What is an abstract?

What is an abstract?

What is an abstract?

It is a self-contained, short, and powerful statement that describes a larger work. Components vary according to discipline. a social science or scientific work may contain the scope, purpose, results, and contents of the work. An  summary of a humanities work may contain the thesis, background, and conclusion of the larger work. An abstract is not a review, nor does it evaluate the work being abstracted. While it contains key words found in the larger work, the abstract is an original document rather than an excerpted passage.

Types of abstracts

There are two types : descriptive and informative. They have different aims, so, therefore, they have different components and styles.

A descriptive  indicates the type of information found in the work. It makes no judgments about the work, nor does it provide results or conclusions of the research. It does incorporate key words found in the text and may include the purpose, methods, and scope of the research. Essentially, the descriptive abstract describes the work being abstracted. Some people consider it an outline of the work, rather than a summary. Descriptive abstracts are usually very short—100 words or less.

Most  are informative. While they still do not critique or evaluate a work, they do more than describe it. A good, informative abstract acts as a surrogate for the work itself. That is, the writer presents and explains all the main arguments and the important results and evidence in the complete article/paper/book. An informative abstract includes the information that can be found in a descriptive abstract (purpose, methods, scope) but also includes the results and conclusions of the research and the recommendations of the author. The length varies according to discipline, but an informative abstract is rarely more than 10% of the length of the entire work. In the case of a longer work, it may be much less.



When preparing to draft your abstract, keep the following key process elements in mind:



  • Reason for writing:What is the importance of the research? Why would a reader be interested in the larger work?
  • Problem:What problem does this work attempt to solve? What is the scope of the project? What is the main argument/thesis/claim?
  • Methodology:An abstract of a scientific work may include specific models or approaches used in the larger study. Other abstracts may describe the types of evidence used in the research.
  • Results:Again, an abstract of a scientific work may include specific data that indicates the results of the project. Other abstracts may discuss the findings in a more general way.
  • Implications:What changes should be implemented as a result of the findings of the work? How does this work add to the body of knowledge on the topic?

An abstract is a short statement that describes a larger work (article, book, report).  If the article describes an experiment, the abstract will be divided into these sections (called a “structured abstract”):

  1. Scope
  2. Purpose
  3. Methodology
  4. Results
  5. Conclusion



  • A full citation of the source, preceding the abstract.
  • The most important information first.
  • The same type and style of language found in the original, including technical language.
  • Key words and phrases that quickly identify the content and focus of the work.
  • Clear, concise, and powerful language.

If you are abstracting someone else’s writing:

When abstracting something you have not written, you cannot summarize key ideas just by cutting and pasting. Instead, you must determine what a prospective reader would want to know about the work. There are a few techniques that will help you in this process:

Identify key terms:

Search through the entire document for key terms that identify the purpose, scope, and methods of the work. Pay close attention to the Introduction (or Purpose) and the Conclusion (or Discussion). These sections should contain all the main ideas and key terms in the paper. When writing the abstract, be sure to incorporate the key terms.

Highlight key phrases and sentences:

Instead of cutting and pasting the actual words, try highlighting sentences or phrases that appear to be central to the work. Then, in a separate document, rewrite the sentences and phrases in your own words.

Don’t look back:

After reading the entire work, put it aside and write a paragraph about the work without referring to it. In the first draft, you may not remember all the key terms or the results, but you will remember what the main point of the work was. Remember not to include any information you did not get from the work being abstracted.

Assessment 4 Instructions: Stakeholder Presentation

Assessment 4 Instructions: Stakeholder Presentation




Assessment 4 Instructions: Stakeholder Presentation. As a current or future nurse leader, you may be called upon to present to stakeholders and leadership about projects that you have been involved in or wish to implement. The ability to communicate a plan—and potential implications of not pursuing such a plan—to stakeholders effectively can be critically important in creating awareness and buy-in, as well as building your personal and professional brand in your organization. It is equally important that you know how to create compelling presentations for others’ delivery and ensure that they convey the same content you would deliver if you were the presenter.

You are encouraged to complete the Evidence-Based Practice: Basics and Guidelines activity before you develop the presentation. This activity consists of six questions that will create the opportunity to check your understanding of the fundamentals of evidence-based practice as well as ways to identify EBP in practice. The information gained from completing this formative will help promote success in the Stakeholder Presentation and demonstrate courseroom engagement—it requires just a few minutes of your time and is not graded.

Demonstration of Proficiency
Competency 1: Explain strategies for managing human and financial resources to promote organizational health.
Explain how the interdisciplinary plan could be implemented and how the human and financial resources would be managed.
<li”>Competency 2: Explain how interdisciplinary collaboration can be used to achieve desired patient and systems outcomes.
Explain an organizational or patient issue for which a collaborative interdisciplinary team approach would help achieve a specific improvement goal.
Competency 3: Describe ways to incorporate evidence-based practice within an interdisciplinary team.
Summarize an evidence-based interdisciplinary plan to address an organizational or patient issue.
Propose evidence-based criteria that could be used to evaluate the degree to which the project was successful in achieving the improvement goal.
Competency 5: Apply professional, scholarly, evidence-based communication strategies to impact patient, interdisciplinary team, and systems outcomes.
Slides are easy to read and error free. Detailed speaker notes are provided.
Organize content with clear purpose/goals and with relevant and evidence-based sources (published within 5 years) with an APA formatted reference list with few errors.
Professional Context
This assessment will provide you with an opportunity to sharpen your ability to create a professional presentation to stakeholders. In this presentation, you will explain the Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle and how it can be used to introduce the plan (P), implement the plan (D), study the effectiveness of the plan (S), and act on what is learned (A) to drive continuous improvement. By using this cycle, the stakeholders will have a tool and a proposal to expand on these ideas to drive workplace change and create improved processes to solve an interprofessional collaboration problem.

In addition to summarizing the key points of Assessments 2 and 3, you will provide stakeholders and/or leadership with an overview of project specifics as well as how success would be evaluated—you will essentially be presenting a discussion of the Plan, Do, and Study parts of the PDSA cycle. Again, you will not be expected to execute the project, so you will not have any results to study. However, by carefully examining the ways in which your plan could be carried out and evaluated, you will get some of the experience of the thinking required for PDSA.

When creating your PowerPoint for this assessment, it is important to keep in mind the target audience: your interviewee’s organizational leadership. The overall goal of this assessment is to create a presentation that your interviewee could potentially give in his or her organization.

Please follow the Capella Guidelines for Effective PowerPoint Presentations [PPTX]. If you need technical information on using PowerPoint, refer to Capella University Library: PowerPoint Presentations.

Be sure that your plan addresses the following, which corresponds to the grading criteria in the scoring guide. Please study the scoring guide carefully so you understand what is needed for a distinguished score.


Explain an organizational or patient issue for which a collaborative interdisciplinary team approach would help achieve a specific improvement goal


Assessment 4 Instructions: Stakeholder Presentation
Summarize an evidence-based interdisciplinary plan to address an organizational or patient issue.
Explain how the interdisciplinary plan could be implemented and how the human and financial resources would be managed.
Propose evidence-based criteria that could be used to evaluate the degree to which the project was successful in achieving the improvement goal.
Communicate the PowerPoint presentation of the interdisciplinary improvement plan to stakeholders in a professional manner, with writing that is clear, logically organized, and respectful with correct grammar and spelling using current APA style.
There are various ways to structure your presentation; following is one example:

Part 1: Organizational or Patient Issue.
What is the issue that you are trying to solve or improve?
Why should the audience care about solving it?
Part 2: Relevance of an Interdisciplinary Team Approach.
Why is using an interdisciplinary team relevant, or the best approach, to addressing the issue?
How will it help to achieve improved outcomes or reach a goal?
Part 3: Interdisciplinary Plan Summary.
What is the objective?
How likely is it to work?
What will the interdisciplinary team do?
Part 4: Implementation and Resource Management.
How could the plan be implemented to ensure effective use of resources?
How could the plan be managed to ensure that resources were not wasted?
How does the plan justify the resource expenditure?
Part 5: Evaluation.
What would a successful outcome of the project look like?
What are the criteria that could be used to measure that success?
How could this be used to show the degree of success?
Again, keep in mind that your audience for this presentation is a specific group (or groups) at your interviewee’s organization and tailor your language and messaging accordingly. Remember, also, that another person will ultimately be giving the presentation. Include thorough speaker’s notes that flesh out the bullet points on each slide.

Additional Requirements
Number of slides: Plan on using one or two slides for each part of your presentation as needed, so the content of your presentation will be 8–12 slides in length. Remember that slides should contain concise talking points, and you will use presenter’s notes to go into detail. Be sure to include a reference slide as the last slide of your presentation.
Number of references: Cite a minimum of 3 sources of scholarly or professional evidence that support your central ideas. Resources should be no more than five years old.
APA formatting: Make sure that in-text citations on your slides and in your notes pages and reference slide reflect current APA Style and Format.</li”>




The following is a list from which a topic may be selected for your presentation(s). These are only suggestions; you may have another area that you may want to explore; these presentations will be done at the clinical site (confirm with clinical professor for evaluation method):
• Global society
• Cultural competence
• Health promotion-exercise, nutrition, disease prevention, immunizations, wellness, fitness, Breast & cervical cancer screening; mental health
• Environmental safety
• Community empowerment
• Care of families
• Care of populations-health disparities
• Child and adolescent needs
• Health needs of men or women-sexual and reproductive health
• Health needs of older adults
• Meeting the needs of the homeless
• Home care
• School client care
• Work setting client care
• Correctional client care
• Communicable diseases-TB, STD’s, HIV/AIDS
• Substance Abuse-Alcohol, tobacco, drugs, etc.
• Mental Health client needs
• Societal violence
• Physical health problems
• Urban and rural care
• Disaster care
• Community resources

Community Health Teaching Project

This assignment will be submitted in 2 parts. The student will outline a Community Health Plan and Health Education Lesson Plan for his/her community and implement this in his/her community.
Students will use the following steps to formulate a community health nursing project.
First, the student will submit a two-page proposal that follows APA reference format.
The steps are outlined below:
1. Assessment: Assess a targeted population in your community to see what needs to exist. This is done by researching health data for your population. Make sure you select and define your community by noting the history of your community.
2. Capture a picture of your selected community. What are the vital statistics of your community? Think about socioeconomic statistics. What are the leading causes of death? What illnesses or diseases are present in your community? Do citizens in your community have easy access to primary care? What are the most prevalent health problems in your community?
3. Formulate a community health nursing diagnosis related to this health need, based on this data, what are the strengths and needs of your community?
4. Plan community intervention. Ask yourself if this will have a positive health impact in the designated population? How do you know?
5. Implementation. Create an educational presentation that will address the most important needs of your population. The presentation must be arranged with your instructor. The instructor will attend your presentation virtually or in person.


How would you evaluate your intervention?


Examples for the project: Health screening, health education, getting a sidewalk or gym or rec. center built, provide car seats for children in poverty areas, design and after-school-program for at risk students, provide training to inmates or correctional facility staff on infection control, organize a home visitation for at-risk teen moms, teaching nutritional cooking to moms receiving WIC, intervene in a communicable disease outbreak situation, develop a disaster plan, STD/HIV reduction rate program in a specific population, increase immunization rates in school-age children, Safety (texting while driving)(car seats)(firearm)(summer), depression screening of college students, assessing client satisfaction with public health services, obesity prevention, nutrition programs, physical fitness programs, marketing prenatal care, CHIP (community health improvement plan), teaching parents alternative discipline methods, tobacco cessation, etc.

Please, refer to the following documents to identify a possible topic for the Teaching projects/presentations.

1. See Healthy People 2030 list of related federal government priority problems to be remedied for your age group.
2. See the JCAHO list of Safety Problems for this year.
3. Speak with your professor and determine Quality Improvement Projects available, Incident Reports for the last year.
4. Do a needs survey of your classmates to determine their perception of what they want to learn?

The following is a list of suggested special projects/activities:

1. Poster.
2. Games.
3. Bulletin boards.
4. Videos.
5. Flyer







E.B., a 69-year-old man with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), is admitted to a large regional medical center complaining of severe pain in his right foot and lower leg. The right foot and lower leg are cool and with-out pulses (absent by Doppler). Arteriogram demonstrates severe atherosclerosis of the right popliteal artery with complete obstruction of blood flow. Despite attempts at endarterectomy and administration of intravascular alteplase (tissue plasminogen activator [TPA]) over several days, the foot and lower leg become necrotic. Finally, the decision is made to perform an above-the-knee amputation (AKA) on E.B.’s right leg.

E.B. is recently widowed and has a son and daughter who live nearby. In preparation for E.B.’s surgery, the surgeons wish to spare as much viable tissue as possible. Hence, an order is written for E.B. to undergo 5 days of hyperbaric therapy for 20 minutes bid.


  1. What is the purpose of hyperbaric therapy?



Is it better to amputate above or below the knee?




As you prepare E.B. for surgery, he is quiet and withdrawn. He follows instructions quietly and slowly

without asking questions. His son and daughter are at his bedside, and they also are very quiet. Finally,

E.B. tells his family, “I don’t want to go like your mother did. She lingered on and had so much pain. I

don’t want them to bring me back.”

  1. You look at his chart and find no advance directives. What is your responsibility?


  1. What is your assessment of E.B.’s behavior at this time? What characteristics of anticipatory grieving is E.B. exhibiting and what phase of anticipatory grieving is E.B. in?


  1. What are some appropriate interventions and responses to E.B.’s anticipatory grief?






E.B. returns from surgery with the right stump dressed with gauze and an elastic wrap. The dressing is dry and intact, without drainage. He is drowsy with the following vital signs (VS): 142/80, 96, 14, 97.9 ° F (36.6 ° C), Sp O2= 92%. He has a maintenance IV of D5NS infusing at 125 mL/hr in his right forearm.


  1. The surgeon has written to keep E.B.’s stump elevated on pillows for 48 hours; after that, have

him lie in a prone position for 15 minutes, four times a day. In teaching E.B. about his care,

how will you explain the rationale for these orders?


  1. In reviewing E.B.’s medical history, what factors do you notice that might affect the condition

of his stump and ultimate rehabilitation potential?



You have just returned from a 2-day workshop on guidelines for the care of surgical patients with type 1-DM. You notice that E.B.’s daily fasting blood glucose has been running between 130 and 180 mg/dL. The sliding-scale insulin intervention does not begin until blood glucose values equal to or greater than 200 mg/dL are reported. You recognize that patients with blood glucose values even slightly above normal suffer from impaired wound healing.

  1. Identify four interventions that would facilitate timely healing of E.B.’s stump.


  1. What should the postoperative assessment of E.B.’s stump dressing include?


  1. You are reviewing the plan of care for E.B. Which of these care activities can be safely

delegated to the nursing assistive personnel (NAP)? (Select all that apply.)

  1. Rewrapping the stump bandage
  2. Checking E.B.’s vital signs
  3. Assessing E.B.’s IV insertion site
  4. Assisting E.B. with repositioning in the bed
  5. Asking E.B. to report his level of pain on a 1-to-10 scale



  1. On the evening of the first postoperative day, E.B. becomes more awake and begins to

complaining of pain. He states, “My right leg is really hurting; how can it hurt so bad if

it’s gone?” What is your best response?

  1. “That is a side effect of the medication.”
  2. “You can’t be feeling that because your leg was amputated.”
  3. “Don’t worry, that sensation will go away in a few days.”
  4. “Are you able to rate that pain on a scale of 1 to 10?”


  1. What kind of pain is E.B. experiencing where his right leg used to be and what interventions can be employed to help E.B. with this type of pain?


11(a). What is causing this type of pain for E.B.?


How long is recovery from above-knee amputation?




The case manager is contacted for discharge planning. E.B. will be discharged to an extended care

facility for strength training. Once the patient receives his prosthesis, he will receive balance training.

After that, he will be discharged to his daughter’s home. A physical therapy and occupational therapy

Home evaluation should be ordered.


  1. What instructions should be given to E.B.’s daughter concerning safety around

the home?

  1. The signs and symptoms of neurovascular compromise leading to compartment syndrome include: (Select all that apply)
  2. Increased pulse
  3. Paleness
  4. Poikilothermia
  5. Paresthesia
  6. Paralysis or paresthesia


  1. A nurse is performing an assessment on a client admitted to the hospital with a musculoskeletal injury. The nurse assesses for manifestations associated with neurovascular compromise when the nurse:
  2. Counts the client’s apical pulse for 1-full minute
  3. Observes for drainage on the dressing of the affected extremity
  4. Takes the client’s blood pressure on the unaffected side
  5. Determines if the pain is experienced with passive motion of the affected extremity


  1. A client with a fractured femur experiences sudden dyspnea, tachypnea and tachycardia. An ABG is ordered. The nurse suspects the client probably experienced a fat embolism based on the results of which factor in the ABG?
  2. pH
  3. PaCO2
  4. HCO3
  5. PaO2



E.B. makes a smooth transition from the hospital to the rehab facility and then to the daughter’s home.

He was never able to adapt to independent living, so he eventually moved into his daughter’s home.

Patient Concept Map

Patient Concept Map

Patient Concept Map

  1. Choose an individual for whom you have cared in the clinical setting.
  2. Create a concept map based on the complete physical assessment you performed while providing care using the provided powerpoint template.
    1. Components of the concept mapIndividual’s information )
      1. Age
      2. Medical diagnosis
      3. A brief review of the underlying pathophysiology

*List what functional changes are happening

*List process that initiated and maintained disorder or disease

  1. Assessment Data
    1. Include all assessment data, not simply information that supports the selected nursing diagnoses





Neurological Exam


How to do a concept map for nursing

Patient Concept Map

  • Nursing Diagnoses )
    1. Select three nursing diagnoses to addresses
      1. One must be an actual problem
      2. One must address a psychosocial need
      3. The final must be a high priority for the individual
    2. Linkages Within and Between Diagnoses ()
      1. The concept map demonstrates the relationship within and between the nursing diagnoses.
    3. Planning
      1. Prioritize diagnoses to reflect the needs of the individual
      2. Set realistic outcome measurement
    4. Implementation
      1. Interventions are individualized for patient-provider rationale
      2. Interventions support the achievement of selected outcome measurements-provide rationale


  • Evaluation of Outcomes
    1. Determine if outcomes were met.
    2. Provide evidence that supports that determination.
    3. Describe what changes, if any, are needed to promote expected outcomes in the future.
  • Safety-Communication-Infection Control
    1. specific elements of communication used when providing care,
    2. safety concerns related to the individual for whom you cared, and
    3. infection control practices followed while caring for this patient.




Patient Concept Map


The patient is Joan Walker; she is 84 years old. She has had a productive cough which is green in colour for the past 4 days. Her PCP (primary care provider) started her on Prednisone 40 mg daily and Azithromycin (Zithromax) 250 mg PO for 5 days which she started 3 days ago. She has had intermittent chills, a fever last night of 102F/38.9C and has increased shortness of breath especially in the evening and during the night. She is using her albuterol inhaler about every 1-2 hours which does not seem to be working. She called 911 and is now in your ER and you are the nurse responsible for her care.






Joan is a widow for the past 6 months, after being married for 64 years and is currently living in an SNF (skilled nursing facility). Taught as an elementary school teacher for over 30 years in the local community. She is active in her church and called her pastor who can with her to the ER. You walked in as the pastor asked Joan if she would like to pray. Joan replied to the pastor “yes please I feel that this may be the beginning of the end for me”

Current vital signs T: 103.2F/39.6, P 110 regular, R 30 laboured and using accessory muscles, BP 178/96, O2 sat 86% on 6 litres of oxygen via nasal cannula, P-Q-R-S-T Pain Assessment Provoking: deep and shallow breathing, Quality: ache, Radiation: generalized pain over the right side of chest no radiation, Severity: 3/10, Timing: Intermittent last a few seconds




Patient Concept Map


General Appearance: appears anxious and in distress, barrel chest observed

Respiratory: Dyspnea with use of accessory muscles, breath sounds very diminished bilaterally anterior and posterior with scattered expiratory wheezing

Cardiac: Pale hot and dry, no oedema, heart sounds regular S1 S2 pulse strong equal with palpation at radial/pedal/post-tibial landmarks

Neuro: Alert and orientated to person, place, time, and situation (x4)

GI: Abdomen soft non-tender bowel sounds audible per auscultation in all 4 quadrants

GU: Voiding without difficulty, urine clear

Skin: intact turgor elastic and no tenting visible

Fluid and Electrolytes/Lab/ Diagnostic results

Chest x-ray: left lower lobe infiltrate with hypoventilation present in both lung fields

Lab: WBC (4.5-11.0) hers: current is 14.5 prior was 8.2

Hgb (12-16g/dL) current 13.3 prior was 12.8

Platelets (150-450×103/ul) current 217 prior was 298

Neutrophil % (42-72) current 92 prior was 75

Band for (3-5%) current 5 prior was 1

Here is more lab data:

Basic Metabolic Pane. (BMP):

Sodium (135-145 mEq/L) current 138 prior 142

Potassium (3.5-mEq/L5) current 3.9 prior 3.8

CO2 (Bicarb) (21-31mmol/L) current 35 prior 31

Glucose (70-110 mg/dL) current 112 prior 102

BUN (7-25 mg/dL) current 32 prior 28

Creatinine (0.6-1.2) current 1.2 prior 1.0

Lactate (0.5-2.2 mmol/L) current 3.2 prior NA


pH (7.35-7.45) current 7.25

pCO2 (35-45) current 68

pO2 (80-100) current 52

HCO3 (bicarb) (18-26) current 36

O2 sat (>92%) current 84%

What is the ABG interpretation?


Lorazepam 2.5 mg every 6 hours as needed for anxiety

Atorvastatin 600 mg twice a day

Enalapril 10 mg daily

Albuterol MDI 2 puffs every 4 hours PRN

Salmeterol/fluticasone Diskus (Advair) 1 puff every 12 hours

Triamterene-HCTA (Dyazide) 1 tablet daily

Causes of school shootings in America

Causes of school shootings in America










School shootings in America

“Gun violence is a public health crisis that claims lives every day.” These were the words from a statement by Michigan Governor Gretchen Whitman after a shooting at Oxford High School on November 30, 2021, that killed four students. While mass shootings are a significant problem, this becomes even more profound considering the number of school shootings in America. The shooting at Oxford High School is only one of the 222 school shootings in 2021 alone, indicating the highest incidence of this problem. When such events occur, questions arise, and debates emerge on who is to blame or what would have been done differently, but no significant change is ever pursued.

As the world deals with the covid-19 pandemic, America has to address the crisis of school shootings again. For how long will parents lose their children from such unfortunate events? Are responsible individuals and authorities doing enough? What is the source of the problem, and what is the most effective response? These are recurring questions, but the answers may not be easily found in the complex web of social-political issues around the guns control debate in America.


Prevalence of school shootings in the United States


On July 26, 1764, four American Indians entered a school in Greencastle, Pennsylvania, where they shot a killed nine pupils and the schoolmaster. The event is one of the earliest recorded school shooting incidences in America. Although not much is on record regarding such incidents in the previous centuries, the Center for Homeland Defense and Security (CHDS) has maintained the K-12 School Shooting Database since 1970. As the figure below projects, the incidences have been rising and falling with 2021, indicating the highest rate of school shootings.

Figure 1


Incidents of mass shootings








(CHDS, 2021)

Such statistics point to the existence of a problem and the need to adopt effective measures. The 2021 school year suffered the effects of the covid-19 pandemic, such that students spent a substantial amount of time at home or schooled via virtual means. Despite the limited time within the school setting, the year has had the highest school-related shootings. In September, when students were reporting back to school, there were 151 school shooting threats, up from an average of 29 in three years (Densley & Peterson, 2021). Compared to the previous year, the school shootings in September were more than double.

Could the impacts of the covid-19 pandemic be an influencing factor in the prevalence of the problem? As will be discussed further on, mental health issues play a part in the emergence of such behaviour. With the covid pandemic affecting the mental wellbeing of individuals, one cannot negate the likely impact of such pressures on poor decision making that leads to school shootings.    




Factors influencing gun violence in institutions



  1. Gun legislation and public administration failure

Children have access to guns due to their abundance and the lack of effective policies that control usage. Gun legislation remains the biggest challenge to dealing with school shooting incidences that have been prevalent in the past few years. After every shooting incident, public debate emerges on the best course of action, but no concrete action is taken towards gun legislation. An element of the discourse on gun legislation is the polarized response by different interest groups. An example is that while gun rights activists such as the NRA points to the need for more guns to protect Americans, gun control activists urge Congress to ensure gun control and limit access to guns.

For public administration officials at the federal and state level, the NRA has been a significant impediment in coming up with legislation on gun control. The group spends millions of dollars annually in activism against gun legislation. Some of the actions include bribing politicians, funding their campaigns, and instigating propaganda. The indecisiveness from the public administration and efforts from groups such as NRA impede the adoption of gun legislation that would control access to weapons by the public and school going kids.

  1. Mental health issues

The perpetrators of school shootings are largely current or former students well known to the victims. In a report by Paolini (2015), 41% of perpetrators are mainstream students, and 78% had suicidal attempts in the past or suicidal ideation. Research is rife with evidence that the majority of the shooters suffer from some mental health problems. Traumatized shooters often come from dysfunctional homes or have had exposure to criminal behaviour and substance abuse. Beyond this, some shooters point to the fact that they have been victims of bullying in the past, and their actions seek revenge. From such elements, mental health issues emerge as factors influencing the prevalence of school shootings.

Since the onset of the covid pandemic, there have been links between the crisis and increased mental health concerns. More individuals are suffering from anxiety and depressive disorder that leads to alcohol and substances abuse. Students and young adults are equally feeling the pressures of the pandemic and hence also suffer from mental health issues. The exacerbating effect of the pandemic on mental wellbeing may explain the increase in school shootings within September.

Educators and authorities are doing little to address the problem, even with the knowledge of such mental health issues and their impacts. After the Columbine High School shooting of 1999, studies by the FBI and the Secret Service established the need for schools to adopt a behavioural threat assessment approach. School and community commitment to such approaches have been minimal, as evidenced by the rise in school shootings resulting from mental health issues.

What to do

While blame for school shootings can be directed to various parties, there is a need for proactive action in dealing with the problem. The federal and state administrations have to pursue legislation and programs that guarantee the safety of children as they seek education. Parents and educators have a role to play in thwarting negative outcomes through effective interventions in the developmental phase of children. Ultimately, the country needs to move from debates and pursue concrete action to alleviate this pandemic.

For such an essay, feel free to contact us;





Center for Homeland Defense and Security. (2021). K-12 School Shooting Database. https://www.chds.us/ssdb/view-chart/?chartid=8

Densley, J., & Peterson, J. (2021). School shootings are at a record high this year – but they can be prevented. https://theconversation.com/school-shootings-are-at-a-record-high-this-year-but-they-can-be-prevented-173027

Paolini, A. (2015). School Shootings and Student Mental Health: Role of the School Counselor in Mitigating Violence. https://www.counseling.org/docs/default-source/vistas/school-shootings-and-student-mental-health.p


Demographic Profile Project

Demographic Profile Project

Demographic Profile Project
Section 4: Fertility
The goal of this assignment is to describe and explain trends in fertility in your country. To do so, you
will need the following data and for the country you have chosen for 2 years:
 Midyear female population by 5-year age groups
 Number of births by age of mother in 5-year age groups
For both years, use Excel to calculate the general fertility rate, age-specific fertility rates, and the total
fertility rate. For the age-specific fertility rates, you will need to use the appropriate female population
numbers to account for births by age of mother for the youngest and oldest age groups. For
example, if the youngest age group for the births by age of mother is 0-14 years, then the
corresponding female population will need to include those 0-14 years old. If the oldest age group for
the births by age of mother is 50+ years, then you will need to add the female population of those 50
years and older. Do not include the unknown births or female population in the table or calculations.
You will present a table that includes the mid-year population for females in 5-year age groups, the
number of births by age of mother in the 5-year age groups, and the age-specific fertility rates. The
table should also include a ‘Total’ row that has the total female population and total births, a row for
the general fertility rate, and a row for the total fertility rate. Make sure the table is properly labeled
and you cite the source of where the data was obtained (e.g. Source: Demographic Yearbook 1985
and 2012) below the table with the complete citations in the reference list.
Graph the age-specific fertility rates for both years using Excel. The graph should be properly labeled
(both vertical and horizontal axis, title, legend). Both the table and the graph should be included in
Part 2 of your paper (Fertility Structure).


Discuss the major political, social, economic, and behavioral factors that explain the change in fertility rates

Demographic Profile Project
Write a brief discussion of the current fertility (most recent year) and fertility change in your country.
In your paper, think carefully about what you have learned about fertility and what you have learned
about your country from the background paper. You should demonstrate an understanding of these
fertility measures and what affects fertility.
In your paper, be sure to include the following information:
2. FERTILITY STRUCTURE – Provide a summary of the relevant fertility statistics (age-specific
fertility rates, total fertility rates, and general fertility rate) for your country at two time periods.
Referring to all the fertility measures you calculated, describe the age structure of fertility in both
years and changes in the timing of fertility over time. How much has age-specific fertility rates
changed? At what ages have fertility rates changed the most? Do not simply repeat the numbers,
but interpret them.
3. FACTORS AFFECTING FERTILITY – Discuss the major political, social, economic and behavioral
factors that seem to be the most important in explaining the change in fertility rates and timing of
fertility over time. Discuss reasons why you think there may or may not have been a change in
fertility between the two years. Think about factors like the demographic transition, the individual
and social structure factors, including the proximate determinants related to fertility, e.g. wealth
and income, education, labor force participation, contraceptive use, proportions married, abortion,
To address this issue, your background paper may be helpful and you can use sources that you
have already used. However, you will need to consult an additional four outside scholarly
references (i.e. books or peer-reviewed journal articles). For this section, you will not be allowed
to use websites unless it an electronic book or a journal article from a digital archive (e.g. JSTOR),
nor will you be allowed to use encyclopedias.

John Cena

John Cena.
John Felix Anthony Cena is an American professional wrestler and actor. He is currently signed to WWE. In WWE, Cena has won 19 championships in total, including 12 world titles (having won the WWE Championship a record 10 times and the World Heavyweight Championship twice. In addition, Cena has also won the WWE United States Championship three times, and is a four-time Tag Team Champion, having held the World Tag Team Championship twice (once each with Shawn Michaels and Batista), and the WWE Tag Team Championship twice (once each with David Otunga and The Miz).
Cena also won 2008. Royal Rumble match, the 2012 Money in the Bank contract for the WWE Title, and is a two-time Superstar of the Year Slammy Award winner (2009 and 2010).  He is the longest-reigning WWE Champion of the 2000s, having held the title for 380 days from 2006-2007, and also has the fourth-highest number of combined days as WWE Champion behind Bob Backlund, Hulk Hogan, and Bruno Sammartino. Cena is the only man to fail to capture a world title upon cashing in a Money in the Bank contract.
Cena started his professional wrestling career in 2000, wrestling for Ultimate Pro Wrestling, where he held the UPW Heavyweight Championship. In 2001, Cena signed a contract with the World Wrestling Federation (WWF) and was sent to Ohio Valley Wrestling (OVW) where he held the OVW Heavyweight Championship and the OVW Southern Tag Team Championship (with Rico Constantino). Outside of wrestling, Cena has released the rap album You Can’t See Me, which debuted at No. 5 on the US Billboard 200 chart, and starred in the feature films The Marine (2006), 12 Rounds (2009), and Legendary (2010). Cena has also made appearances on television shows including Manhunt, Deal or No Deal, MADtv, Saturday Night Live, Punk’d, and Psych. Cena was also a contestant on Fast Cars and Superstars: The Gillette Young Guns Celebrity Race, where he made it to the final round before being eliminated, placing third in the overall competition.

John Cena

Ada Research Paper

Ada Research Paper.
DORRIS 1 Dominique Dorris Meyers BASK Reading October 25, 2012 Americans With Disabilities Act The Americans with Disabilities act is a law that was created by the US congress in 1990 and signed into law by George W. Bush on July 26, 1990. The ADA is civil rights act that prohibits discrimination on people with disabilities. In 1975 the Education for All Handicapped Children Act was passed. Before this act was passed only one out of five children with disabilities attended a public school, according to the U. S. department of Education (L. S).
There was a Civil Rights Act of 1964 created that made discrimination based on race, religion, sex, and other characteristics illegal. The original intent of the law was to create a civil rights law for people with disabilities that would be permanent, would not be able to be weakened, and would stop all discrimination. The ADA was suppose to be a flexible set of laws that could only be strengthened and never weakened. Title 1. 1 of the Americans with disabilities act is employment, and explains how people shall not discriminate against qualified individuals with disabilities. Title I prohibits employers with fifteen or more employers from discriminating against qualified individuals with disabilities in a job application procedures, hiring, DORRIS 2 advancement, compensation, job training, and other conditions and privileges of employment simply because they have disabilities” (K, S). Title 1. 2 of the ADA discusses public entities and public transportation. It prohibits discrimination by all public entities. This includes physical access for Accessible Design. Public entities and transportation have to have accessible utilities for disabled people.
Title II applies to public transportation provided by public entities through regulations by the U. S. Department of transportation. Title II also applies to all state and local public housing, housing assistance, and housing referrals. Title 1. 3 of the ADA prohibits discrimination of disability in the activities of places of public accommodation. This law indicates that all restaurants, movie theatres, buildings, etc. are accessible for people with disabilities. Title III has had more effect on the lives of Americans with Disabilities than any other ADA title.

Individuals with and without disabilities should be accessible to do the same things throughout life. Title 1. 4 of the ADA is Telecommunications. “The law requires that all telephone companies that provide telephone voice transmission services, whether interstate or intrastate, also provide telephone relay services that allow people who are hearing or speech impaired to place and receive calls through devices to or from people who do not use such devices” (American Rehabilitation). This act led to installing public teletypewriter machines and other TDDs. TDD’s are the telecommunication devices for the deaf.
For blind people they will change all written texts into voice messages and will change all voice recordings into texts for the deaf. DORRIS 3 The last title of the ADA is miscellaneous provisions. Title V includes technical provisions and this law applies to and person that prevents an individual from exercising his or her rights. This is any form of retaliation including threats, intimidation, or interference is not allowed if it is intended to interfere in a negative way. Any person who exercises their rights under the ADA or helps someone else in exercising their rights is protected from retaliation.
Since the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990 was created, there have been a lot of changes made that have positively affected people with disabilities. “This long awaited piece of federal legislation was expected to protect individuals with disabilities from discrimination in employment opportunities and ensure and access to various social institutions” (Bowman). The ADA helped people with disabilities get jobs, make social places and transportation accessible for them and even created phone operator systems to help translate messages to deaf and blind people.
The Americans With Disabilities Act made disabled individuals feel accepted and they were not discriminated anymore in things they wished to do. Contrary to the positive outcomes of the ADA there were also still downfalls for people who had disabilities. “Pro-business conservative commentators mentioned that the Americans With Disabilities Act was an expensive headache to millions”(Doherty 18). Because of all the changes that had to be made to make things accessible for people with disabilities it ended up being very costly for everyone. Even though the ADA was created some cases of disabilities were not DORRIS 4 covered. Some courts even found that individuals with serious conditions such as diabetes and cancer were not covered by the ADA” (B,L). Unfortunately some bars and clubs were not changed to fit the needs of people with disabilities. Even though the Americans with Disabilities act had many positive affects, some individuals still unable to do certain things. After researching about the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990, I think that it was a great idea to create such an amazing act. I feel as if people with disabilities should be able to do as much as they can in order to live a happy and normal life just like everyone else.
Even though there are downfalls of the ADA individuals have a lot more rights then they ever had several years ago before the act was established. If I was disabled I would want to be able to live my life just like every other person, and the ADA helped people feel that they could. The most interesting and best idea that the ADA had was title 1. 4 telecommunications. This was an amazing idea and helped both the deaf and blind. DORRIS 5 Work Cited Page Bowman, L. (2011). Americans with disabilities act as amended: Principles and practice. New Directions For Adult & Continuing Education, (132), 85-95. oi:10. 1002/ace. 434 Doherty, Brian. Reason, Aug-Sep 95, Vol. 27 Issue 4, p. 18 Kopels, S. (1995). THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT: A TOOL TO COMBAT POVERTY. Journal Of Social Work Education, 31(3), 337-346. LAFEE, S. (2011). The Americans With Disabilities Act at 20. Education Digest, 76(7), 51-55. The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. (cover story). (1990). American Rehabilitation, 16(2), 2. The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. (October 2012). Retreived October 23, 2012, from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Americans_with_Disabilities_Act_of _1990

Ada Research Paper

A Gathering Of Old Men

A Gathering Of Old Men.
Ernest J. Gaines’ novel, “A Gathering of Old Men” employs experimental narrative techniques in order to probe themes of racism and classicism, as well as to examine the nature of storytelling in humanity’s past and also for humanity’s future.

By employing no less than fifteen separate narrators  in this novel, Gaines is able to penetrate deeply into the subjective experiences of a a number of men — together whom comprise a social microcosm of African American history and experience.

Through the diverse range of voices at his disposal, Gaines probes a wide range of grievances and also exaltations among his characters and demonstrates the strength of communal unity. The diverse range of narrators used in the novel expresses the novel’s theme of strength-through-diversity adn unity-through-intimacy.
A careful reading of the novel reveals the deep motivations of its characters, each of which reveals the novel’s theme of redemption and social renewal. Because of the “tribal” nature of the diversity of narrators, the reader is able to feel as though they are a direct participant in the action, as though reading the novel is an initiation rite of sorts.
The novel’s central intrigue: the murder of  Beau Baton, also forwards the initiation or ritualistic them: the novel is meant to show the growth (or initiation) not only of chronologically grown men into — long delayed – manhood, but to redefine standards of black masculinity altogether for the characters in the novel itself and also for the novel’s readers.
In the novel, the fifteen separate narrators are drawn out of their ordinary lives and into a civic, almost mythic role. Gaines signals that the unfolding of events is meant to have this mythic, ritualistic overtone when the old men gathering proclaim that things seem new again, that they feel good about what they are doing.
Wallace sees the water of the river “as if it were still a mystery,” while  Mat admits that he is happy that they  “and all the rest are doing something different, for the first time” ( Gathering, 40).
There is also the symbolic/ritualistic firing of guns, urged by Clatoo who tells the men “Let them down there hear you” ( Gathering, 48) and contrasted with the brutality of combined experience among the novel’s protagonists, this symbolic gunfire demonstrates controlled violence and anger: emotions turned to ritualistic healing.
There can be no doubt that these feelings of race-based anger contributed to the murder. When asked, Uncle Billy admits that he killed Beau out of a longing for revenge:
What they did my boy…. The way they beat him. They beat him till they beat him  crazy and we had to send him to Jackson (the state mental facility). He don’t even know me and his mama no more. We take him candy, we take him cake, he eat it like a hog eating corn….
The ritual-based and initiation based theme of the novel is meant to transform the violence of the murder into a healing process,where each of the novel’s narrators “confesses” their anger and need for revenge and then each learns something through the experience of participating after-the-fact in a murder that only a single man committed.
Later, for example, Gable reveals his son is killed for the false accusation for rape on a  white woman and Coot talks about his war experiences.
The man who could break horses, Yank, relishes his role without at first realizing it makes him subservient to whites. But there is also a shadow of environmental awareness tied to the ritual murder: that the renewal of black masculinity is directly tied to the renewal of nature.
Johnny Paul explains the murder on behalf of the flowers: “That’s why I kilt him, that’s why….
To protect them little flowers. But they ain’t here no more. And how come?” (Gathering, 92).       Gaines’ intention is to tie subjective individual renewal with the renewal of both community and environment and he portrays the murder an consequent ruse in symbolically charged terms.
Killing Beau might revive the river: “That river…. Where the people went all these years. Where they fished, where they washed they clothes, where they was baptized. St. Charles River. Done gived us food, done cleaned us clothes, done cleaned us soul. St. Charles River — no more, though. No more.
They took it. ” (Gathering, 107). Because the novel relies on complex themes, it is dangerous to assume that racial issues are any more dominant than issues of community preservation and environmental preservation.
The key theme in the novel, as m,mentioned, is the reviving of masculinity: the renewal of masculine energy which is seen to extend beyond race and into the elements of the earth and nature themselves.
Mathu’s discovery of his community is the most starkly profoundly as portrayed in “A Gathering of Old Men.” When he says “I been changed….I been changed. Not by that white man’s God. I don’t believe in that white man’s God. I been changed by y’all.
Rooster, Clabber, Dirty Red, Coot — you changed this hardhearted old man.” (Gathering, 182 ); he as admitting that even his previous contempt and mistrust of white people has been challenged by his new-found notions of community.
While it is relatively easy to spot the racial themes of “A Gathering of Old Men” the communal themes and the themes of renewal through nature may be a bit more difficult for the casual reader to understand.
When the various themes of the novel are begun to be regarded as a whole, the picture which emerges is not a picture of “black” anger of African American bitterness or even of racism or classicism, but issues of humanism.
The reclaiming of masculinity by the men in the novel can be regarded, symbolically, as the renewal of any person or any group which seeks to finally reaffirm its power after a period, perhaps even a protracted period, of suppression and duress.
Rather than portray this accumulated anger and resentment as exploding in, say, a violent — if even localized — revolution, Gaines views the kind of fusion of bitterness, anger, and resentment, to a call to awareness of and an identification and re-claiming of communal ties and environmental awareness.
Taken this way, the subjective stories presented by the various narrators of “A Gathering of Old Men” can be seen to transform into universal voices of awareness, and cathartic change.
This transformation is heralded by community and the liberation of private anger and private experience as culturally accepted, in fat culturally imperative information.
The novel’s experimental narrative techniques weld the ancient oral tradition of tribal cultures with the scathingly sharp awareness of modern political and psychological realities.

A Gathering Of Old Men