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Ethics

Ethics in Negotiation

Ethics in Negotiation.
A negotiation is a situation in which two or more people are involved in a conversation, trying to reach an agreement about an exchange, distribution of benefits or job roles. Negotiations also result in other accepting the information that they are provided with therefore ethics are the firsthand priority in negotiations. Some negotiators believe that they can get away with lying to acquire the most, but some do believe that cheating can cost their credibility. An ethical negotiation is the one which is clean from any kind of deception.

Deception is an act which fortifies a false conception of the other party either through lying or through the omission of important information. It is not necessary that only through verbal actions one can deceive people but deception also comprises of instances when through non- verbal actions a false conception can be strengthened. Deceiving acts are those acts which makes a false belief stronger but not those which do not fortifies a wrong conception. Steven P. Cohen The success of negotiation lies to a great extent on the quality of the information exchanged.

There can be ethical lapses in the information that is provided by the party participating in the negotiation. Ethical Lapse There are several unethical tactics which can be used in a negotiation: • Lies: it can use in making false commitments, showing untruthful intentions, disclosing available resources, in explaining one’s constraints etc. • Puffery: there are several objectives that can be puffed up in the negotiation such as negotiator’s own alternatives as compared to the opponent’s, the cost of the object that he is selling, importance of the matters in hand and the qualities of the product or service.
• Deception: statements by negotiator can include false promises or even false threats, excessive demand, misinterpreting the facts, or demanding for concessions that are not needed. • Weakening the opponent: eliminating the opponent’s alternatives, undermining them in one or the other way, blaming the opponent which reduces his confidence level, using abrasive statements for the opponent or even with him. • Strengthening one’s own position: this tactic uses alliances, expertise and building up one’s resources.
It also includes using persuasive facts which makes the negotiator look stronger, such as misuse of the media and using an authority for one’s position. • Nondisclosure: includes disclosing the facts partially and not completely, not disclosing a hidden fact, fortifying opponent’s misperception, and concealing one’s own actual position. • Information exploitation: any important information provided by the opponent can also be used to exploit the opponent’s weaknesses, creating demands against the opponent and weakening its group.
• Change of mind: it means behaving which was not predicted which includes changing decisions at the last moment, accepting other parties’ offers which were claimed not to be accepted, change in demands and conditions, denying the promises that were made before. • Distraction: distracting acts or statements can be quite simple but they could leave a huge impact. Providing excessive information so that opponents start suffering from information overload, asking too many questions, interrupting opponent’s questions, try to hide the issue that could put negotiators at a disadvantage.
It could also lead to complex actions such as shamming one weakness to such an extent that opponents start concentrating on it and are left with no time to observe other weaknesses. • Maximization: includes making demands that put opponent at a disadvantage and demanding concessions that maximize negotiator’s profits but leads to opponent’s loss. It also includes changing the position from win-win situation to win-lose situation. Reitz, H. Joseph Deception is done by the people during negotiations so as to benefit themselves and purely for their own self interest.
Self interest is something which gives the deceiving party the maximum benefit, which no other action can provide. Self- interest actions are self- centered actions which are usually material focused; they are performed to maximize the welfare at the personal level. Such self centered actions, which are deceiving, are unethical during the negotiation which harms the other party. People with low self conscience do not feel guilty after being unethical in the negotiation and they enjoy making fool out of other people.
Such people also do not share any religious beliefs which help them in differentiating lawful from unlawful acts. People tend to forget ethics in the negotiation when they are highly motivated towards their personal well-being. Self interest motives are omnipotent in people who are negotiating for their personal business but in conscience people, who believe in being ethical; such motives do not play a powerful role. Some people can also be indifferent towards their personal benefit especially when they are negotiating on behalf of some organization.
Ethical norms in negotiation are usually broken due to opportunism or desperation. When it becomes too hard for the party to let go of an opportunity, they lead the unethical path. Desperation arises when a party wants to spare itself from any kind of loss. Such situations can be really tempting and therefore could astray a party from the ethical way of dealing. In other words it could also be said that the members belonging to such parties face the problem of weakness of the will.
Any individual, no matter what his background is, can fall for such temptations which bound him to compromise on ethical norms. They are myriad chances that we come across such negotiators who believe that concealing the true information from the opponent party are the true elements of negotiation, therefore they would mislead their opponent at every possible chance. But there are others as well who believe that even if the deception is unnoticeable, it can be costly.
Once the negotiator loses his reputation, it is difficult to gain it back which could lead to an immense hindrance in the future business deals. During the negotiation process it is likely that one party would have information to a greater extent than the other party. For example if a party is selling a second hand good to a potential buyer, it is the selling party who would know the exact information about the good and not the buyer, that is the seller would know the flaws of the good. It would be the seller’s choice to deal the negotiation through ethical means or not.
If the seller portrays the good as a flawless object he could sell it at higher price but it would be an unethical way of carrying out a negotiation. The higher the quality of the good being sold, the higher the price the buyer would be willing to pay. Such situations can be really tempting for the seller to use some aspect of deception. But on the other hand if the other party in the negotiation, that is the buyer, is smart, he would notice the incentive the seller would have to cheat. That could lead distrustful situation among the two parties.
Even if the seller is being honest about the quality of the good, it would be difficult for the buyer to believe his words. The buyer not believing the statement of the seller would only be willing to pay low quality price and it would lead the seller to produce low quality good, it is like a viscous cycle. Even if the buyer and the seller were better off at producing high quality good and paying high quality price, they would be at disadvantage due to the distrust borne in the negotiation. Peter C. Cramton and J. Gregory Dees. Conditions which can make deception more likely are when:
• The party is at far greater advantage by deceiving or cheating than by dealing the negotiation with honesty. • The information provided by the party and the actual information cannot be compared. • It is difficult to judge the intentions of the party involved in the negotiation. • Verification of the facts of the provided by the party is hard due to lack of resources to protecting oneself from falling for deception. • The parties do not meet often and their interaction is infrequent. • In case deception is discovered, the compensation is difficult to take place.
• The history of the reputation of the party involved in the negotiation is not available, or it is arduous to acquire. Culture at Work. There are several reasons for negotiators to amiss the ethical of dealing during the negotiation. The most common reason of deception is to maximize the profits; the temptation of gaining money through little or large deception can compel the negotiators to adopt unethical ways. Sometimes external pressure, either professional or personal, can blend unethical element in the negotiations, such promotion in the office or personal financial situation.
Competition from other companies is another reason of deception, to make your company move ahead from its competitors through unethical means can make a company look like a successful one. If negotiation gives a party an immediate profitable return then the parties do get tempted to achieve that return even if they cannot acquire it through ethical means. Past experiences of deceiving in the negotiation and achieving the desired outcome, can motivate the same party to carry out the act of deception once again and this goes on and on.
They start enjoying the acquirement of quested result through unethical motives. Radu Ionescu As an opponent party one can get the hint of deception if the other party is providing with some ambiguous points or there is uncertainty in their discussion. If there is lack of commitment from the other party then it could be likely that it is involved in some deceiving acts. Even a little unwillingness by the party to provide complete or important part of information should alert the opponents because there are high chances of unethical motives involved in the negotiation.
If a party fails to verify any kind of information that is provided by it, then that information cannot be classified as free from deception. Conflicting verbal and non-verbal actions should put the opponent on guard. Defending once stance to an extent that seems odd, aggressiveness during negotiation and competing with other parties when it is not essential, can be due to the fact that the negotiator is trying to curtail the deception involved in the negotiation. William Freivogel

Ethics in Negotiation

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Ethics

Ethics Position Paper

Ethics Position Paper.
Ethics Position Paper Q575 – Dr. Elliot June 7, 2010 University of Phoenix Introduction Today, people can make decisions that can have a profoundly positive or negative effect on their family, their employer, coworkers, a nation, and even on the entire world. The life we lead whether professional or personal reflects the strength of a single trait: our personal character. Ethics are different for each person both on a professional and personal level.
For the most part, people want to be known as a good person, someone who can be trusted, and that he or she is concerned about his or her relationships and personal reputations. I therefore conclude that professional ethics are indeed influenced by personal ethics and values. Although professional ethics guidelines are provided by our government (federal and local), employer and education, personal values and ethics are also considered at the same time. What are Ethics? Let’s begin with the definition of ethics.
Ethics can be defined with more than one meaning based upon the context and subject it is being used. In philosophy, ethics is the study and evaluation of human conduct in the light of moral principles. Moral principles may be viewed either as the standard of conduct that individuals have constructed for themselves or as the body of obligations and duties that a particular society requires of its members. A second definition or meaning of ethics is motivation-based on ideas of right and wrong.

Portman defines ethics as “standards of conduct, standards that indicate how one should behave based on moral duties and virtues, which themselves are derived from principles of right and wrong. In order to apply this definition to practical decision making it is necessary to specify the nature of the moral obligations considered intrinsic to ethical behavior” (http://sun. menloschool. org/~sportman/ethics/definition. html). I agree with this definition in fact I believe that ethics are different for every person due to personal values and experiences.
There are general ethics that most people adhere to because of the societal mores and morals we all have been exposed to and abide by. There are also other morals and mores that are picked up along the way that vary between people because of cultures, communities, families, heredity etc. I feel that I may not look at the same situation or case the same as another person and we may never agree upon the same methods to go about resolving an issue. This occurs because we all have differences of opinions and value systems.
For example, I have nothing against people who are gay I just do not encourage nor discourage the behavior; I allow others to live their lives according to what is best for them. The same goes with ethics. Although my job may say I must intervene in a situation but my own personal ethics prevent me from acting professionally because I feel people should be allowed to live and learn. Overall, ethics and ethical positions will vary from researcher to researcher because they do not have all of the same goals nor do they see things in the “same light”.
Ethics in Educational Research Although I think that ethics vary between individuals I believe that professional ethics are important in protecting those participants of research. I do not think that research should be based on the personal interests of the researcher but I think every person has a level of discernment that should be used especially when other lives are involved. General ethics play a huge role in education because first education is where ethics are taught.
After learning about ethics students can then analyze the ethics they can identify and it soon becomes apparent that ethics are involved in most life situations. As future teacher honesty would be my biggest ethical commitment. I choose honesty because with today’s technology and increased use of online educational institutions, people can copy and paste whatever they need in order to be successful. Student’s academic honesty will help me to give them the accurate grade they deserve and not have to punish students who are caught cheating/plagiarizing information.
Ethics also keep researchers from publishing false information and also prevent them from being lazy about the research. Mainly it protects the participants of research and also protects the researcher from being accused of unethical practice if they indeed follow those practices. Ethics and Today I recently heard a report on the news that the World Health Organization is being accused of over exaggerating the Swine flu pandemic. When I first heard about Swine flu I believed that is was a scare tactic in order to get people to get those shots.
WHO performed unethically in my opinion however they believe that many people died from this disease and the swine flu should not be minimized. Ethics today are still very important especially when other people’s lives are involved. While some people find it easy to break ethical standards others follow the guidelines and remain neutral. The swine flu pandemic created worried people and families going in masses to get the vaccine. Today we still need ethics because not every has the best interest of others when conducting research. Federal standards require research to abide by ethical standards.
It is up to each individual to utilize those standards and incorporate them into personal values that may influence society later. Conclusion Ethics vary from person to person due to the differences in values and cultural backgrounds and even education. We do not all interpret information the same way and therefore will not be able to apply the same amount or ethics in any given situation. Furthermore professional and personal ethics affect each other depending upon the specific situation being researched. Also every subject will yield a different set of ethics and values.
Therefore ethics are not only subjective in content but objective in nature. References McMillan, J. , & Schmacher, S. (2006). Ch. 6 Ethical and Legal Considerations. Research in Education: Evidence-Based Inquiry, Sixth Edition, Pearson Education, Inc. McMillan, J. , & Schmacher, S. (2006). Ch. 12 Research Ethics: Roles and Reciprocity. Research in Education: Evidence-Based Inquiry, Sixth Edition, Pearson Education, Inc. Portman, S. (unknown). What are ethics? Retrieved from http://sun. menloschool. org/~sportman/ethics/definition. html

Ethics Position Paper

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Essay On Ethics In Management

Essay On Ethics In Management.
However, under the utilitarian theory certain individual rights are expected to be sacrificed for the benefits of whole group (Robbins et al. , 2012). The right view of ethics relies on the foundation that everybody in a society is entitled to certain guaranteed rights. This ethical principle is highly concerned about protecting and respecting the basic rights, such as the privacy right, the property right, and the free speech right. In this case. People are allowed to exercise their basic rights.
On the other hand, it may result in poor productivity because the extremely high freedom for employees will lead to unrestrained working atmosphere (Robbins et al_, 2012). The theory of Justice view of ethics is an approach that everyone should be treated equally or fairly. For example, in an organization, there are rules and regulations formed by directors. All the rewards which are provided to the employees should be based on these regulated standards instead of personal preference. Managers who follow this view will think that paying people more based on their hard working or great amount of contribution Is the true fairness.
It protects the interests of people who are underrepresented. But the disadvantage of Justice view is that it may discourage employees from making some risky innovations. Eventually, companies are hard to be evolved (Robbins et al. , 2012). The Integrative social contracts theory builds the ethical standards on the basis of existing social norms. To be more specific, managers who follow this view will act ethically based on the local norms in Industries and communities. This theory believe that It can Increase the local welfare, recognize and respect the rights of all people, and minimize harm.

However, the integrative social contracts theory will carry some drawbacks like arguments due to f Ethics In my opinion, ethic is doing the things which are right to do, and will be beneficial for the society as well. When people are doing things that will help the society better, they are acting in the ethical way. In human societies, there are plenty of moral norms and rules which had formed and existed invisibly. Sometimes, the power of restriction of these rules is much more effective than the specific law. People will obey these regulations not because of fearing punishments for breaking rules, but for the morality of lives.
This deterrent power is extremely strong and useful in the society, especially in civilization. Apparently, this invisible power comes from the ethics. That is how ethics make effects on every part of society. It gives a shared value which is held by everyone with the same background and culture. Not only individuals but also organizations should recognize the importance of social ethics. 3. Examples of Poor Ethics in the Business World Lack of Compassion: Wall-Mart Wall-Mart is the world’s second largest public corporation.
In addition, it is the number one retailer in the world as well. But its riches equal its controversies. This story is probably the most apt at describing the unethical treatment of its workers, cause of the sheer senselessness of it. In 2000, a collision with a semi-trailer left 52-year-old Deborah Shank with permanent brain damage and in a wheelchair. Her husband and three sons were fortunate for a $700,000 accident settlement from the trucking company. After legal costs and other expenses, the remaining $417,000 was put in a special trust to care for Mrs..
Shank. However, six years later the providers of Mrs.. Shanks health plan, Wall-Mart, sued the Shanks for the $470,000 it had spent on her medical care. Wall-Mart was fully entitled to the money; in the fine print of Mrs.. Shanks employment contract it said that money won in damages after an accident belonged to Wall-Mart. A federal Judge had to rule in favor of Wall-Mart, and the family of Mrs.. Shank had to rely on Medicaid and social-security payments for her round-the-clock care. Wall-Mart may be reversing the decision after public outcry.
However, this case pinpoints Wall-Mart’s often criticized treatment of employees as a commodity and its sometimes inhuman business ethics (Haynes, 2011). Dumping Toxic Waste and Gagging the Media: Trauma Transfigure is a multinational formed in 1993, trading in base metals and energy, including oil. It makes almost 80 billion USED a year. In 2006, it caused a health crisis affecting 108,000 people, after a ship leased by the company was told that, due to toxicity levels higher than expected, the price of transferring the waste on board to the processing plant in the Netherlands had increased twenty-fold.
To avoid the charge, Trauma ordered the ship to dock at other seaports until they could find someone who would dump the waste. At Abidjan, Cöet divorce, the waste was handed over to a newly formed dumping company, Comparing Tommy, which illegally dumped the waste, instead of processing it. Many people there became sick due to exposure to the waste, and investigations began to determine whether it was intentionally dumped by Trauma. Trauma said in a press statement that their tests showed the waste not to be as toxic as had been claimed.
This was proven false by a 2009 UN report posted by Weeklies. When newspapers came to publish their own lawyers and started firing legal notices to all news outlets which were saying there was a connection between the dumping and the injuries reported in the Ivory Coast. The Guardian newspaper had conclusive evidence that Trauma knew of the dumping, and had a report they were ready to publish. However, the libel firm hired by Trauma applied for a super-injunction so that the paper couldn’t publish the report until a court decision was made (Leigh, 2009).
Abusing Human Rights by Using Military Force: Chevron In the ass, the Nigerian government forced them to abandon their land to oil companies without consultation, and offering negligible compensation. The government took control of this land so that it could be distributed to the oil companies. Resistance movements of the native people turned violent in the early ass, and were threatening to disrupt the operations with mass action. This led to the government declaring that disturbing oil production was an act of treason.
Chevron had a military base at their Socrates facility, in the Delta State of Nigeria, which housed over a hundred soldiers. In 1999, when leaders of the Kiang people came to negotiate with the soldiers, who were already attacking different villages, they were shot at and up to 62 people were killed by the soldiers, including a seven-year-old girl. The soldiers proceeded to set the villages ablaze, kill livestock and destroy fishing equipment (Squire, 2010). 4. Example of Good Organizational Ethics Ethical Website: EBay EBay Inc. Is a corporation that people always connect it with online auction and shopping.
In fact, eBay had built a website which is more than Just shopping. In 2008, eBay published a website which named Worldwide. Com, offering goods produced with social and environmental goals in mind. EBay developed the site with World of Good, a startup focused on ethical supply chains behind consumer products, and licensed the group’s name for the marketplace. World of Good will get a share of the revenue from the site, which had been operating for the past six months as an online immunity focused on the social impact of business.
The site will sell fixed-price goods that purportedly have some positive effect on people and the planet. The goal is to help consumers align their social values with their shopping decisions (Meet, 2008). 5. Creating an Ethical Culture a. Establishing Definite Codes of Ethics To avoid ambiguity, an organization can conduct clearly formal ethical rules which will make employees easily recognize these rules and then obey them. For an ethical company, it is always important to establish a fundamental value as the spirit of organization. Ethical Leadership It is necessary to have ethical leaders while we are founding an organization ethically. In an organization, employees will consider the behavior of top manager as a model of what’s acceptable behavior in the workplace. When senior managers are observed to take the ethical high road, it sends a positive message to all employees (Robbins et al. , 2012). C. Rewards for Ethical Actions and Punishment for Unethical Actions Managers can set up distinct rewards for employees who achieve goals and follow the organization’s code of ethics at the same time.
While people who CT ethically should be visibly rewarded for their behavior, the unethical actions Organizations can offer workshops, seminars, and other ethical training programs to educate employees. Use these training sessions to reinforce the organization’s standards of conduct, to clarify what practices are and are not permissible, and to eliminate possible ethical dilemmas. E. Formal Protective Mechanisms To encourage employees to act ethically, organizations should supply formal protective mechanisms. By providing designate ethics counseling apartment, employees are able to discuss and share ethical predicaments.

Essay On Ethics In Management

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Computer Crimes Ethics

Computer Crimes Ethics.
March 17, 2013 March 17, 2013 David Miller: Portrait of a White-Collar Criminal David Miller: Portrait of a White-Collar Criminal Christine Quinones business info systems with lab Professor williams devry university Christine Quinones business info systems with lab Professor williams devry university Table of Contents How does Miller fit the profile of the average fraud perpetrator? How does he differ? How did these characteristics make him difficult to detect?………………………….
Page 3 Explain the three elements of the opportunity triangle (commit, conceal, convert), and discuss how Miller accomplished each when embezzling funds from Associated Communications. What specific concealment techniques did Miller use?………. Page 3 What pressures motivated Miller to embezzle? How did Miller rationalize his actions?………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Page 4 Miller had a framed T-shirt in his office that said, “He who dies with the most toys wins. ” What does this tell you about Miller?
What lifestyle red flags could have tipped off the company to the possibility of fraud?…………………………………………………………… Page 5 Why do companies hesitate to prosecute white-collar criminals? What are the consequences of not prosecuting? How could law enforcement officials encourage more prosecution?……………………………………………………….. …………………………………… Page 5 What could the victimized companies have done to prevent Miller’s embezzlement?………………………………………………………………………………………….

Page 6 David L. Miller: Portrait of a White-Collar Criminal Question 1:How does Miller fit the profile of the average fraud perpetrator? How does he differ? How did these characteristics make him difficult to detect? Mr. Miller is a very sad case. He has all the qualifications of a stellar employee, but those traits are only there to mask who he truly is. He fits the average profile for the average fraud perpetrator because of the following: * The vast majority of fraud perpetrators spend everything that they steal. Only a very small percentage invest the money. Mr.
Miller spent all the money and thus it explains why he stole from a new employer in order to repay the prior one. * Many white-collar criminals are stellar employees until that very moment when they are caught. They are always eager, work many days and long hours and are reliable employees. * Employers viewed Mr. Miller as an honest employee and it was because of this trust that he was placed in positions of sensitivity. * Mr. Miller had the life and behaved in the manner of your average citizen and did not raise any flags. He was an educated family man with values and good psychological framework.
Even though he has some of the same traits as your average fraud perpetrator, he was harder to spot because of the many ways that he differed. Mr. Miller was not unhappy nor was he vengeful towards his employer. He also had never been convicted of his prior transgressions, and there were various. Normally, most of the fraud perpetrators are first time offenders and not serial offender as Mr. Miller has proven to be. This type of character is very difficult to spot because they do not tend to stand out. White-collar criminals are very educated talented individuals and are the perfect employee.
No one would think that they would be capable of such deviant behavior. These people are placed in position of trust are usually work very hard and long hours for the employee. It is sad because there are many employees who possess these traits, but are truly honest and have the company’s best interest at heart. Question 2: Explain the three elements of the opportunity triangle (commit, conceal, convert), and discuss how Miller accomplished each when embezzling funds from Associated Communications. What specific concealment techniques did Miller use?
The three elements to the opportunity triangle are as follows: * Commit – for this instance the perpetrator commits the fraud by taking something that is of value to the victim. For corporations this could manifest itself in the form of money and the corruption of financial records in order to conceal the fraud. A great example of this was displayed when he was able to convince not one but two senior officers into signing various checks with the excuse of “in case something happens” to sway them into signing before they were to leave on vacation. Conceal – to conceal is to hide, so for this to occur the perpetrator must try to conceal their crime. Accounting must be kept in balance in order to avoid from being discovered. They normally do this by increasing other assets or decreasing corporate liabilities and or equities. I think about lying. It is often too easy to say one, but to conceal that lie takes skill and time and perhaps more lies. On one of Mr. Miller’s transgressions he concealed his fraud through doctoring of records and removal of checks. He concealed a particular theft by retrieving canceled checks from the bank and taking the recordings and destroying the evidence.
Then to further conceal what he did, he hid the amounts of the money that he stole into other expense accounts in order to be able to reconcile the books. Internal controls are in place for a reason and just because someone is in a position of trust, these should not be ignored and for this particular occurrence they were overlooked due to too much trust. * Convert – normally to convert is to take something that is stolen and converting it to cash. This could occur in the form of inventory or company equipment. However, Mr. Miller did not do either of these. His crime was done more indirectly.
Mr. Miller was able to forge checks to himself and deposit them within his personal account. Even though checks were signed by approved officers, the intended use for the check was not approved and constitutes fraud on behalf of Mr. Miller. Question 3: What pressures motivated Miller to embezzle? How did Miller rationalize his actions? I do not believe that Mr. Miller had a lot of pressures. However, he stated, after undergoing therapy that his problem was a disease and went as far as to compare it to alcoholism and gambling, but this to me is an excuse or a way to rationalize what he had done.
He felt that he needed to steal and have all the luxuries to be liked by his peers; which is sad because he was liked, but not for the reasons he thought, but by his working capabilities. You know you are guilty of something if you have to rationalize what you are doing. I did not notice too many explanations other than Mr. Miller had to steal from his new employer in order to repay the old one. Nonetheless, I feel that he truly believed his own excuse that he was simply borrowing and not really stealing. Sometimes our rationalizations of our actions are so powerful that we can even fool ourselves.
Question 4: Miller had a framed T-shirt in his office that said, “He who dies with the most toys wins. ” What does this tell you about Miller? What lifestyle red flags could have tipped off the company to the possibility of fraud? I truly feel sorry for Mr. Miller. His life seemed to be centered around money and materialistic obsessions. That shirt and his behavior showed his desire for money and power, but above all to be recognized by friends and peers. In the end it was Mr. Miller’s extravagant way of living in comparison to his salary proved to be his undoing.
When you have a salary of just $130,000 a year, you cannot afford the “toys” that he had. He had overall a large house, a condo on Myrtle Beach, tailored suits, monogrammed shirts, plenty of jewelry, gifts for relatives and above all the two Mercedes-Benz sedans that he just so happened to possess. In the synopsis there was no mention of his wife working, but with his salary and their 3 children, there was no reason for her to work and this logic is what led me to believe how his salary to possession ratio would raise a few red flags. Question 5:Why do companies hesitate to prosecute white-collar criminals?
What are the consequences of not prosecuting? How could law enforcement officials encourage more prosecution? Even though we see in the news about CEO’s and CFO’s being prosecuted for fraud and embezzlement, in actuality, fraud against a corporation happens more frequently than one would think. The following are a few reasons why I feel that corporations are hesitant to prosecute white-collar criminals: * Lack of knowledge – many of the law enforcement agencies, attorneys or lawyers lack the knowledge in how to properly handle these types of cases.
As technology use becomes ever so prevalent, the task is becoming more difficult as computers are a whole new playing field that is yet to be learned. * Aloofness by Society – unless the loss happens to you, society is more concerned with crimes of violence against another than monetary. The internal theft of funds within a corporation are seen as just that an internal problem. * Difficulty Prosecuting – unless you are lucky and have a confession from the perpetrator, like in Mr. Miller’s case to which he confessed in every event, you have a costly and lengthy case that will prove to be rather hard to prove.
Prosecution can sometimes cost more than the theft itself and it is not seen as an incentive to prosecute. * Lack of understanding on what computer fraud really is. Computers and the internet are pretty new things and as such the laws and ways to prosecute are very vague and hard to understand. * Guilt on the outcome of the perpetrators family. Because Mr. Miller in every event promised restitution and had a wife with 3 children, the companies felt that prosecuting was heartless and they did not wish to cause harm to the family.
One corporation, Crest even hired the attorney to represent Mr. Miller. * Negative shadow against the corporation – Companies do not like anything that could hinder their public image. Mr. Miller’s transgressions would cause a very public trial and a lot of investors would have been involved. This would have caused many to remove their investment. Overall, the corporation would suffer greatly. * Knowledge that their weaknesses would be exposed. Lack of trust in the internal controls or any discovery of weaknesses would have caused a lot of future damage against a corporation.
People are creatures of trust and habit and once trust is broken, it is very hard to return and provide that trust again. This would hurt future business that the corporation would have. Look at Enron, AIG, and Bernie Madoff, to name a few. * My favorite of all would be those that are prosecuted and the outcome is favorable to the victim, the perpetrator gets very light sentences. Many go to minimum security prisons, work camps that have certain luxuries. Because of this many corporations do not even bother in spending the additional funds in prosecuting these cases.
The above named are mere excuses and to not prosecute fraud causes more harm. It allows for the perpetrator to move on to commit fraud against another corporation, like in Mr. Miller’s case. By having this exposure, corporations feel that they will feel that they will look to others as being weak and will encourage others to commit fraud against them. When someone is not punished for their transgressions that person will not learn and feel that they can get away with it again if they get caught. Law enforcement officials are stuck and all they can do is encourage others to come forward and report the offenses.
Corporations need to know that if they take action that there will be a support system and their voices will not be lost. They need to be sure that the perpetrator will be convicted accordingly depending upon their transgressions. They need to be made an example of, so that the public know that this behavior is not tolerated and it is a serious offense that will be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law. Question 6:What could the victimized companies have done to prevent Miller’s embezzlement? When I read the synopsis, I was looking for how Mr.
Miller committed many of the frauds, but not much detail was revealed. However, the best way that the corporations could have avoided this was to have better internal controls and adhering to them. I would have prevented some of the thefts by doing the following: * Having better controls of the checks and the signing of checks. * Secondary looks at the monthly reconciliations and the bank statements. * Provide a list of all check deposits with the subsequent invoice explaining the reason for the expense. No employee should have the level of trust and freedom that Mr. Miller was given.
There always needs to be a system of checks and balances in place in order to ensure and prevent this from happening. I can understand that these positions merit trust, but there should be a second person looking at the financials to curb any temptation for even the most honest to commit fraud. Had the first employer chosen to prosecute none of this would have happened. However, the future employers could have avoided all of this had they just bothered to do a more thorough background check on Mr. Miller. There they would have discovered the reasons for his separation from his prior employment.

Computer Crimes Ethics

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Ethics of Observation

Ethics of Observation.
Uses of Observation within a work environment:
•Identifies stages of development
•Identifies level of ability

•Use observations to plan activities
•Monitors changes in behaviour
•Use to report suspected abuse/neglect
•Psychological evidence
Why is observation important?
By observing children within a work environment, we are able to learn their interests and dislikes. As teachers, it’s important for us to know the children we work with as deeply as we can, so we can relate to them and get in touch with their personalities. Once we have had the chance to observe children, we are able to plan activities and lessons according to individual learning styles and the children’s attitudes towards learning. By doing this, we are able to make their first years within a learning environment proceed to their best potential.
Read on to learn about Ethical Issues
Ethical Issues
Before carrying out an observation on any child, make sure you have received permission from the parents of the child, your supervisor and depending on the age of the child, the child herself/himself. Here is a list of Ethical Issues concerning observations
Anonymity is important because all of your observations as a teacher should be kept confidential. If anyone who isn’t supposed to read your observations does happen to find them, you need to take careful measures to ensure that only you will be able to make sense of them. You will need to change the names of all children involved in your observation (Child A, B, C etc.) as well as the school name and the members of staff names (Staff A, B, C etc.).
Confidentiality is vital when working with children. You wouldn’t want to let a child’s file fall into the wrong hands. Only certain people are allowed to read your observations, such as your supervisor, the parents of the child if they ask, and the child themselves. You should ensure that your records are kept in a safe place, and treat them in a confidential manner.
Objectivity is needed within the observations you make within the working place. You cannot let your personal feelings or thoughts intrude with your observations. You must check that all statements are accurate, supported by evidence and are not discriminatory.
Storage of Data is used to ensure that data is kept in a secure place. It makes sure that only authorised people are given access to the records. This ties in with the Data Protection Act 1998.
Rights of the parents and child. Each have the right to refuse being observed and to see the observation record. The parents have the right to refuse permission of observation. Accuracy is essential within an observation to ensure that children are not assessed on inaccurate evidence. The evidence recorded must be as true a reflection of the child’s actions as possible. If the record is not as accurate as it could be, we may not take the precautions to meet the needs of the child. Purpose of the observation is needed. The observation you record should not be used in any way to harm the child. Responsibility to record the observation as accurately and as carefully as possible is yours. Conclusions should be fair and supported by reasonable evidence. This ensures that the observation is used to the benefit of the child.

Ethics of Observation

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Ethics

Ethical Judgements

Ethical Judgements.
1. Ethical judgements limit the methods available in the production of knowledge in both the arts and the natural sciences. Discuss.
a. What areas of knowledge & ways of knowing should be investigated? The arts, the natural sciences, ethics
b. What’s the question getting at?

The question is asking about the way in which ethical judgements can impinge on the way we both create (rather than interpret) the arts and the natural sciences. Basically, it’s leading students on to an exploration of controversies within the arts and the natural sciences in terms of the subject matter they deal with.
c. What are the potential knowledge issues?
To what extent do ethical considerations constrain the way the arts are created? To what extent do ethical considerations limit natural science experimentation and research? For more ideas, check out section 10 of the Essay Guide.
d. What sort of real life situations can be drawn on?
We’re interested in examples of where artists and scientists have been hampered (or encouraged) by ethical judgements. There are many ready-made examples for the natural sciences. For the arts, it is perhaps not so straightforward, but there are still lots of examples of ethically questionable works of art. In terms of counterclaims, it is the arts that are better served by real life situations, with plenty of pieces produced in order to tackle (and produce) ethical judgements.
But here, too, you should be able to find scientific knowledge that has been discovered in order to solve ethical problems. You’ll find more specific examples, in the last section of the Guide.
e. What are the difficulties and challenges of this question? The question is perhaps a little confusingly worded, but it is clear in terms of the areas of knowledge to be tackled. Including personal examples will be trickier in this question than finding outside examples.
2. “When the only tool you have is a hammer, all problems begin to resemble nails” (Abraham Maslow). How might this apply to ways of knowing, as tools, in the pursuit of knowledge?
a. What areas of knowledge & ways of knowing should be investigated? The question is a broad one, and allows students to focus on their own choice of WOKs. It also potentially allows students to bring in the AOKs as well – particularly natural/human sciences (the scientific method), history (the historical method), and the arts (creation of art).
b. What’s the question getting at?
The question asks students to consider the way in which WOKs are used to provide us with knowledge.
The quote suggests that if we view WOKs in too narrow and homogenous a way, it could limit the amount and type of knowledge we are able to acquire. The question requires students to consider the nature of each way of knowing, and try to think a little more creatively about each one; in addition, students could also consider how the areas of knowledge can themselves act as ways of knowing – ie, in terms of the scientific or historical method, and in terms of art as a way of knowing rather than an area of knowledge. Given that this is a question for the 2008 curriculum, its focus are the four ways of knowing (emotion, language, reason, sense perception).
A quick look at the new curriculum will provide new possibilities for this, and perhaps provide a key to approaching the question (considering the validity of faith, imagination, intuition, memory).
c. What are the potential knowledge issues?
Are the four ways of knowing the only means of acquiring knowledge? Do we acquire knowledge only through the ways of knowing, or can it be acquired via the areas of knowledge? For more ideas, check out section 10 of the Essay Guide..
d. What sort of real life situations can be drawn on?
Given how broad the question potentially is, there is a large range of real life situations that can be drawn on. You’ll find more specific examples, in the last section of the Guide.
e. What are the difficulties and challenges of this question? The quote is a lovely one, and it could lead on to some interesting knowledge issue discussion. However, the non-specific nature of the question (not only does it not stipulate which WOKs/AOKs, it also does not mention how many should be considered) means that it will be very easy to go astray with this question. Responses have to narrow down specific examples of how the ways of knowing can sometimes impeded our pursuit of knowledge if we do not apply them in an imaginative way.
3. “Knowledge is nothing more than the systematic organisation of facts.” Discuss this statement in relation to two areas of knowledge.
a. What areas of knowledge & ways of knowing should be investigated? This is another broad question, although unlike title no.2, it does state how many WOKs/AOKs should be tackled (two AOKs). Given this, it would make sense to focus on two distinct AOKs, such as ethics and natural sciences, or the arts and history.
b. What’s the question getting at?
The question asks students to consider the nature of knowledge within their two chosen AOKs. ‘Systematic organization of facts’ suggests quantitative knowledge; students must consider to what extent this is true, and then offer a counter-claim in which they discuss how much qualitative knowledge, and other forms of knowledge the particular AOKs consist of. Students should bear in mind that the title implies a process – ie, ‘organizing facts’, rather than a static type of knowledge – ie, ‘organized facts’; the two possible meanings could lead to different types of essays. A clear definition of ‘facts’ needs to be provided in the introduction, to give responses a firm footing.
c. What are the potential knowledge issues?
To what extent can we build up a thorough understanding of the human/natural sciences by processing purely quantitative knowledge? To what extent does ethical knowledge involve the consideration of factual information? For more ideas, check out section 10 of the Essay Guide.
d. What sort of real life situations can be drawn on?
Real life situations can be taken easily from personal experiences related to the AOKs chosen, so students can think about the level of the understanding they have built up by dealing with systemized facts. You’ll find more specific examples, in the last section of the Guide.
e. What are the difficulties and challenges of this question? Given that the essay is clear about its scope, this question is probably easier to approach than question 2. Having said that, it depends on how students tackle this notion of ‘systemized facts’. If they do so in terms of ‘natural science consists of systemized facts’, they may have problems; if they do so in terms of ‘natural science consists of building up systemized facts’, they will be able to tackle the question more easily.
4. “That which is accepted as knowledge today is sometimes discarded tomorrow.” Consider knowledge issues raised by this statement in two areas of knowledge.
a. What areas of knowledge & ways of knowing should be investigated? Similar to question 3, this title asks students to consider two AOKs. The question lends itself to AOKs that offer more objective, yet regularly updated, knowledge, such as history, the human sciences, and the natural sciences. Ethics also ties in very well, and could link up very nicely with history.
b. What’s the question getting at?
The question is referring to the extent to which knowledge is subject to review and revisionism over time. Thus, although we may believe we possess objective facts, from a different perspective gained by progress, such facts become re-interpreted in the light of new evidence, discoveries, technology, or societal trends. In short, the question is asking students the extent to which knowledge is provisional. Note the use of the word ‘sometimes’, though, meaning that you shouldn’t make generalizations about the whole of knowledge.
c. What are the potential knowledge issues?
To what extent does historical knowledge need revision? Are there any
theories or laws in the human sciences that have withstood the test of time? For more ideas, check out section 10 of the Essay Guide.
d. What sort of real life situations can be drawn on?
In terms of the AOKs mentioned above, appropriate real life situations may involve a way of interpreting a past event, a method of studying human behaviour, knowledge about the natural world, or an accepted way of behaving. In terms of personal examples, students can easily apply their own learning of a particular subject (related to one of the AOKs they have selected), and how their understanding of it has been subject to change over time. You’ll find more specific examples, in the last section of the Guide.
e. What are the difficulties and challenges of this question? This is a more straightforward question to get to grips with, as it focuses on a concept that should be familiar to most students.
5. “The historian’s task is to understand the past; the human scientist, by contrast, is looking to change the future.” To what extent is this true in these areas of knowledge?
a. What areas of knowledge & ways of knowing should be investigated? This question is clearly focused on history and the human sciences. It could require some consideration of the method used by both historians and human scientists, in an attempt to gauge the purpose of each one.
b. What’s the question getting at?
The question asks students to consider the purpose of both AOKs, and decide to what extent one merely looks back, and one looks forward. Obviously, the title is a rather arbitrary one: there can’t be only one purpose to an AOK, and AOKs overlap hugely anyway (particularly history and the human sciences). So students should use the question for a launching pad into a more wide-ranging discussion of the aim of both AOKs, not, perhaps, sticking quite so rigidly to the assertion implicit in the title.
c. What are the potential knowledge issues?
To what extent is history only focused on past events? To what extent do the human sciences aim to change the way societies behave? For more ideas, check out section 10 of the Essay Guide.
d. What sort of real life situations can be drawn on?
The arguments for this essay need to be based on history studies that have been done only in the context of the past, and human science cases that have not drawn on past events. Counterclaims need to contrast those RLSs – which will be much easier to do. You’ll find more specific examples, in the last section of the Guide.
e. What are the difficulties and challenges of this question? The two AOKs are very similar ones – indeed, outside the world of TOK, history is a human science, so students may find it hard to contrast the respective methods used, and knowledge that is acquired. Historians often work alongside human scientists, and vice versa, in order to understand past, present, and future societies, so using such an arbitrary and contrived statement will present problems for students. Finally, talking of an overriding ‘purpose’ for AOKs is fraught with difficulties: can we say there is one reason why historians/human scientists do their respective jobs? Having said all that, there’s plenty of scope to attack the question!
6. “A skeptic is one who is willing to question any knowledge claim, asking for clarity in definition, consistency in logic and adequacy of evidence” (adapted from Paul Kurtz, 1994). Evaluate this approach in two areas of knowledge.
a. What areas of knowledge & ways of knowing should be investigated? This is the third title that asks students to consider two non-specific areas of knowledge, and the fifth one that focuses on AOKs rather than WOKs. For this title, appropriate AOKs are ones that make knowledge claims of which people can ‘question…asking for clarity in definition, consistency in logic and adequacy of evidence’. In other words, AOKs that require clear evidence to support the knowledge they deal with. Although this could conceivably work with any AOK, the arts are trickier to use within this title, as is mathematics.
b. What’s the question getting at?
The question provides a framework (ie the way a skeptic approaches knowledge) that can be applied to the two AOKs. As outlined in ‘e’, what this framework leads us onto is not immediately apparent. Presumably, the essay is supposed to assess how well this approach can be applied to the chosen AOKs, in order to provide us with certain knowledge.
c. What are the potential knowledge issues?
To what extent does the natural sciences/human sciences/history/ethics require logic and evidence in order to acquire knowledge? For more ideas, check out section 10 of the Essay Guide.
d. What sort of real life situations can be drawn on?
Appropriate RLSs depend on the AOKs chosen, but what is needed here are RLSs that illustrate how the approach can work, and RLSs indicating that such an approach is not always effective. You’ll find more specific examples, in the last section of the Guide.
e. What are the difficulties and challenges of this question? The difficulties are in working out what the question wants students to do with the skeptics’ approach to knowledge. Does it want students to assess how well this approach works in the two AOKs (ie whether it leads us to certain knowledge)? Does it want students to assess whether such an approach can be used at all? Does it want us to focus on the skeptic, or on the AOK?

Ethical Judgements

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Evaluation of Theo Chocolate

Evaluation of Theo Chocolate.
To:| Jeffrey Galbraith| From:| Master Minds- Kirstin Miner, Madeleine Roberts, Alyssa Tan, Jen Penza| Date:| March 5, 2013 | Re:| Evaluation of Theo Chocolate | | | | | Hello Jeff! Team Master Minds is excited to share with you today our findings on Theo Chocolate’s social responsibility record and why they are proud to say they stand by their word. They pride themselves on being the only Organic, Fair Trade, Fair for Life certified, Bean-to-Bar Chocolate Factory in North America.
They are passionate about their product and about preserving the natural environment where the cacao bean grows in order to keep the industry strong and profitable, all the while making the customers healthy and happy. Below we have prepared for you some of the important components of what makes Theo Chocolate stand out from the rest of the chocolate market as far as ethics and social responsibility. What is the mission of Theo Chocolate? “We’re dedicated to making our world a better place.
And we’re finding ways to do it through our passion—bringing out the best of the cocoa bean. We are all connected. We touch one another’s lives in incredible ways. And we are responsible to and for one another. From the cacao farmer in the Congo, to the truck driver in Seattle, to the chocolate lover in Philadelphia—there is a thread that runs through us all. Theo believes in celebrating those connections, in strengthening them and in finding inspiration within them—inspiration to change the world.

We know that every action has a result. That the choices we make here in Seattle, Washington touch lives across the planet in real and lasting ways. That knowledge, and that responsibility, is what drives us to do things differently, to help make the world a better place. We think about every choice we make, every action we take and how it will impact our interconnected world. ” A brief history of the company: Theo Chocolate was founded by Joe Whitney, the first to pioneer the supply of rganic cocoa beans into the United States in the year 1994. He fell in love with making chocolate when he explored the tropics of Central America and Africa. He had such passion for the land and the people farming there. The dedication to the farming people allowed him to explore further into the land and farmers, both of which were being exploited. He felt he had to do something to make a difference. He spent the next ten years promoting organic cocoa beans in the U. S. as well Fair Trade practices for those who farm the beans.
He developed trusting, long-lasting relationships with the farmers in order to fulfill his dream of making chocolate and sharing it with the world. His next step was to team up with Sales and Marketing expertise Debra Music. They moved to Seattle in 2004 where they began creating the brand and building the factory with a small team. In 2006 Joe’s dream was brought to life with the first inaugural run. From there on out the company prides themselves on using the purest ingredients grown in the most sustainable ways. What is the nature of the company?
Customers: Theo’s customers are probably educated consumers who care about where their food comes from, how it is produced, and whether any mistreatment of the environment or workers is involved in producing the product. In today’s society being “healthy” is the message sent across America to make a part of your lifestyle in order to live longer and maintain health. Therefore Americans don’t feel as bad when they know they are eating chocolate that is better for them that is why Theo Chocolate has developed a niche in the cocoa industry and have created a high demand that equips to today’s values.
Products: Theo produces organic, fair-trade chocolate. Products include Chocolate Bars, Caramels, Confections, Specialty, and Gift Confections. The products are absolutely 100% organic without any synthetic pesticides or chemical fertilizers and are not exposed to industrial solvents or food additives. The suppliers of the cocoa bean is constantly changing, Theo works with farmer groups and grower cooperative throughout the world. Currently the beans come primarily from the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ecuador, Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, and Peru.
The company makes sure that the process from which the beans turn into chocolate involves completely ethical behavior where all parties involved are treated fairly. Evaluate code of conduct/ ethics. Theo Chocolates hopes to provide for its employees a stimulating work environment, opportunities for personal growth, and job satisfaction. Transparency is at the heart of the company’s values. They believe that being open to all who want to know about the company leads to trusting relationships with customers and suppliers.
If you’re not open about your business it makes people think you have something to hide and that is something that can turn customers away from their product. Theo Chocolate is grateful for the talented team members, which is always an important practice within a business. It means that the company values their employees and wants to treat them the way they deserve to be treated. If employees know that they are truly valued they will be motivated to work extremely hard to make their company succeed which is what a company wants of its employees.
Their policies and practices may change over time but Theo Chocolate remains to have core values intact which include being committed to enriching the lives of farmers, suppliers, shareholders, partners and employees. The company has developed the handbook to help their employees understand general expectations and benefits of working with them and also to answer any questions people may have. This is very important as it so that potential and current employees know what they’re getting into and there are standards that are set so that employees are held accountable for their actions.
Evaluate social responsibility using the Porter model. Because their customers demand socially responsible products, it’s in Theo’s best interest to promote its products this way. Therefore, by marketing their products as Fair Trade, Theo can increase profits while maintaining social responsibility. The following excerpt is from Theo’s website: “The sources of our cocoa beans are always changing. We work with farmer groups and grower cooperatives throughout the world to ensure we are always getting the best beans possible.
Currently, our beans come primarily from the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ecuador, the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica and Peru. We have been actively cultivating supply chain in Tanzania for the last several years. ” They can also benefit both their social responsibility record and increase profits when they help support the communities that produce the ingredients they use. . ——————————————– [ 1 ]. Our Mission | Theo. n. d. Web. 5 March 2013. . [ 2 ]. Theo – Shop. n. d. Web. March 5 2013. < https://www. theochocolate. com/shop>

Evaluation of Theo Chocolate

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Ethics

My Reflection of Ethics

My Reflection of Ethics.
A great philosopher of Ethics is Aristotle. His theory was originally introduced in ancient Greek times. Aristotle was a great believer in virtues and the meaning of virtue to him meant being able to fulfill one’s functions. Some base ethics on pure reason, while others ground ethics in feelings or intuitions. Aristotle says that those who do lead a virtuous life are very happy and have sense of well-being. Happiness is the ultimate goal for everyone in life. Utilitarian’s believe ethics becomes a matter of calculating how to produce the greatest balance of pleasure over suffering.
To become a better person, we must practice virtuous acts regularly. After a while, these acts will become a habit and so the virtuous acts part of our every day life and the person will be leading a virtuous life. For example, if a singer practices singing everyday, they will become better at it and used to doing it. People who practice their virtues improve their skills and therefore becoming happier. When a person learns how to use the virtues, they become the characteristic of the person. For example, a person who has learned the virtue of generosity is often called a generous person because he or she is generous in all situations.
Aristotle says we are most likely to acquire virtues by observing others in our society. If we experience other people being kind to us and see the happiness it creates we are more likely to practice this virtue then if we were just told to practice it. Social contract theorists believe ethical principals are made, not found. They also believe ethics are constructed by social groups, and exists for the benefit of those groups. Social contract theory is an examination of the justice and fairness of political and social and ethical systems.

An example of this would be that I would never accept a rule that says, ‘women should have less opportunity to become president, or that African Americans should have less chance of going to college or be restricted in the places they can live’. I wouldn’t accept such rules, because there’s a chance that I might step out from behind the ‘veil of ignorance’ and discover that I am an African-American woman. So I would favor setting up a society in which everyone has equal opportunity to compete for everything. Social contract theory forges an ethical system with no help from God or “natural law” or transcendent truths or powers of intuition.
Egoism comes in two varieties. First is psychological egoism: the view that-as a matter of empirical psychological fact-all our behavior is selfish, or self-interested. Second is ethical egoism, which is the very different claim that we ought to always act in a way that is self-interested. If the claim is that everyone pursuing their own selfish interest will result in the greatest benefit for everyone, it is difficult to find any empirical grounds-biological, economic, or otherwise-for that universal egoistic article of faith. Ethical relativism is the thesis that what is right is relative to each culture.
Virtues in one country or society may not be the same as virtues in another. As virtues have evolved through society it is possible that good actions may be perceived as bad actions in another society. However the virtues stay the same in every community as well as the ultimate aim which is supreme happiness. Aristotle explains that all actions are done in order to reach an aim or goal. A series of actions are also leading towards an aim, for example getting up in to morning to go to work, leads to making money, leads to feeding our families, leads to going on holidays, etc.
The utmost ultimate aim is to make people happy; everything is subordinate to the supreme good, which is happiness. Relative morality is based on the theory that truth and rightness is different for different people or cultures. Moral relativism states that morality is dependent on the society. It states that there are no moral absolutes and that there is no definite right or wrong. In some societies certain behavior is seen as morally right whereas in others the same behavior is not acceptable. To be a relativist is to accept this principle and not to judge others for their behavior.
Moral relativists accept that whether a moral code exists because of tradition or religion, it may be needed to keep the society together. Some people may argue that any moral code is better than no moral code however the absence of moral rules would be disastrous for any society, it would not survive. People need set rules or moral codes to live by in order to make the right decisions and to keep society together in the long run. Without a set moral code everyone would have the opinion that their ideas and thinking is right; no one would be able to compromise.
It would be much easier for everyone to be living under the same ‘rules’. This way people will know what is right and wrong without any disagreements. Care ethics does not ignore or disparage reason, but it does emphasize the importance of empathy and affection, friendships and relationships: elements of ethics (from the perspective of care ethics) Kantian systems woefully neglect. Care ethics also diverges significantly from the impersonal calculations of utilitarianism. Another distinctive feature of care ethics is on certain views, our duties tend to be impersonal.
We have duties and obligations to others, of course, but they are duties due to anyone in the same position. On the care view, we may also have impersonal duties, but at least as important are duties of a very personal and individual nature: duties we owe specifically to family and friends, are not to just any generic moral placeholder. These duties are owed not because we are reciprocating benefits we have received but because of our special relations. Furthermore, such duties are typically not based on choices or voluntary contracts.

My Reflection of Ethics

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Ethics Reflections Paper

Ethics Reflections Paper.
Ethics Reflection Paper Nadine C. Brown STR/581 Strategic Planning and Implementation University of Phoenix Jose L. Hernandez, MBA November 15, 2010 Ethics Reflection Paper During this age of philosophy in which people exercise their freedom of speech and is concerned with their personal development, it becomes a challenge to remain ethical while considering one’s social responsibilities. People are striving to become more successful without being dishonest or disrespectful.
With more emphasis on moral and ethical issues, equality and fair trade, “businesses are under pressure to be fair and ethical to satisfy not only government standards, but also consumers, and additionally, to attract more discerning employees” (Hughes, 2010, p. 1). Many factors can affect one’s ethical decision-making process. For example, one’s own values and ideology about right and wrong can make one doubt one’s own beliefs if the outcome is unfavorable. The interaction with family and friends can greatly influence decision-making because of the emotions involved.
One can experience conflict with socialization in the community when it goes against one’s religious beliefs. In addition, businesses want to be successful and honest while competing in a struggling economy. Conflict can exist with one’s own values and ethics. Organizations want to remain competitive but also practice honesty with consumers and stakeholders who want to receive a return on their investment. To ensure employees remain ethically aware of the company’s values, obligations to customers, society and stakeholders, organizations should develop a code of ethics and incorporate its principles in its strategic plan.

The Importance of Ethics in an Organization A code of ethics incorporated in the strategic plan is especially important for leaders. When leaders make decisions, they must consider the impact their decisions will have on others. “Leaders are often put in decisions where they must choose among options that vary in their degree of ethical behavior” (Sherwin, 1983, p. 1). This is true because of the competition of priorities. For example, the goal of any organization is to generate a profit for its stakeholders.
To reach this goal, some may apply unethical methods to generate that profit, such as increasing proceeds or cutting expenses. On the other hand, the same stakeholders who work and invest in the organization are a part of the general makeup of the community. If cutting costs harms the individuals who make up the community, it would be harming the stakeholders as well. The decision made is then unethical because it is not for the greater good. Therefore, leaders should (Sherwin, 2010, p. 2): 1. Recognize all perspectives when making an ethical decision. . Define who you are, your company and personal values. 3. Don‘t allow personal gains to outweigh the good of the organization. Changes in My Ethical Perspectives While attending University of Phoenix, my ethical perspectives have changed. This is evident when required to write essays. Many essays exist online to be used by all. The decision to avoid using them demonstrates my values of honesty and integrity. The university strives to keep its student honest by posting its own code of Ethics.
Temptations that will allow me to take the easy way out always exist. Because students benefit more from doing their own work, possessing the moral courage to do what is right, even when one is unsure of the results, demonstrates one’s ethical values. According to my William Institute Ethical Awareness Inventory, the results or consequence of my actions stems from my ethical perspective. I know turning in the work of others for my own benefit is wrong and will have consequences that may appear later. Conclusion
The pressure of trying to remain ethical to stakeholders and society may result in businesses making unethical decisions. Businesses want to make a profit for stakeholders but may hurt the people in the community in the process. “Leaders are often put in decisions where they must choose among options that vary in their degree of ethical behavior” (Sherwin, 1983, p. 1). To ensure leaders and employees remain ethically aware of the impact of their decisions; organizations should develop a code of ethics and ncorporate its principles in its strategic plan. As a result, leaders will remain ethically aware of the company’s values and its obligations to customers, society and stakeholders when making decisions.
References Hughes, S. (2010). Corporate Social Responsibility and Ethical Business. Retrieved on November 14, 2010 from http://www. squidoo. com/CSR-ethicalbiz Sherwin, D. (1983). Work-Place Ethics. Retrieved on November 15, 2010 from http://www. chsbs. cmich. edu/leader_model/Development/media/Targeted%20Lessons/workplace_ethics. htm

Ethics Reflections Paper

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Computer Ethics, Privacy

Computer Ethics, Privacy.
* Computer Ethics * Are the moral guidelines that govern the use of computers and information systems. Information Accuracy * Information accuracy today is concern because many users access information maintained by other people or companies, such as on the internet. * Do not assume that because the information is on the web that is correct * Users should evaluate the value of the web page before relying on its content. Intellectual property rights
* Intellectual property (IP) refers to unique and original works such as ideas, inventions, art, processes, company and product names and logos. IP are the right to which creators are entitled for their work. * Copyright * Gives authors and artists exclusive rights to duplicate, publish and sell their materials. A copyright protects any tangible form of expression. * Piracy is the common infringement of copyright. Information Privacy * refers to the right of individuals and companies to deny or restrict the collection and use of information about them. How to safeguard personal information 1. Fill in only necessary information on rebate, warranty and registration forms. 2.
Do not preprint your telephone number or social security number on personal checks. 3. Have an unlisted or unpublished telephone number. 4. If caller ID is available in your area, find out how to block your number from displaying on the receiver’s system. 5. Do not write your telephone number on charge or credit receipts. 6. Ask merchants not to write credit card numbers, telephone numbers, social security numbers and driver’s license numbers on the back of your personal checks. 7. Purchase goods with cash, rather than credit or checks.

8. Avoid shopping club and buyer cards. . If merchants ask personal questions, find out why they want to know before releasing the information. 10. Inform merchants that you do not want them to distribute your personal information. 11. Request in writing, to be removed from mailing lists. 12. Obtain your credit report once a year from each of the three major credit reporting agencies and correct any errors. 13. Request a free copy of your medical records once a year from the medical Information Bureau. 14. Limit the amount of information you provide to web sites. Fill in only required information. 15.
Install a cookie manager to filter cookies. 16. Clear your history file when you are finished browsing. 17. Set up a free mail account. Use this e-mail address for merchant forms. 18. Turn off file and computer sharing on your internet connection. 19. Install a personal firewall. 20. Sign-up for e-mail filtering through your internet service provider or use an anti-spam program such as Brightmail. 21. Do not reply to spam for any reason. 22. Surf the web anonymously with a program such as freedom web secure or through an anonymous web site such as anonymizer. om Electronic Profiles * When you fill out a form such as a magazine subscription, product warranty registration card, or contest entry form the merchant that usually enters it into a database. Likewise, every time you click an advertisement on the Web or register software online ,your information and preferences enter a database. * Cookies E-commerce and other Web applications often rely on cookies to identify users.
Cookie files typically contain data about you, such as your user name or viewing references. Spyware and Adware Spyware is a program placed on a computer without the user’s knowledge that secretly collects information about the user. * Spyware can enter a computer as a virus or as a result of a user installing a new program. * Spyware program communicates information it collects to some outside source while you are online. * Adware is a program that displays an online advertisement in a banner or pop-out window on Web pages, e-mail messages or other internet services. Phishing * Phishing is a scam in which a perpetrator sends an official looking e-mail messages that attempts to obtain your personal and financial information.
Pharming is a scam similar to phishing where a perpetrator attempts to obtain your personal and financial information, except they do so via spoofing. Spam * Spam is an unsolicited e-mail messages or newsgroup posting sent to multiple recipients or newsgroups at once. * Spam is Internet junk mail * The content of spam ranges from selling a product or service, to promoting a business opportunity, to advertising offensive material. Privacy Laws * The concern about privacy has led to the enactment of federal and state laws regarding the storage and disclosure of personal data. refers to the laws which deal with the regulation of personal information about individuals which can be collected by governments and other public as well as private organizations and its storage and use.
Social Engineering * Defined as gaining unauthorized access or obtaining confidential information by taking advantage of the trusting human nature of some victims and the naivety of others. * Some social engineers trick their victims into revealing confidential information such as usernames and passwords on telephones, in person or on the Internet. Employee Monitoring Involves the use of computers to observe, record and review an employee’s use of computer, including communication such as e-mail messages, keyboard activity and Web sites visited. Content filtering * Is the process of restricting access to certain material on the web. * Content filtering opponents argue that banning any materials violates constitutional guarantees of free speech and personal rights.
* Web filtering software is a program that restricts access to specified Web sites. Computer Forensics * Also called digital forensics, network forensics or cyber forensics. Is the discovery, collection and analysis of evidence found on computers and networks. * Forensic analysis, involves the examination of computer media, programs, data and log files on computers, servers, and networks. Health Concerns of Computer Use Computer health risks * Repetitive strain Injury (RSI) * is an injury or disorder of the muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments and joints. * Computer relate RSIs include tendonitis and carpal tunnel syndrome. * Tendonitis Is inflammation of tendon due to some repeated motion or stress on that tendon. * Carpal Tunnel syndrome
In inflammation of the nerve that connects the forearm to the palm of the wrists. * Computer Vision syndrome * You may have CVS if you have sore, tired, burning, itching or dry eyes, blurred or double vision, distance blurred vision after prolonged staring at a display device, headache or sore neck, difficulty shifting focus between device and documents. Ergonomics and Workplace Design * Ergonomics * Is an applied science devoting to incorporating comfort, efficiency, and safety into the design of items in the workplace. * Workplace design * has a profound impact on the productivity of workers.
Making the best use of space through optimum placement of equipment, integrating the human factor into workplace design, and effectively aligning the workplace into the surrounding environment are important aspects of ergonomics. * The workplace design should aim to propagate intuition, teamwork, and more importantly, provide a safe and comfortable environment. Computer Addiction * Occurs when the computer consumes someone’s entire social life. Computer addiction is a growing health problem. * Symptoms of a user with computer addiction include the following:
* Craves computer time * Overjoyed when at the computer Unable to stop computer activity * Irritable when not at the computer * Neglects family and friends * Problems at work and school * Computer addiction is a treatable illness through therapy and support groups. Green Computing * Involves reducing the electricity and environmental waste while using a computer. * Green computing is the environmentally responsible use of computers and related resources. Such practices include the implementation of energy-efficient central processing units (CPUs), servers and peripherals as well as reduced resource consumption and proper disposal of electronic waste (e-waste).

Computer Ethics, Privacy

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