A good thesis asks to have more said about it. It demands some
proof. Your job is to show your reader that your thesis is true.

nursing care plan template

nursing care plan template

nursing care plan template

Write a nursing care plan on a patient diagnosed with dementia using nursing diagnosis. The rationale for the interventions should be evidence-based with recent peer-reviewed sources. Also please follow the attached instructions and guidelines and the NANDA diagnosis list assignment

Write 2 nursing care plan


How do you write a nursing care plan?

nursing care plan template

How to Proceed
• Connecting with patient X, compose and submit a Nursing Care Plan in relation to their individual needs using the template format below.
• Include one patient-specific, individualized nursing diagnosis (NANDA diagnosis). Each diagnosis should have one
one SMART goal, three interventions and three rationales for each intervention, and evaluation.
• The rationale for interventions should be appropriately cited evidence-based sources.


Nursing care plan format

Medical diagnosis: Dementia

Assessment Nursing diagnosis plan intervention rationale evaluation




How do you write a simple nursing care plan?


nursing care plan template

Observations and interaction from the interview

Patient X is born wit

h a chromosomal abnormality and has impaired memory. He has never been married and the only family he can remember is his brother who he missed so much. He is happy in his environment and likes everyone, especially the staff. He likes the food mostly and doesn’t really know any game. Despite his impaired memory, he talks a lot about his brother who is late. He is quiet

Patient X medical diagnosis

Type 2 diabetes



Chromosomal abnormality





Impaired speech,

Increased memory loss-forgets room number, cant operate a tv or radio anymore

Incontinent both day and night on both bladder and bowel requires supervision on both

Behaviours – wanders

Mobility is independent

Moderate impaired vision



Examples of Nursing Care Plan

nursing care plan template

Health Promotion

Health Awareness

  • Deficient diversional activity
  • Sedentary lifestyle

Health Management

  • Deficient community health
  • Risk-prone health behaviour
  • Ineffective health maintenance
  • Readiness for enhanced health maintenance
  • Readiness for enhanced immunization status
  • Ineffective protection
  • Ineffective self-health management
  • Readiness for enhanced self- health management
  • Ineffective family therapeutic regimen management



  • Insufficient breast milk
  • Ineffective infant feeding [pattern]
  • Imbalanced nutrition: less than body requirements
  • Imbalanced nutrition: more than body requirements
  • Risk for imbalanced nutrition more than body requirements
  • Readiness for enhanced nutrition
  • Impaired swallowing


Gastrointestinal function

  • Constipation
  • Perceived constipation
  • Risk for constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • Dysfunctional gastrointestinal motility
  • Risk for Dysfunctional gastrointestinal motility
  • Bowel incontinence

Respiratory function

  • Impaired gas exchange Activity and rest


  • Insomnia
  • Sleep deprivation
  • Readiness for enhanced sleep
  • Disturbed sleep pattern


  • Risk for disuse syndrome
  • Impaired bed mobility
  • Impaired physical mobility
  • Impaired wheelchair mobility
  • Impaired transfer ability
  • Impaired walking

Energy balance

  • Disturbed energy field
  • Fatigue
  • Wandering

Cardiovascular/pulmonary responses

  • Activity intolerance
  • Risk for activity intolerance
  • Ineffective breathing pattern
  • Decreased cardiac output
  • Risk for ineffective gastrointestinal perfusion
  • Risk for ineffective renal perfusion
  • Impaired spontaneous ventilation
  • Ineffective peripheral tissue perfusion
  • Risk for decreased cardiac tissue perfusion
  • Risk for ineffective cerebral tissue perfusion
  • Risk for peripheral tissue perfusion
  • Dysfunctional ventilator weaning response


  • Impaired home maintenance
  • Readiness for enhanced self-care
  • Bathing self-care deficit
  • Dressing self-care deficit
  • Feeding self-care deficit
  • Toileting self-care deficit
  • Self-neglect Perception/cognition Attention
  • Unilateral neglect


  • Impaired environmental interpretation syndrome


  • Acute confusion
  • Chronic confusion
  • Risk for acute confusion
  • Ineffective impulse control
  • Deficient knowledge
  • Readiness for enhanced knowledge
  • Impaired memory


  • Readiness foe enhanced communication
  • Impaired verbal communication Self-perception


  • Hopelessness
  • Risk for compromised human dignity
  • Risk for loneliness
  • Disturbed personal identity
  • Risk for disturbed personal identity
  • Readiness for enhanced self- concept

Self esteem

  • Chronic low self esteem
  • Risk for chronic low self esteem
  • Risk for situational low self esteem
  • Situational low self esteem

Body image

  • Disturbed body image Role relationships

Caregiving roles

  • Ineffefctive breastfeeding
  • Interrupted breast feeding
  • Readiness for enhanced breast feeding
  • Caregiver role strain
  • Risk for caregiver role strain
  • Impaired parenting
  • Readiness for enhanced parenting
  • Risk for impaired parenting

Family relationships

  • Risk for impaired attachment
  • Dysfunctional family process


  • Interrupted family processes
  • Readiness for enhanced family processes

Role performance

  • Ineffective relationship
  • Readiness for enhanced relationship
  • Risk for ineffective relationship
  • Parental role conflict
  • Ineffective role performance
  • Impaired social interaction



Sexual function

  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Ineffective sexual pattern


  • Ineffective childbearing process
  • Readiness for enhanced childbearing process
  • Risk for ineffective childbearing process
  • Risk for disturbed maternal-fetal dyad

Coping/Stress tolerance

Post trauma responses

  • Post-trauma syndrome
  • Risk for post trauma syndrome
  • Rape trauma syndrome
  • Relocation stress syndrome
  • Risk for relocation stress syndrome

Coping responses

  • Ineffective activity planning
  • Risk for ineffective activity planning
  • Anxiety
  • Compromised family coping
  • Defensive coping
  • Disabled family coping
  • Ineffective coping
  • Ineffective community coping
  • Readiness for enhanced coping
  • Readiness for enhanced community coping
  • Readiness for enhanced family coping
  • Death anxiety
  • Ineffective denial
  • Adult failure to thrive
  • Fear
  • Grieving
  • Complicated grieving
  • Risk for complicated grieving
  • Readiness for enhanced power
  • Powerlessness
  • Risk for powerlessness
  • Impaired individual resilience
  • Risk for compromised resilience
  • Chronic sorrow
  • Stress overload

Neurobehavioral stress

  • Risk for disorganized infant behaviour
  • Autonomic dysreflexia
  • Risk for autonomic dysreflexia
  • Disorganized infant behaviour
  • Readiness for enhanced organized infant behaviour
  • Decreased intracranial adaptive capacity

Life principles



  • Readiness for enhanced hope
  • Readiness for enhanced spiritual well-being

Values/beliefs/action congruence

  • Readiness for enhanced decision-making
  • Decisional conflict
  • Moral distress
  • Non compliance
  • Impaired religiosity
  • Readiness for enhanced religiosity
  • Risk for impaired religiosity
  • Spiritual distress
  • Risk for spiritual distress Safety /protection


  • Risk for infection

Physical injury

  • Ineffective airway clearance
  • Risk for aspiration
  • Risk for bleeding
  • Impaired dentation
  • Risk for dry eye
  • Risk for falls
  • Risk for injury
  • Impaired oral mucous membranes
  • Risk for perioperative positioning injury
  • Risk for peripheral neurovascular dysfunction
  • Risk for shock
  • Impaired skin integrity
  • Risk for sudden infant death syndrome
  • Risk for suffocation
  • Delayed surgical recovery
  • Risk for thermal injury
  • Impaired tissue integrity
  • Risk for trauma
  • Risk for vascular trauma


  • Risk for other-directed violence
  • Risk for self –directed violence
  • Self-mutilat8ion
  • Risk for self-mutilation
  • Risk for suicide

Environmental hazards

  • Contamination
  • Risk for contamination
  • Risk for poisoning

Defensive processes

  • Risk for adverse reaction to iodinated contrast media
  • Risk for allergy response
  • Latex allergy response
  • Risk for latex allergy response


  • Risk for imbalanced body temperature
  • Hyperthermia
  • Hypothermia
  • Ineffective thermoregulation Comfort

Physical comfort

  • Impaired comfort
  • Readiness for enhanced comfort
  • Nausea
  • Acute pain
  • Chronic pain

Environmental comfort

  • Impaired comfort
  • Readiness for enhanced comfort

Social comfort

  • Impaired comfort
  • Social isolation Growth and development Growth
  • Risk for disproportionate growth
  • Delayed growth and development


  • Risk for delayed development
  • Delayed growth and development




Adapted from:

Herdman, T.H. (Ed.) NANDA International Nursing Diagnoses: Definitions & Classifications, 2012-2014. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.



Why a Strong Thesis Statement is Important For an Essay

Why a Strong Thesis Statement is Important For an Essay

Strong Thesis Statement

A thesis statement is a single sentence that provides a summary of the ideas discussed within the paper. The statement often comes at the end of the first paragraph and states the major points that the writer wishes to convey throughout the paper. Establishing the statement helps the writer in structuring the rest of the essay around the concepts under discussion. Within the academic setting, understanding the importance of a thesis and how to develop a strong statement is necessary considering the vast amount of essays one will need to write. Essentially, the thesis is an imperative element that defines a strong essay while providing a unified direction.

Importance of a strong thesis

A strong thesis statement helps in creating a focus for the main ideas within the essay. It is necessary that a writer defines the main idea of the paper in few sentences that will create a clear idea for the paper. The implication is that the thesis helps the paper remain organized and hence there will be a clear structure from the beginning to the end. A poorly written thesis statement means that the writer will have a difficult time organizing and focusing his points. The outcomes will be an ineffectively structured essay without clear ideas and hence the inability to argue out the intended points.

A strong thesis statement is also critical in helping the reader understand and follow the main ideas of the essay. With the thesis coming at the end of the introduction, this means that it sets the reader up for the rest of the paper. Based on what the writer presents in the thesis statement, the reader expects to find the evidence within the body. The statement should also be concise as it helps in quick comprehension of the major issues (Faryadi, 2018). The reader is already aware of what to expect in the paper. The implication is that a strong thesis statement will present a clearly structured paper that is less cumbersome to read.

Developing a strong thesis statement

In developing a strong thesis statement for an essay, the writer needs to follow several steps as outlined below.

Focus on one topic– a strong thesis statement begins with the identification of the topic that the writer intends to deal with. Focusing on one topic is pertinent as it limits the writer from wandering around. Having a strong essay depends on how well the writer argues out the points and this can only take place within the confines of a narrow topic.

Defining the research question– after topic selection, the writer should pose the research question that the essay seeks to answer. The research question becomes a guide on the areas that the writer should focus on.

Brainstorming the ideas– a strong thesis statement is only effective if the writer can defend it with evidence. Brainstorming involves considering the arguments that will be part of the paper. The step also involves the consideration of the counterarguments that are likely to emerge considering the selected topic. After brainstorming different ideas, one should come up with a concise answer to the research question.

Crafting the thesis statement- considering all the previous steps, the writer should then craft a thesis statement in one or two sentences. The thesis should capture the answer to the research question as well as the counterargument. It is important to revise the thesis statement in ensuring that it captures all the elements that the essay will discuss.

Developing a strong thesis statement is the most important part of the writing process. It delineates the points that the writer intends to argue out in the paper and helps in organizing a structured essay. For the reader, it highlights the expectations within the essay and the expected conclusions.


For any essay, order here




Faryadi, Q. (2018). PhD Thesis Writing Process: A Systematic Approach—How to Write Your Introduction. Creative Education, 9, 2534-2545. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED590321.pdf

How did the United Nations respond to Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait?

How did the United Nations respond to Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait?

Iraq Invasion of Kuwait and role of UN
Iraq Invasion of Kuwait and role of UN

How did the United Nations respond to Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait? Conflicts between nations are a common part of international relations and emerge from competition for power and resources. On August 2, 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait following a conflict around oil resources and decades-old border disputes. The event prompted an immediate response from the UN Security Council but Iraq failed to heed the declarations. The Iraq invasion of Kuwait led to a seven-month occupation defined by destruction and the involvement of foreign forces. Although the response by the UN was prompt, it has been subject to criticism by having set a dubious precedent away from peace and humanitarian principles.

Iraq invades Kuwait      

Since the month of July 1990, Iraq and Kuwait were in a wave of intense confrontation due to oil prices. Both Kuwait and Iraq are oil producers and members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Iraq had just ended its war with Iran and had significant debts to pay and its economy was reliant on oil. As such, it was necessary for the oil prices to remain high so that Iraq could have access to adequate resources to service its debts and maintain economic functioning. In July, oil prices dropped from $18 to $12 a barrel and Iraq placed the blame on the United Arab Emirates and Kuwait. According to Iraq, the two countries were overproducing oil in blatant disregard of the quotas set by OPEC yet this was affecting its economy to a great extent. Coupled with the fact that Iraq had some border disputes with Kuwait, this precipitated the attack of August 2.

Prior to the full-blown war between the two countries, Saudi Arabia and Egypt tried to mediate and Iraq provided the reassurance that it could not deploy armed forces against neighboring countries. Despite this, Iraq attacked Kuwait and announced the unification of the two countries on August 8.


Why did the US and UN oppose Iraq invading Kuwait?

How did the United Nations respond to Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait?

Role of the UN

The response by the UN was on the same day of the attack where it noted that Iraq was violating international law and the basic order of the international community. The UN Security Council adopted Resolution 660 requiring that Iraq withdraw its forces immediately and without condition. The United Nations also responded by instituting mandatory arms and economic sanctions against Iraq.

Even with such responses, Iraq was unwilling to give up its position in Kuwait and hence continued with the occupation of the country. The disregard for the directives of the UN would later have greater implications and define the course of the gulf war.

Later sanctions and resolutions by the UN indicated the regard that it was directed to the Iraq-Kuwait issue. In a period of 4 months, the UN Security Council adopted 12 resolutions regarding the situation in Kuwait (United Nations, 2003). Resolution 678 granted permission to member states that were cooperating with Kuwait to use all necessary means in compelling Iraq to uphold international peace, if it did not comply with previously issued resolutions by January 15, 1991. With Iraq failing to honor the resolution by the stipulated date, cooperating member states began air attacks against the country on January 16th with ground forces beginning their offensive in February.



Why did the United States intervene in the conflicts between Iraq and Iran and between Iraq and Kuwait?

How did the United Nations respond to Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait?

During the peace restoring efforts by the international community, a variety of countries were involved in the process. Forces from 28 countries were deployed in the Gulf to enforce the economic sanctions against Iraq while also restraining it from further attacking Kuwait. The use of multinational forces in bringing Iraq to account ended on February 28 after the country agreed to honor the resolutions by the council. Much as the war came to an end, Iraq was subject to further resolutions by the UN over a period of several years on issues linked to reparations and boundary demarcations.

The UN response to the Gulf crisis has been subject to criticism mainly based on the view that the United States was using the global body to advance its interests. According to Khan (1994), the world’s most powerful states under the US command used the UN as a cover to unleash war on a third world country whose ruler did not appreciate the vitality of the US interests in the region. Evidence of such claims is in the fact that the US was already organizing the use of force soon after Iraq invaded Kuwait. The US sought the use of force from the UN after having decided on an approach and timetable for military action. The US had the power to manipulate the Security Council and it needed the war to affirm and show the world that it was a hegemon.

Watershed moment

The Iraq-Kuwait war was a watershed moment as regards the response of the UN to global conflicts. The war was acclaimed as a victory for the United States thereby indicating a new world order and the end of bipolarity. Questions remain on how to ensure that the UN charters do not face violations in a similar way. Further, the role of the UN in international conflict remains a point of contention considering that it does not follow similar responses in other disputes.

For such and more work contact us



Khan, S. (1994). US abuse of UN in the Gulf war. Economic and Political Weekly, 29(35), 2277-2282

United Nations. (2003). Iraq/Kuwait – UNIKOM – Background. https://peacekeeping.un.org/sites/default/files/past/unikom/background.html

Causes of school shootings in America

Causes of school shootings in America










School shootings in America

“Gun violence is a public health crisis that claims lives every day.” These were the words from a statement by Michigan Governor Gretchen Whitman after a shooting at Oxford High School on November 30, 2021, that killed four students. While mass shootings are a significant problem, this becomes even more profound considering the number of school shootings in America. The shooting at Oxford High School is only one of the 222 school shootings in 2021 alone, indicating the highest incidence of this problem. When such events occur, questions arise, and debates emerge on who is to blame or what would have been done differently, but no significant change is ever pursued.

As the world deals with the covid-19 pandemic, America has to address the crisis of school shootings again. For how long will parents lose their children from such unfortunate events? Are responsible individuals and authorities doing enough? What is the source of the problem, and what is the most effective response? These are recurring questions, but the answers may not be easily found in the complex web of social-political issues around the guns control debate in America.


Prevalence of school shootings in the United States


On July 26, 1764, four American Indians entered a school in Greencastle, Pennsylvania, where they shot a killed nine pupils and the schoolmaster. The event is one of the earliest recorded school shooting incidences in America. Although not much is on record regarding such incidents in the previous centuries, the Center for Homeland Defense and Security (CHDS) has maintained the K-12 School Shooting Database since 1970. As the figure below projects, the incidences have been rising and falling with 2021, indicating the highest rate of school shootings.

Figure 1


Incidents of mass shootings








(CHDS, 2021)

Such statistics point to the existence of a problem and the need to adopt effective measures. The 2021 school year suffered the effects of the covid-19 pandemic, such that students spent a substantial amount of time at home or schooled via virtual means. Despite the limited time within the school setting, the year has had the highest school-related shootings. In September, when students were reporting back to school, there were 151 school shooting threats, up from an average of 29 in three years (Densley & Peterson, 2021). Compared to the previous year, the school shootings in September were more than double.

Could the impacts of the covid-19 pandemic be an influencing factor in the prevalence of the problem? As will be discussed further on, mental health issues play a part in the emergence of such behaviour. With the covid pandemic affecting the mental wellbeing of individuals, one cannot negate the likely impact of such pressures on poor decision making that leads to school shootings.    




Factors influencing gun violence in institutions



  1. Gun legislation and public administration failure

Children have access to guns due to their abundance and the lack of effective policies that control usage. Gun legislation remains the biggest challenge to dealing with school shooting incidences that have been prevalent in the past few years. After every shooting incident, public debate emerges on the best course of action, but no concrete action is taken towards gun legislation. An element of the discourse on gun legislation is the polarized response by different interest groups. An example is that while gun rights activists such as the NRA points to the need for more guns to protect Americans, gun control activists urge Congress to ensure gun control and limit access to guns.

For public administration officials at the federal and state level, the NRA has been a significant impediment in coming up with legislation on gun control. The group spends millions of dollars annually in activism against gun legislation. Some of the actions include bribing politicians, funding their campaigns, and instigating propaganda. The indecisiveness from the public administration and efforts from groups such as NRA impede the adoption of gun legislation that would control access to weapons by the public and school going kids.

  1. Mental health issues

The perpetrators of school shootings are largely current or former students well known to the victims. In a report by Paolini (2015), 41% of perpetrators are mainstream students, and 78% had suicidal attempts in the past or suicidal ideation. Research is rife with evidence that the majority of the shooters suffer from some mental health problems. Traumatized shooters often come from dysfunctional homes or have had exposure to criminal behaviour and substance abuse. Beyond this, some shooters point to the fact that they have been victims of bullying in the past, and their actions seek revenge. From such elements, mental health issues emerge as factors influencing the prevalence of school shootings.

Since the onset of the covid pandemic, there have been links between the crisis and increased mental health concerns. More individuals are suffering from anxiety and depressive disorder that leads to alcohol and substances abuse. Students and young adults are equally feeling the pressures of the pandemic and hence also suffer from mental health issues. The exacerbating effect of the pandemic on mental wellbeing may explain the increase in school shootings within September.

Educators and authorities are doing little to address the problem, even with the knowledge of such mental health issues and their impacts. After the Columbine High School shooting of 1999, studies by the FBI and the Secret Service established the need for schools to adopt a behavioural threat assessment approach. School and community commitment to such approaches have been minimal, as evidenced by the rise in school shootings resulting from mental health issues.

What to do

While blame for school shootings can be directed to various parties, there is a need for proactive action in dealing with the problem. The federal and state administrations have to pursue legislation and programs that guarantee the safety of children as they seek education. Parents and educators have a role to play in thwarting negative outcomes through effective interventions in the developmental phase of children. Ultimately, the country needs to move from debates and pursue concrete action to alleviate this pandemic.

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Center for Homeland Defense and Security. (2021). K-12 School Shooting Database. https://www.chds.us/ssdb/view-chart/?chartid=8

Densley, J., & Peterson, J. (2021). School shootings are at a record high this year – but they can be prevented. https://theconversation.com/school-shootings-are-at-a-record-high-this-year-but-they-can-be-prevented-173027

Paolini, A. (2015). School Shootings and Student Mental Health: Role of the School Counselor in Mitigating Violence. https://www.counseling.org/docs/default-source/vistas/school-shootings-and-student-mental-health.p


16 Discussion questions

16 Discussion questions.   
Assignment Question(s)
Using a minimum of 150 words, address the following:
· Discuss the different approaches of the federal government toward the Plains Indians.
Assignment Question(s)
Using a minimum of 150 words, address the following:
· How did the notion of the freedom of contract create opportunities and constraints on liberty?
Assignment Question(s)
Using a minimum of 150 words, address the following:
· Discuss the reasons why Americans were drawn to overseas expansion in the late nineteenth century.
Assignment Question(s)
Using a minimum of 150 words, address the following:
· What were the origins and goals of the “new feminism”?
Assignment Question(s)
Using a minimum of 150 words, address the following:
· Discuss the reasons and the outcome of American intervention in Mexico.
Assignment Question(s)
Using a minimum of 150 words, address the following:
· Explain Woodrow Wilson’s vision for peace after World War I.
Assignment Question(s)
Using a minimum of 150 words, address the following: 
· What role did race play in the fundamentalist orientation of conservative Americans in the 1920s?
Assignment Question(s)
Using a minimum of 150 words, address the following: 
· How did the Roosevelt administration design Social Security?
Assignment Question(s)
Using a minimum of 150 words, address the following: 
· How did women’s lives change during World War II?
Assignment Question(s)
Using a minimum of 150 words, address the following: 
· Explain why the United States developed and deployed the atomic bomb during World War II.
Using a minimum of 150 words, address the following: 
· Explain the emergency of the Truman Doctrine.
Assignment Question(s)
Using a minimum of 150 words, address the following: 
· What distinguished President Eisenhower’s “Modern Republicanism” from his party’s policies in the past?
Assignment Question(s)
Using a minimum of 150 words, address the following: 
· How did Lyndon B. Johnson make the Vietnam War his own?
Assignment Question(s)
Using a minimum of 150 words, address the following: 
· How did the U.S. economy end up suffering both from inflation and high unemployment?
Assignment Question(s)
Using a minimum of 150 words, address the following: 
· How did the United States get into the first Gulf War in 1991?
Assignment Question(s)
Using a minimum of 150 words, address the following: 
· Explain the causes of the Great Recession.

16 Discussion questions


WEEK 8 HSA599.  

Role of the Healthcare Administrator
As you complete your studies as a master’s prepared healthcare administrator, what role do you envision for yourself? As you know by now there are many roles and areas of specialty to choose. Since you have almost completed your Master’s degree, imagine you have been asked by your Dean to make a presentation to a group of undergraduate students considering becoming Healthcare Administrators. Your ultimate goal is to sell a Healthcare Administrator career to this group of undergraduate students by providing them an overview of a Healthcare Administration and then personalizing it to how you envision healthcare will succeed in the next decade.
Instructions and Grading Criteria
Write a 1–2 page executive summary of your presentation, plus a 3–5 page paper where you will synthesize the functions of the master’s prepared healthcare administrator, including role, responsibilities, and priorities. You will also need to touch on all major components of a Healthcare Administrator, such as, but not limited to human resources, finance, information technology, regulatory, and leadership.
The grading criteria for this assignment is as follows. Your executive summary and paper must include the elements listed below so be sure to address each point. You may also want to review the performance level descriptions for each criterion in the scoring guide to see how your work will be assessed:

Provide executive summary a healthcare administrator’s job responsibilities.
Outline at least six specific components of a health care administrator.
Describe successful leadership traits for the six identified healthcare administrator functions.
Analyze current healthcare challenges confronting healthcare administration professionals.
Summarize the knowledge and skills necessary for healthcare leaders to succeed for the next ten years.
Use at least three quality academic references.

Use the Strayer Library. Note: Wikipedia and similar websites do not qualify as academic resources.

Meet clarity, writing mechanics, and formatting requirements.
Assignment Format

On the executive summary provide a cover page with your name, the course number and course title, your professor’s name, the university’s name, and the date.
Include a 1–2 page executive summary of your presentation after the cover page and before the assignment.
Work should be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides.
Strayer Writing Standards
This course requires use of new Strayer Writing Standards (SWS). The format is different than other Strayer University courses. Please take a moment to review the SWS documentation for details.

Citations and references must follow SWS or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.

By submitting this paper, you agree: (1) that you are submitting your paper to be used and stored as part of the SafeAssign™ services in accordance with the Blackboard Privacy Policy; (2) that your institution may use your paper in accordance with your institution’s policies; and (3) that your use of SafeAssign will be without recourse against Blackboard Inc. and its affiliates.
Institution Release Statement


Book and course overview

Book and course overview. Kindly ensure you get this right and discuss relevant topics

 Instructions: A reflections paper on this course readings, exercises and weekly discussion posts. The paper should be at least 4 pages long.  The paper should include:
•       A brief summary of your course experience.
•       Identify and explain relevant conceptual material (theories, concepts) from the course.
•       How the course concept/idea/theory may or will change your future actions/activities.
The paper must by at least 4 pages double-spaced, 1″ margin all around, black 12 point fonts (Times New Roman, Arial, or Courier) with correct citations of all utilized references/sources. 
– Synthesis of Concepts
– Writing Standards – APA format
– Timeliness

Link to the course book: The Tao of Network Security Monitoring

Number of Pages: 4 Pages

Page Line Spacing: Double spaced (Default)

Deadline: 4 days

Academic Level: College

Paper Format: APA 

Book and course overview