Causes of school shootings in America

Causes of school shootings in America

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

School shootings in America

“Gun violence is a public health crisis that claims lives every day.” These were the words from a statement by Michigan Governor Gretchen Whitman after a shooting at Oxford High School on November 30, 2021, that killed four students. While mass shootings are a significant problem, this becomes even more profound considering the number of school shootings in America. The shooting at Oxford High School is only one of the 222 school shootings in 2021 alone, indicating the highest incidence of this problem. When such events occur, questions arise, and debates emerge on who is to blame or what would have been done differently, but no significant change is ever pursued.

As the world deals with the covid-19 pandemic, America has to address the crisis of school shootings again. For how long will parents lose their children from such unfortunate events? Are responsible individuals and authorities doing enough? What is the source of the problem, and what is the most effective response? These are recurring questions, but the answers may not be easily found in the complex web of social-political issues around the guns control debate in America.

 

Prevalence of school shootings in the United States

 

On July 26, 1764, four American Indians entered a school in Greencastle, Pennsylvania, where they shot a killed nine pupils and the schoolmaster. The event is one of the earliest recorded school shooting incidences in America. Although not much is on record regarding such incidents in the previous centuries, the Center for Homeland Defense and Security (CHDS) has maintained the K-12 School Shooting Database since 1970. As the figure below projects, the incidences have been rising and falling with 2021, indicating the highest rate of school shootings.

Figure 1

 

Incidents of mass shootings

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(CHDS, 2021)

Such statistics point to the existence of a problem and the need to adopt effective measures. The 2021 school year suffered the effects of the covid-19 pandemic, such that students spent a substantial amount of time at home or schooled via virtual means. Despite the limited time within the school setting, the year has had the highest school-related shootings. In September, when students were reporting back to school, there were 151 school shooting threats, up from an average of 29 in three years (Densley & Peterson, 2021). Compared to the previous year, the school shootings in September were more than double.

Could the impacts of the covid-19 pandemic be an influencing factor in the prevalence of the problem? As will be discussed further on, mental health issues play a part in the emergence of such behaviour. With the covid pandemic affecting the mental wellbeing of individuals, one cannot negate the likely impact of such pressures on poor decision making that leads to school shootings.    

 

 

 

Factors influencing gun violence in institutions

 

 

  1. Gun legislation and public administration failure

Children have access to guns due to their abundance and the lack of effective policies that control usage. Gun legislation remains the biggest challenge to dealing with school shooting incidences that have been prevalent in the past few years. After every shooting incident, public debate emerges on the best course of action, but no concrete action is taken towards gun legislation. An element of the discourse on gun legislation is the polarized response by different interest groups. An example is that while gun rights activists such as the NRA points to the need for more guns to protect Americans, gun control activists urge Congress to ensure gun control and limit access to guns.

For public administration officials at the federal and state level, the NRA has been a significant impediment in coming up with legislation on gun control. The group spends millions of dollars annually in activism against gun legislation. Some of the actions include bribing politicians, funding their campaigns, and instigating propaganda. The indecisiveness from the public administration and efforts from groups such as NRA impede the adoption of gun legislation that would control access to weapons by the public and school going kids.

  1. Mental health issues

The perpetrators of school shootings are largely current or former students well known to the victims. In a report by Paolini (2015), 41% of perpetrators are mainstream students, and 78% had suicidal attempts in the past or suicidal ideation. Research is rife with evidence that the majority of the shooters suffer from some mental health problems. Traumatized shooters often come from dysfunctional homes or have had exposure to criminal behaviour and substance abuse. Beyond this, some shooters point to the fact that they have been victims of bullying in the past, and their actions seek revenge. From such elements, mental health issues emerge as factors influencing the prevalence of school shootings.

Since the onset of the covid pandemic, there have been links between the crisis and increased mental health concerns. More individuals are suffering from anxiety and depressive disorder that leads to alcohol and substances abuse. Students and young adults are equally feeling the pressures of the pandemic and hence also suffer from mental health issues. The exacerbating effect of the pandemic on mental wellbeing may explain the increase in school shootings within September.

Educators and authorities are doing little to address the problem, even with the knowledge of such mental health issues and their impacts. After the Columbine High School shooting of 1999, studies by the FBI and the Secret Service established the need for schools to adopt a behavioural threat assessment approach. School and community commitment to such approaches have been minimal, as evidenced by the rise in school shootings resulting from mental health issues.

What to do

While blame for school shootings can be directed to various parties, there is a need for proactive action in dealing with the problem. The federal and state administrations have to pursue legislation and programs that guarantee the safety of children as they seek education. Parents and educators have a role to play in thwarting negative outcomes through effective interventions in the developmental phase of children. Ultimately, the country needs to move from debates and pursue concrete action to alleviate this pandemic.

For such an essay, feel free to contact us;

 

 

 

References

Center for Homeland Defense and Security. (2021). K-12 School Shooting Database. https://www.chds.us/ssdb/view-chart/?chartid=8

Densley, J., & Peterson, J. (2021). School shootings are at a record high this year – but they can be prevented. https://theconversation.com/school-shootings-are-at-a-record-high-this-year-but-they-can-be-prevented-173027

Paolini, A. (2015). School Shootings and Student Mental Health: Role of the School Counselor in Mitigating Violence. https://www.counseling.org/docs/default-source/vistas/school-shootings-and-student-mental-health.p

 

Demographic Profile Project

Demographic Profile Project

Demographic Profile Project
Section 4: Fertility
The goal of this assignment is to describe and explain trends in fertility in your country. To do so, you
will need the following data and for the country you have chosen for 2 years:
 Midyear female population by 5-year age groups
 Number of births by age of mother in 5-year age groups
IMPORTANT!!! REVIEW THE PROJECT OVERVIEW DOCUMENT ON BLACKBOARD
REGARDING THE DATA COLLECTION AND GENERAL COMMENTS ON THE PAPER!!
Calculations:
For both years, use Excel to calculate the general fertility rate, age-specific fertility rates, and the total
fertility rate. For the age-specific fertility rates, you will need to use the appropriate female population
numbers to account for births by age of mother for the youngest and oldest age groups. For
example, if the youngest age group for the births by age of mother is 0-14 years, then the
corresponding female population will need to include those 0-14 years old. If the oldest age group for
the births by age of mother is 50+ years, then you will need to add the female population of those 50
years and older. Do not include the unknown births or female population in the table or calculations.
You will present a table that includes the mid-year population for females in 5-year age groups, the
number of births by age of mother in the 5-year age groups, and the age-specific fertility rates. The
table should also include a ‘Total’ row that has the total female population and total births, a row for
the general fertility rate, and a row for the total fertility rate. Make sure the table is properly labeled
and you cite the source of where the data was obtained (e.g. Source: Demographic Yearbook 1985
and 2012) below the table with the complete citations in the reference list.
Graph the age-specific fertility rates for both years using Excel. The graph should be properly labeled
(both vertical and horizontal axis, title, legend). Both the table and the graph should be included in
Part 2 of your paper (Fertility Structure).

 

Discuss the major political, social, economic, and behavioral factors that explain the change in fertility rates

Demographic Profile Project
Discussion:
Write a brief discussion of the current fertility (most recent year) and fertility change in your country.
In your paper, think carefully about what you have learned about fertility and what you have learned
about your country from the background paper. You should demonstrate an understanding of these
fertility measures and what affects fertility.
In your paper, be sure to include the following information:
1. INTRODUCTION
2. FERTILITY STRUCTURE – Provide a summary of the relevant fertility statistics (age-specific
fertility rates, total fertility rates, and general fertility rate) for your country at two time periods.
Referring to all the fertility measures you calculated, describe the age structure of fertility in both
years and changes in the timing of fertility over time. How much has age-specific fertility rates
changed? At what ages have fertility rates changed the most? Do not simply repeat the numbers,
but interpret them.
3. FACTORS AFFECTING FERTILITY – Discuss the major political, social, economic and behavioral
factors that seem to be the most important in explaining the change in fertility rates and timing of
fertility over time. Discuss reasons why you think there may or may not have been a change in
fertility between the two years. Think about factors like the demographic transition, the individual
and social structure factors, including the proximate determinants related to fertility, e.g. wealth
and income, education, labor force participation, contraceptive use, proportions married, abortion,
etc.
To address this issue, your background paper may be helpful and you can use sources that you
have already used. However, you will need to consult an additional four outside scholarly
references (i.e. books or peer-reviewed journal articles). For this section, you will not be allowed
to use websites unless it an electronic book or a journal article from a digital archive (e.g. JSTOR),
nor will you be allowed to use encyclopedias.

Acc 340 Wk 1 Individual

Acc 340 Wk 1 Individual.
The Effects of Technology on the Accounting Profession ACC 340 The Effects of Technology on the Accounting Profession The adage, “Time is money” has never been more true at any point in history than it is today. For the certified public accountant (CPA), the adage holds even more significance as the more time a CPA has to spend in a project, the less valuable that project becomes. It also means less time to devote to the next project. Technology has aided the CPA in numerous ways in recent years. From accounting software to devices with accounting applications, CPAs have a variety of new technology to help save time and money.
In this paper, I will explore some of the technologies available to CPAs. Accounting technology is not new, and has been a part of calculating and tracking numbers throughout time. From Leonardo da Vinci who designed a device he labeled the “Codex Madrid” number machine to Blaise Pascal who invented the first early calculator to William Burroughs who created the first adding machine, those who specialized in numbers have sought ways of making the tasks of their profession or hobby much simpler. As time passed, more creations emerged to help accountants perform their expertise more accurately and faster.
The first computer was built midway through the twentieth century. For the nearly 50 years that followed, huge computers designed to perform the simple task of calculating mathematical equations were eventually scaled down to fit on top of desks in consumers’ homes and offices. The world of accounting went from manually inputting data into a ledger to using electronic spreadsheets that eliminated the need for ledgers, calculators, pencils, and adding machines. Out with the hardcopy and in with the software.

Many years ago California-based Intuit launched a brand of accounting software called QuickBooks patterned after its popular personal accounting brand Quicken (Loter, 2009). From its launch the software has been very popular with business owners who had little to no formal accounting knowledge. Today there are many software titles providing accounting software for small, medium, and larger businesses. Some newer titles include Sage ‘Simply Accounting’ Software, Peachtree Complete Accounting Software, AccountEdge Accounting Software for Windows and Mac to name but a few.
Accounting software has helped CPAs save time and money by allowing accountants to quickly and easily input data onto a spreadsheet, then import or export information within or even between networks. This eliminates the time-consuming method of handwriting information on paper, then physically transporting the finalized document(s) to be batched with similar document(s) from (an) other department(s). Accounting software has not been the only technological advancements for the accounting field. Mobile devices are available that allow accountants and business owners to input and retrieve data while on the go.
Of course, it is the software applications that causes the information ball to begin rolling, but it is such devices as an iPhone or iPad, a Blackberry device, a personal digital assistant (PDA), or an Android smartphone that allow accountants access to information that could accelerate calculations or computations while visiting clients or whenever the person needing information is away from his or her office. A major benefit for the CPA using a device listed above is an application called TimeWerks that allows a CPA to track, invoice, and e-mail billable time through a built-in stopwatch called Task Timer.
The application costs $9. 99 to download. High-powered business calculators called 10BIICalc can be downloaded onto an iPhone for $5. 99, and provides access to stocks, bonds, depreciation, and conversions. A store-bought similar device could cost between $30 and $100. The netbook or mini-notebook PC is another new device o which CPAs are drawn. The DisplaySearch Q3 ’09 Quarterly Notebook PC Shipment and Forecast Report found the mini-note PC-or netbook-market grew 40% quarter over quarter and experienced nearly twice the 22% growth rate of larger notebooks (DisplySearch. com, 2011).
There is no doubt that accountants, business owners, or even the consumer who enjoys tracking his or her spending from his or her home computer appreciate that doing mathematical equations (accounting) no longer requires an abacus or clay tokens. With the advent and evolution of computers and their related software, accountants were better able to track information in real-time and completely eliminated most mistakes. This and the creation of portable devices such as iPhone/iPad has resulted in greater efficiency, accessibility, and accountability, and has altered the way accounting is performed, procured, and secured.
Accounting technology will continue to evolve, and tracking money will become even easier. References DisplaySearch. com. (2011). Mini-Note PC (Netbook) Shipments Grow at Twice the Rate of Notebook PCs in Q2’09. Retrieved May 16, 2011, from http://www. displaysearch. com/cps/rde/xchg/displaysearch/hs. xsl/090831_mini_note_pc_netbook_shipments_grow_at_twice_rate_notebook_pcs_q2_09. asp Loter, D. (2009). History of QuickBooks. Retrieved May 16, 2011, from http://business. intuit. com/directory/article-history-of-quickbooks

Acc 340 Wk 1 Individual

Global Positioning System (Gps) Research Paper

Global Positioning System (Gps) Research Paper.
The Global Positioning System With the proliferation of satellite-based defense systems and their continuing presence in the media it makes us more aware of our national defense. The United States is large, economically strong and a sometimes tumultuous presence in the global community. Although we may feel secure because of our superior technology and defense capabilities, our size and position in world affairs can make us a target for some countries. We can no longer be concerned with just our borders and now what comes from the skies and the sea is more of a threat than ever before.
The United States government had to develop a way to counter these possible attacks and the Global Positioning System (GPS) was conceived. The Global Positioning System was initiated in 1973 by the Department of Defense (DOD). It was developed by the the DOD because at a cost of over twelve billion dollars the government had the monetary resources to achieve these idealistic goals. Since that time it has grown from one satellite used strictly by the military to twenty-six satellites that can be used by civilians also.
This satellite system is used to determine the speed and position of an object anywhere in the world within one hundred meters to mere millimeters depending on the size and quality of user equipment. (GPS JOINT PROGRAM OFFICE. ICD-GPS-200:GPS INTERFACE CONTROL DOCUMENT. ) The original purpose of GPS was to maintain a strategic military advantage over our enemies. Toward the end of the arms race the targeting of ballistic missiles became so exact they could land directly on an enemy missile silo and destroy any missiles inside of it. The ability to take out your enemies missiles from great distances had a major effect on the balance of power.

To maintain the balance of power the United States government had to develop a way to locate surfacing submarines in a matter of minutes anywhere in the world. With the use of satellites in orbit the Global Positioning System was created. GPS uses twenty-six satellites and ground tracking stations around the world to compute distances using time. This is done by finding the difference between the time a signal is sent and the time it is received. The satellites have atomic clocks so the time is extremely accurate. The receivers position is determined by using three satellites, this is called triangulation. (kAPLAN,eLLIOTT.
UNDERSTANDING GPS:PRINCPLES AND APPLICATIONS) GPS is made up of three segments: space, control and user. The space segment includes the satellites and the rockets that launch them from Cape Canaveral. The satellites are powered by solar cells and continuously point their solar panels toward the sun and their antennae toward earth. The control segment includes the master control station in Colorado and monitor stations around the world. This segment makes sure orbits and clocks operate within acceptable limits. The user segment includes the equipment used by the military and civilians who receive GPS signals. Kaplan, Elliott. UNDERSTANDING GPS:PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS) The military applications of GPS are used in fighters, bombers, helicopters, submarines and soldier’s gear. Wartime defense is now more accurate and dependable than ever. While still the most important aspect of this technology, GPS is not used strictly for navigation anymore. Other uses include but are not limited to: target designation, air support, soldier rendezvous and “smart” weapons. “Smart” bombs use GPS to receive location information so they can guide themselves to a preset target.
This technology is a great asset in battle as it basically casts a net over a battlefield and can locate tanks, vehicles or even soldiers who may be in immediate danger. In the everyday world, GPS has also made life easier and safer. Hikers and hunters can carry hand held receivers in case they should get lost in the wilderness. On-board navi destinations through voice-activated user equipment. Drivers can also make cellular calls using these GPS computers should something happen to them in transit. Other aspects of this technology are used in farming.
Maps can be created of the fields during harvest and used the next season to plant and fertilize areas that need more attention. This increases crop production while reducing the use and expense of fertilizers, pesticides and fuel which also helps our environment. This process is called “Precision Farming’. Another very important use of GPS is the avoidance of in-flight collisions. Airlines are in the process of equipping their airplanes with GPS receivers. This will enable each aircraft to detect other planes in the vicinity and make sure they don’t cross paths in the air.
This is much more accurate and reliable system than is currently available and is sure to make the people flying in these planes more comfortable and secure. The Global Positioning System has grown into a resource that goes far beyond the initial design goals. These days scientists, farmers, soldiers, pilots and delivery drivers are using GPS in ways that make their jobs safer and more productive. The benefits of GPS are not limited to job related aspects alone. The future of this technology is limitless and will change and develop rapidly as new and varied applications are introduced. Works Cited
Bibliography Kaplan, Elliott. Understanding GPS: Principles and Applications. Boston: Artech house Publishers, 1996 Thompson, Steven D. An Introduction to GPS, (Everyman’s Guide To Satellite Navigation. ARINC Research Corporation, 1994 “The Untold Story of CALCM: The Secret Weapon Used in the Gulf War”. GPS World January 1995 page 16 GPS Joint Program Office. ICD-GPS-200:GPS Interface Control Document. ARINC Research Corporation. Available On-line from United States Coast Guard Navigation Center. Dana, Peter H. GPS User’s Overview. Available on-line at www. utexas. edu/depts/grg/gcraft/notes/gps/gps. h tml

Global Positioning System (Gps) Research Paper

Principles of Conditioning

Principles of Conditioning.
Needs and drives, what exactly are they and what do they have to do with dogs/dog training? A need or drive is a type of motivation that describes the behaviors dogs show during training. Needs can be something as obvious as water or food, all the way to behaviors that serve no clear physical need at all (ex play behavior). Dog training is all about arranging matters so the dog’s yearnings are met when they perform the desired action. Before any of this can take place you must ensure all of the dog’s primary needs are met.
The dog needs to be in a healthy state, be happy, and have a good emotional connection to the trainer, also known as rapport. There are two types of drives, primary and secondary. Primary drives are the drives that are a necessity for ensuring your dog stays alive and healthy (i. e. thirst and hunger). If these drives are not met it can lead to injury or death. Secondary drives include all of the motivations that make a dog behave the way it does. They are not as necessary for the life and health of a dog, but are still very important. 1) Primary drives: ) Oxygen: i) Quite simply, the dog needs oxygen to survive. Many things your dog does increase the oxygen that they consume, which results in panting. Panting is also a way that your dog expels excess heat. Heavy panting can interfere with the sense of smell (olfactory). b) Thirst: ii) The need for water. It’s important to maintain your dog’s hydration level so it does not interfere with training. Also water cannot be used as a reward for the dog. c) Hunger: iii) Just like oxygen and water, food is also a very important part in keeping your dog happy and healthy.
Though, unlike water food can be used as a reward, normally in the form of a treat. The dog should not eat if it has recently been doing intense physical activity, particularly in hot conditions. d) Drive to avoid pain and discomfort: iv) Dogs are a very intelligent species and learn very quickly, especially when there is a pain factor involved. They will avoid performing actions that they have learned cause them pain. Thus why handlers will inflict a type of discomfort when the dog disobeys or performs an action incorrectly. I. e. f you command the dog to sit but they ignore, or perform an incorrect action the handler will give a physical correction (command avoidance) that inflict pain upon the dog. In this process the dog is learning that if it does not sit like it has been taught it will be corrected (punished). Before you can use this type of training you must ensure that the dog knows the desired response. 2) Secondary drives: e) Socialization: v) This is basically the same as the dogs pack drive. One of the dog’s strongest drives is to have a social relationship with other dogs or humans.

It needs to be a stable relationship in which the dog trusts or has affection for it’s companion. Though this is not an instantly created bond, it is extremely important for the handler to build rapport with the dog. Walking, feeding, grooming, or just playing with the dog for a period of time can build this relationship. Building rapport is very important to the successfulness of the team. Socialization is made up of two sub-types, alpha and beta. (1) Alpha is what the dog initially wants to be. It’s instinct for dogs to want to have supremacy or dominance in a relationship. 2) Beta is when the dog is submissive, and allows others to be in control and dominant. This is what you want your dog to be as a handler. This is because the dog will show willingness or motivation to please the handler by completing actions that the handler commands. f) Play socialization: vi) Play socialization does not clearly serve any important needs, but it is important to incorporate fun play into the relationship between handler and dog. g) Prey drive: vii) This is the dog’s natural instinct to attack, bite, and carry anything the dog sees as prey.
This can be another animal or object. What a dog would do to a rabbit, can be initiated by throwing a ball in most circumstances. This predatory instinct is very important in dog training, especially in controlled aggression. h) Aggression: viii) This includes any behaviors such as biting, growling, and fighting when used to compete with others for resources (food/water) or to protect them selves when felt threatened. Dominant, defensive, and pain-elicited aggression are all a vital role in motivating dogs in patrol training or rewarding them with a bite.

Principles of Conditioning

Hemingway vs. Faulkner writing styles

Hemingway vs. Faulkner writing styles.
From the post Civil War era in which Faulkner was accustomed, to the early 1920s era of Hemingway ‘s short stories, both authors’ focus remains on a similar topic. 0th authors were ealist writers who expressed their concern with the changes happening In America. However, the writing styles in which Hemingway used, compared to Faulkner, show many differences. By comparing the styles of Hemingway and Faulkner, readers find a contrast in the authors’ use of sentence structure, word choice, and character development; but overall, they achieve a similar tone. In many of William Faulkner’s short stories, such as “Barn Burning”, the sentence structure is complex; he describes vividly what Is happening by including small details about characters and setting others may find insignificant.
Faulkner uses long, complex sentences that contain hyphens and colons to continue his Ideas throughout the sentence. In “Barn Burning”, Faulkner writes “Now he could hear his father’s stiff foot as it came down on the boards with clockwise finality, a sound out of all proportion to the displacement of the body it bored and which was no dwarfed either by the white door before it as though it had attained to a sort of vicious and ravening minimum not to be dwarfed by anything… “. Faulkner commonly uses great detail to describe even the simple sound of the father’s faulty footsteps.
Much of detail is unnecessary but adds effect to the sentence. Hemingway, compared to Faulkner, uses short sentences to complete his thoughts. His ideas are expressed bluntly, but the point is clear. Both authors use sentence structure to complete an overall tone in their writing. Both authors achieve a similar tone using sentence structure. Faulkner uses long, detailed sentences to add to the effect of his stories. Hemingway uses short, blunt statements to set the tone. Many of the two author’s stories end with the same sad tone. The sentence structure the authors use can carry tone throughout his story as they wish.

The word choice of an author determines how a reader interprets the story. William Faulkner uses more complex words than Ernest Hemingway. In Faulkner’s stories, the words he chooses often are symbolic in a way. In “A Rose for Emily’ Faulkner writes The word choice in the sentence sets a tone for the story. The word choice Faulkner uses often make up the complex sentences In his stones. HemlngwaVs word choice Is less complicated. His ideas are expressed bluntly through his words. It is easy for the reader to understand Hemingways stories without further interpretation. Hemingway vs.
Faulkner writing styles By Icahoon Throughout time, individual authors have crafted varying writing styles that portray s short stories, both authors’ focus remains on a similar topic. Both authors were realist writers who expressed their concern with the changes happening in America. vividly what is happening by including small details about characters and setting hyphens and colons to continue his ideas throughout the sentence. In “Barn ” The often make up the complex sentences in his stories. Hemingway’s word choice is less reader to understand Hemingway’s stories without further interpretation.

Hemingway vs. Faulkner writing styles

Negative Utilitarianism: An Overview

Negative Utilitarianism: An Overview.
Most utilitarian theories deal with producing the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people. Negative utilitarianism (NU) requires us to promote the least amount of evil or harm, or to prevent the greatest amount of suffering for the greatest number. Proponents like Karl Popper, Christoph Fehige and Clark Wolf argue that this is a more effective ethical formula, since, they contend, the greatest harms are more consequential than the greatest goods. Karl Popper also referred to an epistemological argument: “It adds to clarity in the fields of ethics, if we formulate our demands negatively, i. e. if we demand the elimination of suffering rather than the promotion of happiness. ”(Karl R. Popper,1945) Most forms of utilitarianism hold that we ought to do that which maximises the good and minimises the bad. There is some disagreement about what the good and the bad are– whether the good is people being happy and the bad is people being unhappy, or the good is people getting what they want and the bad is people not getting what they want, or whatever–but most utilitarians agree that whatever the good and the bad are, we ought to bring about as much of the former and as little of the latter as is possible.
Negative utilitarians disagree. Negative utilitarians are concerned only with minimising the bad. They don’t think we ought to maximise the good and minimise the bad, and that when we must choose between the two we must weigh the difference that we can make to the one against the difference that we can make to the other; rather, negative utilitarians hold just that we ought to minimise the bad, that we ought to alleviate suffering as far as we are able to do so.
Suppose that I have a choice to make: I can either make the happiest man in the world even happier than he already is, or I can alleviate some of the suffering of the unhappiest man in the world. Suppose further that the difference that I can make to the happy man is much greater than the difference that I can make to the unhappy man. Most utilitarians would say that in this case I ought to help the happy man. As I can make a greater difference to the life of the happy man than I can make to the life of the unhappy man, it is the happy man whom I should help.

Negative utilitarians disagree. Negative utilitarians hold that it is more important to alleviate suffering than it is to promote pleasure, and that I should therefore always choose to alleviate suffering rather than promote pleasure when forced to choose between the two. In most supporters of moderate NU the preference to survive is stronger than the wish to be freed from suffering, so that they refuse the idea of a quick and painless destruction of life. Some of them believe that, in time, the worst cases of suffering is defeated and a world of minor suffering can be realized.
The big problem with negative utilitarianism is that it appears to require the destruction of the world. The world contains much suffering, and the future, presumably, contains a great deal more suffering than the present. Each of us will suffer many calamaties in the course of our lives, before those lives finally end with the suffering of death. There is a way, however, to reduce this suffering: we could end it all now. With nuclear weapons technology, we have the capability to blow up the planet, making it uninhabitable.
Doing so would cause us all to suffer death, but death is going to come to us all anyway, so causing everyone to die will not increase the suffering in the world. Causing us to die now, though, will decrease the suffering in the world; it will prevent us from suffering those calamaties that were going to plague us during the remainder of our lives. Destroying the planet, then, will reduce the suffering in the world. According to negative utilitarianism, then, it is what we ought to do. That, though, is surely absurd. Negative utilitarianism, therefore, is false.

Negative Utilitarianism: An Overview

Unit Paper

Unit Paper.
There isn’t an American citizen in the world ho doesn’t know of the painstaking terror that swept through the country as we witnessed the scene via the myriad of media coverage on every channel. Watching these news sources and seeing the aftermath, and watching the government response as they tried to figure out why it happened was actually detrimental to the healing process of the country. Hearing the scientists discuss how the towers fell, and listening as the government talked about how these terrorists gained access to the planes Just worked to spread more fear into the minds of the American citizens.
Had the media Just gone dark, had the government Just said, “k, this happened, we need time to clean this up and discuss options, trust us,” Then the country may have been able to relax a little more. American citizen’s now have some level of post- traumatic stress simply from being exposed to what was going on in real time. I will never forget the video of the people Jumping from the buildings before their collapse, or the ash falling like snowflakes, covering everything around the city. I’ll never forget the clouds of thick black smoke, and the exact moment that the towers finally elapsed.
And I’ll never forget the days after, and the images of the towers missing from that NYC skyline. And yet, Vive never even been to New York. The media showed every horrifying angle as things progressed, making it as though we were all standing on the roadway, gazing up at the horrors as they occurred. The news provided every view point and every option, even though 95% of them were speculative and so far from the truth. The terrorists’ goal was to make the US fearful of them in order to make their point, and while they did a decent Job of that, the media Just added icing o the cake.

For months afterwards, people were too afraid to fly; people were too fearful to use public transportation. This fear was Just perpetuated by the media’s involvement. On the opposing end of the spectrum, the media can sometimes have a positive effect in minimizing the effectiveness of the terrorist attack. While flying into Boston in April of last year, I was amazed to hear the news of the city being in Lockwood. Sitting outside of Logan airport, the lack of people was eerie, and I pulled up the news on my phone to follow what was going on.
The city was in Lockwood and police were requesting that people stay in their homes and off the roads to make it easier to search for the bombing suspect; a nice way of suggesting that Marshall Law was being imposed, but not exactly. The good thing about the media being involved in this was that people quickly heard that they should stay inside, which cleared the roads and made it possible for the police and government to really focus and search for Tsarina’s. Would they have found him if they hadn’t put the city on Lockwood?
Probably, but you can’t be certain, ND it was more effective to do so to ensure that he was located as quickly as possible. Social networking is almost as bad as the media. Daily, there are posts about a child with cancer or a family whose home burned down that are asking people to like the photo. This is all misinformation and useless. Not to mention the things people post about terrorists or even the government, where you can tell that they have heard one thing and assumed the rest. That being said, social networking has a knack for escalating facts really quickly until they are more lie than truth.
It’s important to be informed, but when you’re getting your facts from a post that’s majority misinformation, it Just snowballs and leads to a bunch of confusion and panic. That’s not always the case, however. Sometimes, social networking can be a fantastic tool when it comes to terrorist activity. The ability to share posts on Backbone, for example, can be an excellent tool if the police are searching for a particular suspect. A picture or description can be released, and people can spread it to millions of others in mere minutes.
Not Just relating to terrorism, but crime in mineral, this is incredible and has been known to assist with finding many people, suspects and victims. While the media can be a useful aspect when it comes to terrorist activity, it is generally more of a hassle than an aiding tool. It’s our civil right to be kept informed on the events in our country, but in times of an attack, our government should focus on responding before they should worry about letting us bystanders know what happened. A terrorist attack is performed with the objective of instilling fear in the targeted audience, and when facts are misconstrued, this is Just perpetuated.

Unit Paper

Essay about Unit

Essay about Unit.
In this task I will be writing a case study about two different individuals who have different needs to one another, in order to complete an application for my second year to train as a social worker. Michael is a 79 year old man who lives in a residential care home because he cannot look after himself as he has dementia and forgets to do things like feed himself, wash himself. He cannot go out to the shop or even go for a walk about because he cannot stable himself to walk properly and finds it hard to walk around without being in pain because of his arthritis.
When he was younger he used to work in the metal works making all sorts of metal which was used for buildings, doors anything that had metal in them Michael has made in the metal works. Michael even used run to keep him health and fit he would even do cross country running. Michael is an atheist who doesn’t believe in anything and he still gets on with his life even though his friends believe in different religions such as Christian, Muslim. Michaels family live almost 2 hours away which means they cannot go and see him as much as they would like to see him and because of that he eels really lonely and that he has no one to talk to.
Michael has one younger brother who lives abroad so he doesn’t have a chance to see him unless he comes back to the I-J for like 4 weeks every year and if he comes to see Michael. Nancy is a 83 year old woman who lives in a residential care home because she arthritis, she has also broken her wrist which enables her to be able to wash herself properly, she also has bipolar disorder. Bipolar is also known as manic depression this condition can affect your mood which can swing from one extreme to the other.

Nancy goes through a tag of depression every day after losing her husband 2 years ago and she thinks that she is worthless and that she cannot do anything right. Nancy is a Christian who follows the religion very carefully and listens to what is right and knows what is wrong and she is strict by following the rules. Nanny’s family come to see her every two days because they live 30 minutes away which means they can come see her more often and she likes that they come and see her because they are the only family she has got and she can talk to them and have fun with them.
Nancy is the youngest r her and her sister but her sister never comes to see her because she has her own problems such as bad arthritis pains in her legs and her knees which enables her to walk. When she was younger Nancy used to love running, swimming she used to take part in sports for her school teams she used to travel up and down the country in order to take part in competing for her school team to win medals and for the school to win some medals.
Empowerment of individual- Giving individuals enough information to enable them to make informed decisions and make choices about their life. It lies at the heart of the care value base, devised by the Care Sector Consortium in 1992. The care worker could empower Michael by getting him a mobility scooter so he can get out of the house rather than being indoors all day on how own. A mobility scooter is an electronic scooter that lets people who cannot walk properly still get out and about of the house.
Also where Michael has dementia he tends to forget things very easily so the care worker could leave him notes in important places such as the kitchen, bathroom, and toilet telling him how to use the things that are in there and how to cook his food. This would help him physically because he is still getting out and about and leading a normal life also he would be eating instead of forgetting to eat. Intellectually it would help him because he is still thinking and using his brain to read the notes that have been left for him.
It would help Michael emotionally because after years of being stuck in doors on his own he will be able to go out into the fresh air and go to the shops and parks on his own without worrying about not being able to walk properly, also it would help his socially because once he starts getting out the house he can interact with new people and tart making friends whilst he is out instead of having no friends and being alone.
The care worker could empower Nancy by getting her a career who with her all day and leaves at night, the career would help Nancy to open Jars, fridges, doors and anything that Nancy would not be able to open because of her arthritis, and because of her broken wrist she is unable to do a lot of things for herself, especially washing herself when she is taking a bath or a shower. Also she could take some lessons on working on her bipolar in order to stop it from getting any worse and calming it down which is causing her to become even more depressed than she normally is and is making her keep herself to herself and not talk to anyone else.
Physically this will help Nancy to get back to the way she was where she would talk to anyone and everyone in the nursing home. It would make her a better person for herself and others. Intellectually it will help her to understand that her bipolar is causing her to shut herself away from everyone and that she has no one to talk to when she needs people to talk to, to cheer her up. This will help her emotionally because she knows hat she would be getting help in order for her to get better and that she would have more people to talk to when she needs them.
It would also help her socially because she can talk to people about her depression and losing her husband and she would make more friends whilst she is at the residential care home. Promotion of choice- Every person should be encouraged to exercise their choice or control of their lives for example by choosing which activities they want to take part in when they are in a residential care setting. An advocate can help them to understand that the choice is remoter by representing the individual and explaining what is important to them.
Michael could have the promotion of choice by being asked does he want to be able to get out of the house instead of being there all day on his own with no one to talk to or to make any friends. This could help him physically because he is being given a choice to go outside on the scooter or be inside all day. Intellectually it makes him think does he want to get out of the house into fresh air or being indoors all day doing the same things he usually does. Emotionally this helps him to feel as if he can o things on his own without any help from people and makes him think that he does have a choice.
Socially this will help him because if he does go out he can make new friends and meet new people rather than him being on his own. Nancy could have the promotion of choice by being asked does she want to go to classes which could help her with her bipolar disorder which could help her to stop being depressed. Physically this can help her become a better person and a happier person all round. Intellectually it could help her to become a stronger person fighting her own battles thou other people doing it for her and to become a better person like she was before everything happened.
Emotionally it could help her see that she is bringing herself down and is causing her more pain and hurt. This would help her socially because she would be able to talk to people more about how she is feeling and what she is going through and she would be able to make more friends and be able to spend time with them more. Promotion of rights- Every individual in a health and social care setting environment has the rights to confidentiality, choice and to have their individuality acknowledged and respected. All individuals have a right to voice their opinions and receive effective communication.
They must have access to the policies and procedures of the organization that is providing their care. Michael has the provision of rights by knowing that he has the right to choose if he wants to have the scooter and he has the rights to his own confidentiality by means of which no one else should know what his problems are. Physically this would make him feel better of himself because no one else would know what kind of problems are going on with him and only he and the career would understand what kind of needs he has.
Intellectually this would make him think that he can trust the career and can tell them what it is he needs and nothing would be said to anyone else. Emotionally this would make Michael understand that the career is there for his needs and his needs only and would help him anyway that they can. Socially this would make Michael be able to talk to people more and maybe he could tell them what is the matter with him and they would understand. Nancy has the provision of rights by choosing if she wants to have a career with her every day to help her to open things such as Jars and if she ants to have classes to help with her bipolar.
Physically this could help Nancy because she knows that she has a right to choose what she wants to do with her life a future. Intellectually this would help Nancy to think that she can have a career with her to help her do things more easily than doing it herself. Emotionally this will help Nancy to understand that there is help there if she needs it and if she was to ask they would help her and not turn away and leave her to do it herself. Socially this will help her to talk to people easier and understand that she can talk about her robbers with people.
Recognition of preferences- When providing social care support for vulnerable people, it is important to find out and recognize their preferences. This helps to ensure that they are able to live independently and allow them to stay in control of their daily lives. For example individuals should be able to state their preferences as to the type of support they wish to receive. Michael has a right to recognition of preferences by knowing that he could live by himself if he wanted to but he would still need help to do the daily things that people have to do.
Physically this would help him to learn to live on his own without lots of people being around all the time wanting to know his business. Intellectually this would help Michael to understand that he could try and do things on his own rather than wanting to rely on other people to do it for him and be more independent. Emotionally this would help Michael to understand that he could live on his own and try to do things on his own with the exception of a career being there for him. Socially this would enable Michael to talk to people more than Just being on his own and leaning with his problems and knowing that he can talk to people about it.
Nancy has the recognition of rights by knowing that she could live on her own, if she wanted to but she would still need help to do the daily things that people have to do. Physically this would help Nancy to understand that she could live on her own but have a career there Just in case she needs them to help her wash and to help her get up from a chair because of her arthritis. Intellectually this could help her understand that they are giving her a chance to do things independently and not having people here 2417 doing it for her.
Emotionally this could help Nancy to realism that she could do things for herself she don’t always need someone there to make sure that she can do it. Socially this would help her to get out more and to interact with other people around and not be left on her own. Involvement of individuals in planning their support- Care should be person-centered which means that care is focused on the individual to ensure that independence and autonomy are promoted. A social care worker should not make any decision or start delivering a service without discussion ND consultation with the individual involved.
Michael has the right to be involved of planning in his support by telling the career when he needs help and if he wants help rather than Just getting help when he don’t want it. Physically this would help Michael to understand that he can tell the career when he wants or needs help rather than Just getting it and making him depressed. Intellectually this could help him to know that he can talk to the career rather than being scared and not talking to the career about it. Emotionally this can help Michael to know that the career is there of hey are needed and he Just has to ask for help.
Socially this will help him to talk to the career more instead of being scared to ask in case the career doesn’t listen to him. Nancy has the right to be involved of planning in her support by telling the career when she needs help and if she wants help rather than Just getting help when she don’t want it. Physically this can help Nancy to know that the career is always there if they are needed and will help when asked. Intellectually this will help her to think that the career will always help when they are asked instead of doing it when they are not asked.
Emotionally this will help Nancy to understand that she can do things for herself but the career is there Just to help her when needed. Socially this helps Nancy to understand that she can talk to people about what is going on and that she can ask for help when needed. Respect for diversity- Britain is a multicultural society and this has an impact on health and social care delivery. The value of diversity should be obvious but unfortunately many people lack knowledge and understanding of different cultures, races or religions, and may therefore become fearful of something or someone who is different.
Michael has the right of respect for diversity knowing that he is atheist and the careers could be another religion he wouldn’t asking for things that they perhaps may not like or might not want to do. Physically this could help Michael to understand that if he wanted something cooked that they may not like to cook because they do not like it in their religion they may not want to cook it. Intellectually this would make him think that maybe he could try and do it for himself while the career watches him. Emotionally this will help him to understand other religions more and what their beliefs are.
Socially this could make him understand that talking to them about their different religion is good and so that he can understand what they believe in. Nancy has the right of respect for diversity knowing that she is Christian and the careers could be another religion she wouldn’t asking for things that they perhaps may not like or might not want to do. Physically this will help Nancy to understand that everyone’s religion and beliefs are different they are not all the same. Intellectually this would make Nancy understand that not everyone has the same religion and they all believe in different things.
Emotionally this will make her think that she could try and do things for herself. Socially this could make her think that she might want to try and do things for herself. Holistic approach- All care work is about improving an individual’s quality of life by taking a holistic approach to providing care. Holistic care means looking at all of a person’s needs and providing opportunities for these needs to be met. The career has the right to try and improve the individual’s quality of life by taking the persons needs and trying to make the best out of them.
Michael has the rights to a career because of his dementia. Physically this makes him understand that he is important and that his needs are trying to be met and looked after well. Intellectually this will make him think that his needs are important and that the career will always help him. Emotionally this will help Michael to understand that he can try and do things for himself whilst the career is there watching him to make sure that he is safe. Socially this will help Michael to understand that he can talk to the career about his needs and what he thinks can be done about them.
Nanny’s needs are that she has arthritis, broken wrist and she has bipolar disorder and the career should help her to do daily things so she can live a quality life. Physically this will make Nancy understand that she can still do everything that she could do when she had no problems but she Just has to have a career there to help her. Intellectually this could get Nancy to understand that she could try and do it for herself. Emotionally this will get Nancy to understand that she should try and walk around more to help her try and gain her strength again.
Socially this can help her to know that she could talk to people about her problems and try talking to people about her bipolar disorder. Multi- agency involvement- Multi- disciplinary working is about teams of workers from all different specialist professions and services working together in order to prevent problems from occurring in the support planning process. Working well with other agencies allows for all the different options to be considered and resources can be offered to be included in a support plan.
It is extremely important for the service provider to be fully aware of the power they have in their professional capacity and not misuse the power. This means being aware of the conflicts that can emerge in relation to the individuals rights and needs Michael has the right to multi-agency involvement because of his dementia and arthritis which means that he could need a doctor and maybe the physiotherapist in order for him to be able to walk properly again and to help him to try and remember things. Physically this would help Michael to remember things instead or forgetting them instantly.
Intellectually this will help him to start remembering people he used to know and how to things at home like shower, cook. Emotionally this can help him to become a better person and start getting him to do things for himself. Socially this will help Michael talk to people more without forgetting things. Nancy has arthritis and bipolar which means she would need a doctor and maybe social worker so she can talk to people about her problems. Physically this will help Nancy to understand that maybe she should talk about her problems rather than keep them to herself.
Intellectually this can help her to start getting rid of all the guilt that she is keeping inside her rather than letting it out. Emotionally this will help her to understand that maybe people are right she should start talking to people more instead of keeping herself to herself. Socially this will help Nancy to understand that no one will make fun of her if she tells them she has bipolar. Anti-Discriminatory practice- Discrimination is caused by prejudice which in turn leads to negative behavior.
Discriminatory actions or behavior can lead to some people not having their needs met. Negative behavior can damage a person physically and psychologically and can also cause stress. Michael thinks that people will make fun of his because he has dementia and that he keeps forgetting things easily than any other person may not. Physically this makes him depressed because e thinks that he is worthless, he can talk to doctor to help him understand why they might do that. Intellectually it makes him think that no one cares about him and they don’t want to know him.
Emotionally this will make him think that he is worthless and that he can’t trust anyone. Socially this makes him not want to talk to people about his problems and keep them to himself. Nancy doesn’t want to tell anyone about her problems because she thinks they might not take her seriously and find it all a Joke if she tells them she has bipolar. Physically this makes her down in herself and would ant to keep herself away from other people. Intellectually this will makes Nancy think why would she want to share her problems with people she thinks would understand but don’t.
Emotionally it would make her think that she is nothing and that no one really cares about her. Socially this would make her not want to talk to people because they might make fun of her. Maintaining confidentiality- Every individual has a right to confidentiality and privacy and control over their personal details. Maintaining confidentiality has become a specific issue in principles and values. It is vital to successful care giving to keep information provided by all individuals confidential.
Michael trusts the career to keep his problems confidential and not tell anyone else without telling him first and making sure that they could tell the other person. Physically this would make him think that he can trust them and believe them if they say they won’t tell anyone. Intellectually this will make him think if he can tell them or not without them telling anyone about his problems. Emotionally this will make Michael feel trustworthy towards his career and would be able to tell them things he wouldn’t tell other people.
Socially this would help Michael to talk more to people about all thee problems he has and has confidence. Nancy trusts the career to keep her problems confidential and not to tell anyone else without telling her first and making sure that they could tell the other person. Physically this would make her feel as if she could trust their career and could tell them all about her problems. Intellectually this will make Nancy understand that maybe she could tell there career things and they wouldn’t tell anyone else about them.
Emotionally this will cake her feel as if she can put all her trust in the career and tell them things they wouldn’t normally tell other people. Socially this could show her that she could talk to other people about her problems without being laughed at. Ml- Review the benefit to individuals and professional staff, of taking a holistic approach to planning support Holistic Approach- A holistic view means that we are interested in engaging and developing the whole person. You can think of this as different levels, such as physical, emotional, mental and spiritual.
It’s the concept that the human being is lit-dimensional. We have conscious and unconscious aspects, rational and irrational aspects. It is important for care professionals to help support the whole individual because it then helps the person in care to be looked after properly and have their needs met when it is needed. The purpose of this essay is to get people to understand what holistic approach and why it is important for health care professionals to follow and support the individual with the needs that they need. Five advantages of working in a holistic way for Michael and Nancy are, Empowers them
Michael will feel like he can make his own formed decision and choose whether or not he wants to do something that he might not want to do in the first place. Secondly it can make him more confident in himself to do things on his own and carry out tasks that he thought he might not be able to do in the first place instead of the career doing it all for him. Also he will feel more socially competent, he wants to go outside more by himself and try to meet new people every time he goes out. He has made a few friends who he goes and see and they come to his and they talk to each there or go for walks.
Nancy will feel as if she can make her own formed decision because the career gives her a choice whether she wants to do something or not and the career doesn’t force her into doing it if she doesn’t want to. Nancy will have more confidence in herself to do the tasks on her own without the career doing it all for her which could make her feel as if she can’t do things. She will also feel more socially competent she can talk to people a lot more than she used to before her career was with her, she is also able to go outside on her own meeting new people and making new friends.
She can maintain a strong friendship with people because she likes meeting new people. Respects them and treats them as individuals Michael might feel respected and feel important by the career because he or she helps them to do the things that they cannot do.. Whereas the doctors think that he cannot do things on his own and that he has to have a career with him 2417 to help him get up and around the house or go outside and is concerned about his wellbeing. Michael will be treated as an individual and will have the right to influence the right kind of treatment that he needs and not be given the wrong type of treatment.

Essay about Unit

Rose’s Characterization of McCarthyism

Rose’s Characterization of McCarthyism.
Rose has used the actions and motives of the jurors as a method of characterising and thus criticising the practise of McCarthyism. A fine example of this is the 3rd juror. A reckless and unrestrained man, he makes accusations against fellow jurors for not siding with his point of view; ‘Listen, you voted “guilty”, didn’t you? What side are you on? ’ – a direct reflection of the actions adopted by senator Joseph McCarthy in the 1950’s. The 3rd juror also wrongly accuses the 5th for changing his vote to ‘not-guilty’ without any evidence to support his conclusion.
This further exemplifies the premise of ‘making unfair allegations or using unfair investigative techniques, especially to restrict dissent’. He also verbally attacks those jurors that he perceives as beneath him to further assert his own power or control as well as to discourage any views that are contrary to his own. The 10th juror is also used to reflect another aspect of McCarthyism. He seems almost afraid of those different to him and his speech regarding those born in slums is an example of the paranoia that the practise of McCarthyism can spread.
It is also evident that the 3rd and 8th jurors had virtually decided the defendant’s guilt without any reference to evidence and were both very unwilling to concede that a reasonable doubt existed. It is clear that Rose has used the most unreasonable and reckless jurors to characterise McCarthyism in order to condemn its practise and to explore the dangers that similar movements pose to society. Twelve Angry Men as an interpretation of the American Dream

Twelve Angry Men explores a national ethos of the United States; the notion that the opportunity for prosperity and success exists for every man regardless of social class or circumstances of birth. This set of ideals is defined as the ‘American Dream’. Rose has used the jurors of the play to demonstrate how the notion of the American Dream can influence the underpinning ideals that society operates upon. For instance, the 8th juror provides an advocate for the principle of equality – the notion that ‘all men are created equal’ regardless of ethnicity or class.
This is demonstrated by his sympathy towards the defendant in regards to his difficult upbringing. The 5th juror then provides an example for the American Dream in action. He has been able to create a successful career for himself despite being born in a slum. Rose has used him to support the premise that social mobility can be achieved despite a disadvantaged upbringing through a willingness to work hard. The 10th juror is then used to represent those who attempt to undermine the values of equality that are explicitly rendered within the dream by continually distinguishing himself from ‘them’.
The 3rd juror also exemplifies someone who has achieved material success (not necessarily internal fulfilment) through a willingness to work hard and strive forwards. The consumerist culture that has been facilitated by the American Dream has also been represented by Rose – in the form of the 12th juror. Attached to the 3rd and 12th jurors is the notion that the focus of the dream has shifted to material ownership rather than personal progress or contentment, that success is only defined in terms of money.
It is the evident unhappiness of the 3rd juror which details that material possession certainly does not guarantee intrinsic fulfilment. The methodical criticism of seemingly solid facts by the 8th juror highlights a transition from concrete to intangible. Rose has done this to demonstrate that not everything is as certain as it first seemed and in turn this can be applied to the seemingly impermeable institution of the American Dream.
The overriding prejudices of many in the jury room shows that hard work may not guarantee success and social class or race can have an impact on individuals perceptions of others. This exemplifies the pessimistic belief that the American wealth structure perpetuates long-standing racial and class inequalities embedded in American society. This is in contrast to the idealistic view that a 1950’s America presented a frontier for egalitarian societies. Thus Rose has debased the belief that obtaining wealth is necessary in achieving one’s dreams.

Rose’s Characterization of McCarthyism