Discuss The Factors That Influence Our Judgement, Thinking And Decision-Making

?Discuss some the factors which influence our thinking, judgement and decision-making Our everyday lives are filled with many choices and decisions which will impact on our lives both in the short and long-term. Our perception of the impact of these decisions on our own lives and those around us will affect how much time and effort is given to arriving at these decisions.
There are several factors which impact on thinking, judgement and decision-making and it is important to note that often these occur simultaneously rather than as individual areas but in order fully understand the entire process we must analyse the factors in each individual area. While it is neither practicable or possible to consider all the factors in every decision, knowledge of the factors, process and how they interact can be of critical importance.
By understanding the factors, we can ascertain how we make decisions and by gaining knowledge on the entire process, we can ultimately arrive at better decisions by being conscious of our thought and application process. How we think and apply our thought process to the decisions often determine the paths we choose to take. There are two systems, or modes, which determine how we think (Kahneman, 2011). The first system is fast, automatic, emotional and frequent and the second system is slow, logical, infrequent and conscious.

The title of the Kahneman’s book, Thinking, Fast and Slow, gives us an indication of the two systems. The first system, thinking fast, is associated with quick response taking into consideration the environment in which we are in which then allows us to respond immediately. This can be important especially in times of danger and the system relies heavily on general rules and guidelines, known as heuristics. These heuristics are primarily geared towards helping us in the moment and protecting us from immediate danger and are very useful in this regard.
However, the heuristics are designed to work in the environment from which we have evolved and outside of this environment can lead to errors. The second system, slow thinking, is the one we would normally associate with the thought process in the strictest sense. The process is a slow one which is both deliberate and conscious and we would feel that we are in control. The slow system may be used to determine what clothes we will wear today or which shares we should invest in to gain a higher return of investment. While both these systems operate in different ways, they too are interconnected and rely on each other.
Any impressions that are formed through system one will be fed into system two. In situations where system one encounters an environment to which it is unfamiliar, it will automatically mobilise system two to give assistance. The information and thought process in system one is crucial in protecting us from day to day; it is nevertheless much less effective for any long term planning. Any short –comings of one system is made up for by the ability of the other system and combined can ensure better outcomes whether in the immediate or longer term.
While the way in which we think, using either of the systems or modes of thinking described by Kahneman, is important, so too will logic play an important role in our thought process and how we reach decisions. Deductive reasoning, also known as deductive logic or logical deduction is the process of reasoning from one or more general premises or statements to reach a logical conclusion which is certain. Deductive reasoning makes a clear link between premises and conclusions and it recognises that if all premises are true and the terms are clear and the principles of deductive logic are followed then the conclusion that is reached is true.
For example, if all students eat in the canteen, and Martin is a student, then Martin must eat in the canteen. Inductive reasoning, on the other hand, is reasoning whereby the premises would seek to supply strong evidence for the truth of the conclusion. While a deductive argument is supposed to give certainty, inductive will giveprobable certainty. Using the example above, more evidence would need to be sought in order to determine of Martin does indeed eat in the canteen and it would not be taken as given until further evidence is provided.
The application of either deductive or inductive reasoning will be a vital factor in our decision-making. In certain circumstances it may be suitable to apply either, depending on the importance and certainty required in decision and the impact of making assumptions. However, there are also some factors which can distort the outcome of any decision and the logic may not be true where a fallacy exists. A fallacy is “a mistaken belief, especially one based on unsound arguments” (www. oxforddicionaries. com). An argument can be fallacious, irrespective whether or not the conclusion is true.
There are two types of fallacy, formal and informal. A formal fallacy is an error that stems from a poor logical form whereas an informal fallacy is an error in reasoning that does not originate in improper logical form. A formal fallacy results in a pattern of reasoning that will always be wrong due to a flaw in the logical structure of the argument which will render the argument invalid. A fallacy can be of presumption which fails to prove the conclusion by simply assuming that the conclusion in itself is proof. A fallacy of weak inference would fail to prove the conclusion without sufficient evidence.
Fallacies of distraction are those that fail to prove the conclusion with irrelevant information such as emotion while a fallacy of ambiguity would fail to prove the conclusion due to the impreciseness of the words or grammar. Some fallacies may be committed intentionally in order to either manipulate or persuade by deception or unintentionally due to a lack of understanding or carelessness. Either way, such situations can result in an alternative action than that which may have being taken if complete or accurate information was supplied.
As with all information supplied for the basis of decisions, it should be checked to ensure greater accuracy throughout the decision-making process and to reduce the likelihood of judgemental biases. “Decision makers are susceptible to a number of judgemental biases that systematically lead to predictable inconsistencies and decisional errors” (Nisbett & Ross, 1980). We often use our judgement to quicken the decision-making process and we will use of judgement to assist us during this process. However, as Nisbett and Ross have identified, this process can often lead to errors.
Selective perception, impression effects including primacy, regency and halo as well as framing and presentation effects and hindsight are all examples of judgemental biases with can distort our analysis and ultimately impact on our decision-making. Selective perception is whereby an individual perceives what they want from a message, in any form of communication including a picture or an advertisement, and ignoring everything else. People tend to see things from within their own frame of reference and as a result the message they receive may be distorted or inaccurate.
This may occur due to the amount of information we receive and our inability to accurately process all the information our brain receives. We subconsciously scan the information that we receive and as a result we often not only see what we want to see but also what we expect to see (Plous, 1993). An example of this bias is the Hostile Media Effect, which refers to the finding that people who have strong biases towards a certain issue perceive media coverage as being biased against their opinions, irrespective of the reality. The results of a study carried out
in Stanford University (Valone, Ross & Lepper, 1985), which showed news clips from the Sabra and Shatila massacre in Beirut to both pro-Palestinian and pro-Israeli students, found thatboth sides considered the clips to be slanted in favour of the other side. The strength of our emotional attachment can have a significant influence on how we can perceive situations and can therefore distort our perception and influence our decisions. We have often heard that first impressions last so we are advised from childhood right through to preparing for interviews to make a good first impression.
The basis for this is the primacy effect which “occurs when initial impressions are believed to be more relevant and important in rendering a decision than later impressions” (Williams, 2002). While this instinctive reaction is often correct, it can also be misleading and allowing us to form the wrong opinion. In such cases, because our opinion is already formed, it can be difficult to change this as we are unlikely to allow ourselves time to develop the relationship further.
As well as the primacy effect occurring in instances such as the interview, it can also occur in situations when, for example a presentation that is presented first will leave a greater impressions, irrespective of the value of the content. In certain situations, it is, however the most recent incident which will be perceived to be most relevant and this is referred to the regency effect. This is often the case when recalling words or number or even items such as when contestants on TV shows such as The Generation Game would recall the items that had previously passed before them on a conveyor belt.
Research showed that in most cases, contestants recalled the last item first in most instances (www. bbc. co. uk). The timing of when a decision will be made is a crucial factor and if a decision is to be delayed by as much as a week, then the primacy effect will take precedence whereas if the second or final argument isn’t delivered until a later date then the regency effect will carry more weight. Another factor which may influence our judgement and decision making is the so-called ‘halo effect’, a cognitive bias whereby the judgement of a person’s character is influenced by one’s overall impression.
The manner in which this can manifest itself it best illustrated with an example: you are at a party and meet a friendly person. Later that week you have asked to become involved in a charity event and are seeking sponsorship. You contact the person you met at the party as you suspect they will make a donation. In reality, there is no link between the pleasant nature of the person you met at the party and generosity. Yet, the halo effect is leading you towards the assumption that the two are connected.
Many people use the halo effect to sway peoples judgement and it very often exploited by politicians. A local GP may seek election to local or national government having made numerous promises in their bid for election. The electorate may determine that because they are educated and medically qualified they will make good politicians. In reality, there is no correlation between the two but the halo effect in many cases convinces the electorate. The opposite of the halo effect is known as the devils horns effect and is essentially the reverse.
If a negative characteristic is identified in an individual, then further negative attributes may be associated with them without sufficient evidence. In order to try and form a balanced and more objective opinion, it is important to be aware of the existence of the halo or devil’s horns effect and begin to ascertain what the actual characteristics or traits rather than simply forming an opinion without sufficient evidence. How information is both presented and framed to the decision maker can impact on their final judgement.
The manner in which the information is received can impact on how the information is processed. For example, if we are asked how if we consider if someone is tall or small, or if the question of weight is presented as how large or small is someone, we may give different opinions. Similarly, anchoring may occur when the questions is presented with data which may influence the decision-maker. Anchoring is the “act of basing a judgement on a familiar reference point that is incomplete or irrelevant to the problem that is being solved” (www.
businessdictionary). Again, the manner in which the information is presented may influence the decision-maker. In the event of a company deciding on a projected return-on-investment, the CFO may ask the general manger if a 15% return would be acceptable. The general manger may anchor to the figure of 15%, whereas this should not be a reference point at all and if the information was presented with a certain tone, the general manager’s opinion may be swayed by this too.
“When information becomes an anchor, we adjust insufficiently form that amount when making decisions” (Williams, 2002). Our decisions are also influenced how a problem is framed. This effect can occur when decisions makers are more inclined to avoid risk and problems are famed as gains and when they may seek risk problems are viewed as losses. Framing can also influence the decision maker when the information is presented in a positive rather than a negative manner. For example, there is a 90% chance of a positive return of investment rather than a 10% chance of a loss.
In order to minimise presentation and framing effects and reduce the tendency to anchor, it can be beneficial to review the number of items under consideration in order to get a better picture of the situation in question. This can remove any bias by ensuring a greater range and reduces the focus from the presented information to increases the overall assessment and reduce and judgement bias. Hindsight, or the ‘knew it all along effect’, can also have an impact on our judgement. It refers to the inclination to recall past events as being more predictable than they were prior to the event taking place.
Hindsight bias may lead to memory distortion whereby those recalling the past events can reconstruct the event in such a manner that it leads to false or misleading theoretical outcomes. Studies carried out by Kahneman and Tversky show that the effect can cause problems when trying to analyse, interpret and understand results. One of the basic problems with hindsight it that the person may consider that they “knew it all along”, and examples have been cited in historians accounts of battles and in judicial systems when responsibility is being attributed.
In business, hindsight may influence a decision and may cause an element of overconfidence in the decision when the decision maker sees themselves who remember correctly when in fact they are forgetting they made the wrong decision the first time. “The illusion that we understand the past fosters overconfidence in our ability to predict the future” (Kahneman, 2012). When faced with new information, hindsight can cause the distortion in the original analysis and can lead impact on future similar decisions In making any decisions, as outlined above, how we think and the factors that influence our judgement are critical.
However, the factors that influence our decision making process is not limited to those. Groupthink, the levels of risk associated with the decisions, the rationality of the decision-maker as well as cultural and political influences all play an important role in influencing our decision making. Understanding the role of all these factors and how they ultimately influence to decision-making process us can assist us in making better informed decisions. Groupthink can occur within a group of people when a desire for conformity within the group results in an incorrect outcome in the decision-making process.
The members of the group, in an effort to avoid conflict and reach a general consensus, do not critically review or evaluate the ideas sufficiently as doing so may result in isolation. As a result of groupthink, there is a loss of creativity and there is little or no encourage for independent thinking, which can lead to a dysfunctional group. The group is likely to encounter an illusion of invulnerability, an inflated certainty that they have made the right decisions and “to deterioration in mental efficiency, reality testing and moral judgments as a result of group pressures”, (Janis, 1972).
Janis has extensively researched ways to avoid groupthink including the examination of all alternatives, an independent leader and the appointment of a ‘devil’s advocate’. He also advocated the “vigilant appraisal “, (Janis, 1982), as used by President Kennedy during the Cuban Missile Crisis when the President invited experts in to give their opinion and allowed those experts to be questioned. The level of uncertainty and risk is an important factor influencing the decision-maker. The entire process is an attempt to try to reduce, or, if possible remove risks and uncertainties.
The decision makers risk preference will also impact on the level of risk and uncertainty which will remain. In the face of uncertainty, key decisions may be put on hold until such time as the level of uncertainty is eliminated or, at least, reduced. It is important to note that there is a distinction between risk and uncertainty. Uncertainty is the situation whereby multiple outcomes are possible but are not yet known whereas risk is a situation of uncertainty whereby the possible outcomes will involve some degree of losses dependent on the actual outcome of the situation.
The decision maker’s perception of risk, the framing of the risk and the level of personal involvement will also be a factor in the final decision and these will assist to determine the level of control the decisions maker has over the situation. The level of control the decision maker will play an important role because while a particular action may be riskier it may be taken if greater control can be exerted on the possible outcomes.
In most situations the level of risk will never be completely eliminated, however it is important that all actions are taken to reduce its impact and in this regard a good understanding of our perception of risk and risk preference is a key consideration. In making any decision, it is usually assumed the person or persons making the decision will act in a rational manner. A rational decision maker will use “a method for systematically selecting among possible choices that is based on reason and facts” (www.
businessdictionary. com). During the process those tasked with making the decision will often use a number of analytical steps to review the facts and possible outcomes before they decide on what course of action to pursue. A rational decision is one that is not only reasoned but one that is the optimal one for solving a problem or for achieving a goal. Determining the optimum course of action will require collating and quantifying information and making several key assumptions.
These assumptions must be clearly identified, otherwise, the decision maker may be seen to be acting in their own self-interest, and thus in an irrational manner. “Good decision making involves sufficient search for possibilities, evidence and goals, and fairness in the search for evidence and in inference”, (Baron,1991). However, the decision-maker may also be limited bounded rationality by the amount of information available to them, the time constraints imposed upon them, the cognitive limitation of their minds or the amount of resources, financial and non-financial at their disposal.
This notion of bounded rationality was proposed by Herbert Simon whereby “the decision-makers lack the ability and resources to arrive at the optimal solution, they instead apply their rationality only after having greatly simplified the choices available” (www. princton. edu). Thus, it can be argued that the decision maker’s choice will be limited given the information available to them and the ability of those to act in rational manner, and they will often become satisfiers, seeking a satisfactory outcome rather than an optimal one.
We constantly strive to make the best possible decisions and to make the most rational decisions can. However, as outlined above, we are subject to bounded rationality and therefore must, in reality try to determine the best possible outcome. The decisions we make are also affected by our nature, our chemical make-up, our environment and importantly, the role our emotions play. Our emotions can often overrule our reasoning and affect our logical approach to decisions, and it is important that we take time to consider options and alternatives before making unnecessary impulsive decisions.
The desire to make quick and compulsive decisions can result in good decisions on occasions but finding an ability to restrict our inclination to make compulsive decisions, which can be strongly influence by our emotions, can often result in improved decision making. Decision making is part of everyday life both personally and professionally. As outlined above there are many factors which influence our thinking, judgement and decision-making.
However, the factors and process is not limited to those mentioned but also involves consideration of a cost/benefit analysis, which will impact of the rationality of the decision, as well as the emotional condition and level of involvement of those making the decisions and there may even be an element of luck, however “the idea that large historical events are determined by luck is profoundly shocking, although it is demonstrably true” (Kahneman, 2012). The time horizon and the effects of any decision should, where possible, be considered in the context of both the short and long-term to fully understand its implications.
It is evident that the entire process does not involve one, or even several of the factors mentioned, but is rather a combination of both conscious and subconscious actions which, when combined, will impact on the decision. It is also clear that the correct or most favourable decision will not always be reached but recognition of the processes and the factors which influence our thinking, judgement and decision making will ensure that the choices we make will be better informed and therefore result in greater probability that the decisions we make are the optimal ones.

The Molecular Basis of Inheritance

THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF INHERITANCE I. History A. Discovery of “transformation” – a change in genotype and phenotype due to the uptake of external DNA by a cell 1. Griffith 1920s did experiments with Streptococcus pneumoniae (p294 fig16. 2) a. took two strains of S. pneumoniae, one virulent, one not b. heat killed virulent strain, then mixed them with the living nonvirulent strain c. living nonvirulent strain became virulent d. nonvirulent strain took on virulent strain’s DNA ? became virulent e. see p294 fig16. 2 S strain = virulent, R = nonvirulent f. ventually Griffith’s work lead way to more studies on DNA being the carrier of genetic info. B. Proof that viral DNA and not viral protein contains genetic information to make more viral particles 1. Hershey and Chase 1950s p295 fig16. 4 a. knew that viruses could infect bacteria and make more viruses using the host cell’s replicating ‘machinery’ b. background: sulfur gets incorporated into virus’ protein/phosphorus into virus’ DNA c. took T4 (bacteriophage) and plated with a lawn of E. coli and radioactively labeled sulfur, result = T4 with radioactive labeled protein (DNA not labeled) d. took T4 and plated with E. oli and radioactively labeled phosphorus = T4 with radioactively labeled DNA (protein not labeled) e. background: when virus + bacteria is spun down, viral particles in supernatant and bacteria in pellet f. took T4 (S-labeled) infected new E. coli lawn, spun down, found S-radioactive labels in supernatant g. took T4 (P-labeled) infected new E. coli lawn, spun down, found P-radioactive labels in pellet h. result = it’s the DNA that’s injected into the host to make more virus (even plated these spun down pellet bacteria, and they lysed and released new virus C. Discovery of the structure of DNA 1.
Watson and Crick a. used an x-ray crystallography picture (p297) by Franklin to determine DNA as a double-helical structure b. review p298 – A pairs with T and G with C/ A and G are purines and C and T are pyrimidines/double hydrogen bonds between A and T, and triple between G and C II. DNA Replication A. 3 models of DNA replication p300 fig 16. 10 1. Conservative model – the parental helix splits, copies, then goes back together again to remain intact while a second entirely new copy is made 2. Semiconservative model – the parental helix splits, copies and remains a part of the two new helixes 3.
Dispersive model – the parental helix splits unevenly, copies and remains a part of the two new helixes but in pieces B. Experimental proof p300 fig16. 11 1. added radioactively labeled heavy nitrogen to replicating bacteria, then placed this culture into radioactively labeled light nitrogen (used to distinguish strands) 2. allowed bacteria to replicate again, results gave hybrid DNA strands (ruled out conservative model) (note: both hybrids half and half and totally mixed look the same, so semiconservative and dispersive models both upheld this time- see below) 3. llowed bacteria to replicate again, results gave hybrid strands and only light double strands (ruled out dispersive model since all should be mixed if this was right) C. Origins of replication p301 fig16. 12 1. origin of replication – site where DNA replication begins a. proteins recognize a specific sequence on the template DNA, open the dsDNA to make a bubble, and begin replication b. replication fork – location on DNA strand where new DNA strand is growing 1. prokaryotes plasmid (single circular dsDNA helix) have one origin of replication and replication occurs in both directions 2. ukaryotes have linear dsDNA have many origins and replication occurs in both directions D. Elongation of new DNA 1. DNA polymerase – enzyme that synthesizes the new DNA strand by adding nucleotides to the growing strand 2. DNA polymerase receives energy to do this by nucleotides being nucleoside triphosphate (CTP, GTP, ATP, TTP) since they lose Pii = exergonic reaction to supply energy E. DNA is antiparallel p302 1. carbon numbering – carbon attached to base is 1’, count clockwise, carbon attached to phosphate group is 3’, carbon attached to other phosphate group is 5’ 2. be able to find 5’ vs 3’ end . (p302 fig 16. 14) replication occurs 5’ ? 3’, so strand being made in this direction is called the leading strand and replication occurs toward the replication fork 4. lagging strand is replication that occurs 5’ ? 3’ but replication moves away from the replication fork a. lagging strand produces Okazaki fragments which must be connected with DNA ligase p303 fig 16. 15 F. Priming DNA synthesis (getting replication started) p303 fig16. 15 1. primer – existing RNA polynucleotide on the template DNA strand since DNA polymerase cannot just start adding new nucleotides on its own a. rimer is laid down by enzyme primase b. only one primer required for leading strand to begin synthesizing/new RNA primer required for each lagging strand beginning c. DNA polymerase eventually replaces RNA nucleotides with DNA ones and occurs before ligase connects any lagging DNA strands G. Other assisting proteins 1. helicase – enzyme that unwinds dsDNA at the replication form 2. single-strand binding proteins – hold apart template DNA while replication occurs **FINAL GOOD SUMMARY P304 fig 16. 16 III. DNA Proofreading and Repair

A. Mismatch repair 1. as DNA polymerase lays down nucleotides, if it notices a mismatched one to template, will remove and replace with correct one 2. Excision repair p305 fig16. 17: consists of nuclease – enzyme that can cut out damaged segments of a DNA strand, then new nucleotides are filled in based on what the other DNA strand sequence is by DNA polymerase and ligase IV. Replication of the ends of DNA strands p306 fig16. 18 A. DNA polymerase can only add nucleotides to a 3’ end (since it grows in a 5’ ? 3’ direction) B.
For lagging strand, there is no problem since it replaces RNA primer and joins DNA with ligase C. For leading strand, there is a problem, since the 3’ end of the template strand has a RNA primer, which cannot be replaced with DNA nucleotides (by DNA polymerase) since there is no 3’ end to start from (DNA polymerase cannot just add nucleotides opposite of the DNA template strand – must use a RNA primer) D. This results in successive replicated strands becoming shorter and shorter – the remedy? E. Telomeres – eukaryotic cells have short repetitive nucleotide sequences that do not code for anything 1. elomeres protect the cell from false alarms that there is DNA damage and cause the cell to die since losing these ends don’t mean anything (note that prokaryotes do not have this problem since their DNA is circular with no “end”) 2. but when telomeres are lost, are they replaced? Yes by telomerase – enzyme that works in conjunction with DNA polymerase to add length to telomeres a. p306 fig16. 19 have shortened “just made” DNA strand b. telomerase is associated with an RNA strand and DNA polymerase c. telomerase lines up the RNA strand with the 3’ DNA strand to serve as a template to have the 3’ end grow d. hen the RNA strand serves as a primer for new growth onto the 5’ strand, then the primer is removed e. result is an elongated DNA strand that was shorted during replication *telomerase is not present in most cells of multicellular organisms (like us) *DNA of older individuals tends to be shorter *telomerase is abundant in germ line cells – those that give rise to gametes *researchers find telomerase in cancer cells – makes sense since these cells replicate often and would have very short DNA (possible cancer therapy is to target their telomerase)

Essay about Unit

In this task I will be writing a case study about two different individuals who have different needs to one another, in order to complete an application for my second year to train as a social worker. Michael is a 79 year old man who lives in a residential care home because he cannot look after himself as he has dementia and forgets to do things like feed himself, wash himself. He cannot go out to the shop or even go for a walk about because he cannot stable himself to walk properly and finds it hard to walk around without being in pain because of his arthritis.
When he was younger he used to work in the metal works making all sorts of metal which was used for buildings, doors anything that had metal in them Michael has made in the metal works. Michael even used run to keep him health and fit he would even do cross country running. Michael is an atheist who doesn’t believe in anything and he still gets on with his life even though his friends believe in different religions such as Christian, Muslim. Michaels family live almost 2 hours away which means they cannot go and see him as much as they would like to see him and because of that he eels really lonely and that he has no one to talk to.
Michael has one younger brother who lives abroad so he doesn’t have a chance to see him unless he comes back to the I-J for like 4 weeks every year and if he comes to see Michael. Nancy is a 83 year old woman who lives in a residential care home because she arthritis, she has also broken her wrist which enables her to be able to wash herself properly, she also has bipolar disorder. Bipolar is also known as manic depression this condition can affect your mood which can swing from one extreme to the other.

Nancy goes through a tag of depression every day after losing her husband 2 years ago and she thinks that she is worthless and that she cannot do anything right. Nancy is a Christian who follows the religion very carefully and listens to what is right and knows what is wrong and she is strict by following the rules. Nanny’s family come to see her every two days because they live 30 minutes away which means they can come see her more often and she likes that they come and see her because they are the only family she has got and she can talk to them and have fun with them.
Nancy is the youngest r her and her sister but her sister never comes to see her because she has her own problems such as bad arthritis pains in her legs and her knees which enables her to walk. When she was younger Nancy used to love running, swimming she used to take part in sports for her school teams she used to travel up and down the country in order to take part in competing for her school team to win medals and for the school to win some medals.
Empowerment of individual- Giving individuals enough information to enable them to make informed decisions and make choices about their life. It lies at the heart of the care value base, devised by the Care Sector Consortium in 1992. The care worker could empower Michael by getting him a mobility scooter so he can get out of the house rather than being indoors all day on how own. A mobility scooter is an electronic scooter that lets people who cannot walk properly still get out and about of the house.
Also where Michael has dementia he tends to forget things very easily so the care worker could leave him notes in important places such as the kitchen, bathroom, and toilet telling him how to use the things that are in there and how to cook his food. This would help him physically because he is still getting out and about and leading a normal life also he would be eating instead of forgetting to eat. Intellectually it would help him because he is still thinking and using his brain to read the notes that have been left for him.
It would help Michael emotionally because after years of being stuck in doors on his own he will be able to go out into the fresh air and go to the shops and parks on his own without worrying about not being able to walk properly, also it would help his socially because once he starts getting out the house he can interact with new people and tart making friends whilst he is out instead of having no friends and being alone.
The care worker could empower Nancy by getting her a career who with her all day and leaves at night, the career would help Nancy to open Jars, fridges, doors and anything that Nancy would not be able to open because of her arthritis, and because of her broken wrist she is unable to do a lot of things for herself, especially washing herself when she is taking a bath or a shower. Also she could take some lessons on working on her bipolar in order to stop it from getting any worse and calming it down which is causing her to become even more depressed than she normally is and is making her keep herself to herself and not talk to anyone else.
Physically this will help Nancy to get back to the way she was where she would talk to anyone and everyone in the nursing home. It would make her a better person for herself and others. Intellectually it will help her to understand that her bipolar is causing her to shut herself away from everyone and that she has no one to talk to when she needs people to talk to, to cheer her up. This will help her emotionally because she knows hat she would be getting help in order for her to get better and that she would have more people to talk to when she needs them.
It would also help her socially because she can talk to people about her depression and losing her husband and she would make more friends whilst she is at the residential care home. Promotion of choice- Every person should be encouraged to exercise their choice or control of their lives for example by choosing which activities they want to take part in when they are in a residential care setting. An advocate can help them to understand that the choice is remoter by representing the individual and explaining what is important to them.
Michael could have the promotion of choice by being asked does he want to be able to get out of the house instead of being there all day on his own with no one to talk to or to make any friends. This could help him physically because he is being given a choice to go outside on the scooter or be inside all day. Intellectually it makes him think does he want to get out of the house into fresh air or being indoors all day doing the same things he usually does. Emotionally this helps him to feel as if he can o things on his own without any help from people and makes him think that he does have a choice.
Socially this will help him because if he does go out he can make new friends and meet new people rather than him being on his own. Nancy could have the promotion of choice by being asked does she want to go to classes which could help her with her bipolar disorder which could help her to stop being depressed. Physically this can help her become a better person and a happier person all round. Intellectually it could help her to become a stronger person fighting her own battles thou other people doing it for her and to become a better person like she was before everything happened.
Emotionally it could help her see that she is bringing herself down and is causing her more pain and hurt. This would help her socially because she would be able to talk to people more about how she is feeling and what she is going through and she would be able to make more friends and be able to spend time with them more. Promotion of rights- Every individual in a health and social care setting environment has the rights to confidentiality, choice and to have their individuality acknowledged and respected. All individuals have a right to voice their opinions and receive effective communication.
They must have access to the policies and procedures of the organization that is providing their care. Michael has the provision of rights by knowing that he has the right to choose if he wants to have the scooter and he has the rights to his own confidentiality by means of which no one else should know what his problems are. Physically this would make him feel better of himself because no one else would know what kind of problems are going on with him and only he and the career would understand what kind of needs he has.
Intellectually this would make him think that he can trust the career and can tell them what it is he needs and nothing would be said to anyone else. Emotionally this would make Michael understand that the career is there for his needs and his needs only and would help him anyway that they can. Socially this would make Michael be able to talk to people more and maybe he could tell them what is the matter with him and they would understand. Nancy has the provision of rights by choosing if she wants to have a career with her every day to help her to open things such as Jars and if she ants to have classes to help with her bipolar.
Physically this could help Nancy because she knows that she has a right to choose what she wants to do with her life a future. Intellectually this would help Nancy to think that she can have a career with her to help her do things more easily than doing it herself. Emotionally this will help Nancy to understand that there is help there if she needs it and if she was to ask they would help her and not turn away and leave her to do it herself. Socially this will help her to talk to people easier and understand that she can talk about her robbers with people.
Recognition of preferences- When providing social care support for vulnerable people, it is important to find out and recognize their preferences. This helps to ensure that they are able to live independently and allow them to stay in control of their daily lives. For example individuals should be able to state their preferences as to the type of support they wish to receive. Michael has a right to recognition of preferences by knowing that he could live by himself if he wanted to but he would still need help to do the daily things that people have to do.
Physically this would help him to learn to live on his own without lots of people being around all the time wanting to know his business. Intellectually this would help Michael to understand that he could try and do things on his own rather than wanting to rely on other people to do it for him and be more independent. Emotionally this would help Michael to understand that he could live on his own and try to do things on his own with the exception of a career being there for him. Socially this would enable Michael to talk to people more than Just being on his own and leaning with his problems and knowing that he can talk to people about it.
Nancy has the recognition of rights by knowing that she could live on her own, if she wanted to but she would still need help to do the daily things that people have to do. Physically this would help Nancy to understand that she could live on her own but have a career there Just in case she needs them to help her wash and to help her get up from a chair because of her arthritis. Intellectually this could help her understand that they are giving her a chance to do things independently and not having people here 2417 doing it for her.
Emotionally this could help Nancy to realism that she could do things for herself she don’t always need someone there to make sure that she can do it. Socially this would help her to get out more and to interact with other people around and not be left on her own. Involvement of individuals in planning their support- Care should be person-centered which means that care is focused on the individual to ensure that independence and autonomy are promoted. A social care worker should not make any decision or start delivering a service without discussion ND consultation with the individual involved.
Michael has the right to be involved of planning in his support by telling the career when he needs help and if he wants help rather than Just getting help when he don’t want it. Physically this would help Michael to understand that he can tell the career when he wants or needs help rather than Just getting it and making him depressed. Intellectually this could help him to know that he can talk to the career rather than being scared and not talking to the career about it. Emotionally this can help Michael to know that the career is there of hey are needed and he Just has to ask for help.
Socially this will help him to talk to the career more instead of being scared to ask in case the career doesn’t listen to him. Nancy has the right to be involved of planning in her support by telling the career when she needs help and if she wants help rather than Just getting help when she don’t want it. Physically this can help Nancy to know that the career is always there if they are needed and will help when asked. Intellectually this will help her to think that the career will always help when they are asked instead of doing it when they are not asked.
Emotionally this will help Nancy to understand that she can do things for herself but the career is there Just to help her when needed. Socially this helps Nancy to understand that she can talk to people about what is going on and that she can ask for help when needed. Respect for diversity- Britain is a multicultural society and this has an impact on health and social care delivery. The value of diversity should be obvious but unfortunately many people lack knowledge and understanding of different cultures, races or religions, and may therefore become fearful of something or someone who is different.
Michael has the right of respect for diversity knowing that he is atheist and the careers could be another religion he wouldn’t asking for things that they perhaps may not like or might not want to do. Physically this could help Michael to understand that if he wanted something cooked that they may not like to cook because they do not like it in their religion they may not want to cook it. Intellectually this would make him think that maybe he could try and do it for himself while the career watches him. Emotionally this will help him to understand other religions more and what their beliefs are.
Socially this could make him understand that talking to them about their different religion is good and so that he can understand what they believe in. Nancy has the right of respect for diversity knowing that she is Christian and the careers could be another religion she wouldn’t asking for things that they perhaps may not like or might not want to do. Physically this will help Nancy to understand that everyone’s religion and beliefs are different they are not all the same. Intellectually this would make Nancy understand that not everyone has the same religion and they all believe in different things.
Emotionally this will make her think that she could try and do things for herself. Socially this could make her think that she might want to try and do things for herself. Holistic approach- All care work is about improving an individual’s quality of life by taking a holistic approach to providing care. Holistic care means looking at all of a person’s needs and providing opportunities for these needs to be met. The career has the right to try and improve the individual’s quality of life by taking the persons needs and trying to make the best out of them.
Michael has the rights to a career because of his dementia. Physically this makes him understand that he is important and that his needs are trying to be met and looked after well. Intellectually this will make him think that his needs are important and that the career will always help him. Emotionally this will help Michael to understand that he can try and do things for himself whilst the career is there watching him to make sure that he is safe. Socially this will help Michael to understand that he can talk to the career about his needs and what he thinks can be done about them.
Nanny’s needs are that she has arthritis, broken wrist and she has bipolar disorder and the career should help her to do daily things so she can live a quality life. Physically this will make Nancy understand that she can still do everything that she could do when she had no problems but she Just has to have a career there to help her. Intellectually this could get Nancy to understand that she could try and do it for herself. Emotionally this will get Nancy to understand that she should try and walk around more to help her try and gain her strength again.
Socially this can help her to know that she could talk to people about her problems and try talking to people about her bipolar disorder. Multi- agency involvement- Multi- disciplinary working is about teams of workers from all different specialist professions and services working together in order to prevent problems from occurring in the support planning process. Working well with other agencies allows for all the different options to be considered and resources can be offered to be included in a support plan.
It is extremely important for the service provider to be fully aware of the power they have in their professional capacity and not misuse the power. This means being aware of the conflicts that can emerge in relation to the individuals rights and needs Michael has the right to multi-agency involvement because of his dementia and arthritis which means that he could need a doctor and maybe the physiotherapist in order for him to be able to walk properly again and to help him to try and remember things. Physically this would help Michael to remember things instead or forgetting them instantly.
Intellectually this will help him to start remembering people he used to know and how to things at home like shower, cook. Emotionally this can help him to become a better person and start getting him to do things for himself. Socially this will help Michael talk to people more without forgetting things. Nancy has arthritis and bipolar which means she would need a doctor and maybe social worker so she can talk to people about her problems. Physically this will help Nancy to understand that maybe she should talk about her problems rather than keep them to herself.
Intellectually this can help her to start getting rid of all the guilt that she is keeping inside her rather than letting it out. Emotionally this will help her to understand that maybe people are right she should start talking to people more instead of keeping herself to herself. Socially this will help Nancy to understand that no one will make fun of her if she tells them she has bipolar. Anti-Discriminatory practice- Discrimination is caused by prejudice which in turn leads to negative behavior.
Discriminatory actions or behavior can lead to some people not having their needs met. Negative behavior can damage a person physically and psychologically and can also cause stress. Michael thinks that people will make fun of his because he has dementia and that he keeps forgetting things easily than any other person may not. Physically this makes him depressed because e thinks that he is worthless, he can talk to doctor to help him understand why they might do that. Intellectually it makes him think that no one cares about him and they don’t want to know him.
Emotionally this will make him think that he is worthless and that he can’t trust anyone. Socially this makes him not want to talk to people about his problems and keep them to himself. Nancy doesn’t want to tell anyone about her problems because she thinks they might not take her seriously and find it all a Joke if she tells them she has bipolar. Physically this makes her down in herself and would ant to keep herself away from other people. Intellectually this will makes Nancy think why would she want to share her problems with people she thinks would understand but don’t.
Emotionally it would make her think that she is nothing and that no one really cares about her. Socially this would make her not want to talk to people because they might make fun of her. Maintaining confidentiality- Every individual has a right to confidentiality and privacy and control over their personal details. Maintaining confidentiality has become a specific issue in principles and values. It is vital to successful care giving to keep information provided by all individuals confidential.
Michael trusts the career to keep his problems confidential and not tell anyone else without telling him first and making sure that they could tell the other person. Physically this would make him think that he can trust them and believe them if they say they won’t tell anyone. Intellectually this will make him think if he can tell them or not without them telling anyone about his problems. Emotionally this will make Michael feel trustworthy towards his career and would be able to tell them things he wouldn’t tell other people.
Socially this would help Michael to talk more to people about all thee problems he has and has confidence. Nancy trusts the career to keep her problems confidential and not to tell anyone else without telling her first and making sure that they could tell the other person. Physically this would make her feel as if she could trust their career and could tell them all about her problems. Intellectually this will make Nancy understand that maybe she could tell there career things and they wouldn’t tell anyone else about them.
Emotionally this will cake her feel as if she can put all her trust in the career and tell them things they wouldn’t normally tell other people. Socially this could show her that she could talk to other people about her problems without being laughed at. Ml- Review the benefit to individuals and professional staff, of taking a holistic approach to planning support Holistic Approach- A holistic view means that we are interested in engaging and developing the whole person. You can think of this as different levels, such as physical, emotional, mental and spiritual.
It’s the concept that the human being is lit-dimensional. We have conscious and unconscious aspects, rational and irrational aspects. It is important for care professionals to help support the whole individual because it then helps the person in care to be looked after properly and have their needs met when it is needed. The purpose of this essay is to get people to understand what holistic approach and why it is important for health care professionals to follow and support the individual with the needs that they need. Five advantages of working in a holistic way for Michael and Nancy are, Empowers them
Michael will feel like he can make his own formed decision and choose whether or not he wants to do something that he might not want to do in the first place. Secondly it can make him more confident in himself to do things on his own and carry out tasks that he thought he might not be able to do in the first place instead of the career doing it all for him. Also he will feel more socially competent, he wants to go outside more by himself and try to meet new people every time he goes out. He has made a few friends who he goes and see and they come to his and they talk to each there or go for walks.
Nancy will feel as if she can make her own formed decision because the career gives her a choice whether she wants to do something or not and the career doesn’t force her into doing it if she doesn’t want to. Nancy will have more confidence in herself to do the tasks on her own without the career doing it all for her which could make her feel as if she can’t do things. She will also feel more socially competent she can talk to people a lot more than she used to before her career was with her, she is also able to go outside on her own meeting new people and making new friends.
She can maintain a strong friendship with people because she likes meeting new people. Respects them and treats them as individuals Michael might feel respected and feel important by the career because he or she helps them to do the things that they cannot do.. Whereas the doctors think that he cannot do things on his own and that he has to have a career with him 2417 to help him get up and around the house or go outside and is concerned about his wellbeing. Michael will be treated as an individual and will have the right to influence the right kind of treatment that he needs and not be given the wrong type of treatment.

Negative Utilitarianism: An Overview

Most utilitarian theories deal with producing the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people. Negative utilitarianism (NU) requires us to promote the least amount of evil or harm, or to prevent the greatest amount of suffering for the greatest number. Proponents like Karl Popper, Christoph Fehige and Clark Wolf argue that this is a more effective ethical formula, since, they contend, the greatest harms are more consequential than the greatest goods. Karl Popper also referred to an epistemological argument: “It adds to clarity in the fields of ethics, if we formulate our demands negatively, i. e. if we demand the elimination of suffering rather than the promotion of happiness. ”(Karl R. Popper,1945) Most forms of utilitarianism hold that we ought to do that which maximises the good and minimises the bad. There is some disagreement about what the good and the bad are– whether the good is people being happy and the bad is people being unhappy, or the good is people getting what they want and the bad is people not getting what they want, or whatever–but most utilitarians agree that whatever the good and the bad are, we ought to bring about as much of the former and as little of the latter as is possible.
Negative utilitarians disagree. Negative utilitarians are concerned only with minimising the bad. They don’t think we ought to maximise the good and minimise the bad, and that when we must choose between the two we must weigh the difference that we can make to the one against the difference that we can make to the other; rather, negative utilitarians hold just that we ought to minimise the bad, that we ought to alleviate suffering as far as we are able to do so.
Suppose that I have a choice to make: I can either make the happiest man in the world even happier than he already is, or I can alleviate some of the suffering of the unhappiest man in the world. Suppose further that the difference that I can make to the happy man is much greater than the difference that I can make to the unhappy man. Most utilitarians would say that in this case I ought to help the happy man. As I can make a greater difference to the life of the happy man than I can make to the life of the unhappy man, it is the happy man whom I should help.

Negative utilitarians disagree. Negative utilitarians hold that it is more important to alleviate suffering than it is to promote pleasure, and that I should therefore always choose to alleviate suffering rather than promote pleasure when forced to choose between the two. In most supporters of moderate NU the preference to survive is stronger than the wish to be freed from suffering, so that they refuse the idea of a quick and painless destruction of life. Some of them believe that, in time, the worst cases of suffering is defeated and a world of minor suffering can be realized.
The big problem with negative utilitarianism is that it appears to require the destruction of the world. The world contains much suffering, and the future, presumably, contains a great deal more suffering than the present. Each of us will suffer many calamaties in the course of our lives, before those lives finally end with the suffering of death. There is a way, however, to reduce this suffering: we could end it all now. With nuclear weapons technology, we have the capability to blow up the planet, making it uninhabitable.
Doing so would cause us all to suffer death, but death is going to come to us all anyway, so causing everyone to die will not increase the suffering in the world. Causing us to die now, though, will decrease the suffering in the world; it will prevent us from suffering those calamaties that were going to plague us during the remainder of our lives. Destroying the planet, then, will reduce the suffering in the world. According to negative utilitarianism, then, it is what we ought to do. That, though, is surely absurd. Negative utilitarianism, therefore, is false.

Principles of Conditioning

Needs and drives, what exactly are they and what do they have to do with dogs/dog training? A need or drive is a type of motivation that describes the behaviors dogs show during training. Needs can be something as obvious as water or food, all the way to behaviors that serve no clear physical need at all (ex play behavior). Dog training is all about arranging matters so the dog’s yearnings are met when they perform the desired action. Before any of this can take place you must ensure all of the dog’s primary needs are met.
The dog needs to be in a healthy state, be happy, and have a good emotional connection to the trainer, also known as rapport. There are two types of drives, primary and secondary. Primary drives are the drives that are a necessity for ensuring your dog stays alive and healthy (i. e. thirst and hunger). If these drives are not met it can lead to injury or death. Secondary drives include all of the motivations that make a dog behave the way it does. They are not as necessary for the life and health of a dog, but are still very important. 1) Primary drives: ) Oxygen: i) Quite simply, the dog needs oxygen to survive. Many things your dog does increase the oxygen that they consume, which results in panting. Panting is also a way that your dog expels excess heat. Heavy panting can interfere with the sense of smell (olfactory). b) Thirst: ii) The need for water. It’s important to maintain your dog’s hydration level so it does not interfere with training. Also water cannot be used as a reward for the dog. c) Hunger: iii) Just like oxygen and water, food is also a very important part in keeping your dog happy and healthy.
Though, unlike water food can be used as a reward, normally in the form of a treat. The dog should not eat if it has recently been doing intense physical activity, particularly in hot conditions. d) Drive to avoid pain and discomfort: iv) Dogs are a very intelligent species and learn very quickly, especially when there is a pain factor involved. They will avoid performing actions that they have learned cause them pain. Thus why handlers will inflict a type of discomfort when the dog disobeys or performs an action incorrectly. I. e. f you command the dog to sit but they ignore, or perform an incorrect action the handler will give a physical correction (command avoidance) that inflict pain upon the dog. In this process the dog is learning that if it does not sit like it has been taught it will be corrected (punished). Before you can use this type of training you must ensure that the dog knows the desired response. 2) Secondary drives: e) Socialization: v) This is basically the same as the dogs pack drive. One of the dog’s strongest drives is to have a social relationship with other dogs or humans.

It needs to be a stable relationship in which the dog trusts or has affection for it’s companion. Though this is not an instantly created bond, it is extremely important for the handler to build rapport with the dog. Walking, feeding, grooming, or just playing with the dog for a period of time can build this relationship. Building rapport is very important to the successfulness of the team. Socialization is made up of two sub-types, alpha and beta. (1) Alpha is what the dog initially wants to be. It’s instinct for dogs to want to have supremacy or dominance in a relationship. 2) Beta is when the dog is submissive, and allows others to be in control and dominant. This is what you want your dog to be as a handler. This is because the dog will show willingness or motivation to please the handler by completing actions that the handler commands. f) Play socialization: vi) Play socialization does not clearly serve any important needs, but it is important to incorporate fun play into the relationship between handler and dog. g) Prey drive: vii) This is the dog’s natural instinct to attack, bite, and carry anything the dog sees as prey.
This can be another animal or object. What a dog would do to a rabbit, can be initiated by throwing a ball in most circumstances. This predatory instinct is very important in dog training, especially in controlled aggression. h) Aggression: viii) This includes any behaviors such as biting, growling, and fighting when used to compete with others for resources (food/water) or to protect them selves when felt threatened. Dominant, defensive, and pain-elicited aggression are all a vital role in motivating dogs in patrol training or rewarding them with a bite.

Acc 340 Wk 1 Individual

The Effects of Technology on the Accounting Profession ACC 340 The Effects of Technology on the Accounting Profession The adage, “Time is money” has never been more true at any point in history than it is today. For the certified public accountant (CPA), the adage holds even more significance as the more time a CPA has to spend in a project, the less valuable that project becomes. It also means less time to devote to the next project. Technology has aided the CPA in numerous ways in recent years. From accounting software to devices with accounting applications, CPAs have a variety of new technology to help save time and money.
In this paper, I will explore some of the technologies available to CPAs. Accounting technology is not new, and has been a part of calculating and tracking numbers throughout time. From Leonardo da Vinci who designed a device he labeled the “Codex Madrid” number machine to Blaise Pascal who invented the first early calculator to William Burroughs who created the first adding machine, those who specialized in numbers have sought ways of making the tasks of their profession or hobby much simpler. As time passed, more creations emerged to help accountants perform their expertise more accurately and faster.
The first computer was built midway through the twentieth century. For the nearly 50 years that followed, huge computers designed to perform the simple task of calculating mathematical equations were eventually scaled down to fit on top of desks in consumers’ homes and offices. The world of accounting went from manually inputting data into a ledger to using electronic spreadsheets that eliminated the need for ledgers, calculators, pencils, and adding machines. Out with the hardcopy and in with the software.

Many years ago California-based Intuit launched a brand of accounting software called QuickBooks patterned after its popular personal accounting brand Quicken (Loter, 2009). From its launch the software has been very popular with business owners who had little to no formal accounting knowledge. Today there are many software titles providing accounting software for small, medium, and larger businesses. Some newer titles include Sage ‘Simply Accounting’ Software, Peachtree Complete Accounting Software, AccountEdge Accounting Software for Windows and Mac to name but a few.
Accounting software has helped CPAs save time and money by allowing accountants to quickly and easily input data onto a spreadsheet, then import or export information within or even between networks. This eliminates the time-consuming method of handwriting information on paper, then physically transporting the finalized document(s) to be batched with similar document(s) from (an) other department(s). Accounting software has not been the only technological advancements for the accounting field. Mobile devices are available that allow accountants and business owners to input and retrieve data while on the go.
Of course, it is the software applications that causes the information ball to begin rolling, but it is such devices as an iPhone or iPad, a Blackberry device, a personal digital assistant (PDA), or an Android smartphone that allow accountants access to information that could accelerate calculations or computations while visiting clients or whenever the person needing information is away from his or her office. A major benefit for the CPA using a device listed above is an application called TimeWerks that allows a CPA to track, invoice, and e-mail billable time through a built-in stopwatch called Task Timer.
The application costs $9. 99 to download. High-powered business calculators called 10BIICalc can be downloaded onto an iPhone for $5. 99, and provides access to stocks, bonds, depreciation, and conversions. A store-bought similar device could cost between $30 and $100. The netbook or mini-notebook PC is another new device o which CPAs are drawn. The DisplaySearch Q3 ’09 Quarterly Notebook PC Shipment and Forecast Report found the mini-note PC-or netbook-market grew 40% quarter over quarter and experienced nearly twice the 22% growth rate of larger notebooks (DisplySearch. com, 2011).
There is no doubt that accountants, business owners, or even the consumer who enjoys tracking his or her spending from his or her home computer appreciate that doing mathematical equations (accounting) no longer requires an abacus or clay tokens. With the advent and evolution of computers and their related software, accountants were better able to track information in real-time and completely eliminated most mistakes. This and the creation of portable devices such as iPhone/iPad has resulted in greater efficiency, accessibility, and accountability, and has altered the way accounting is performed, procured, and secured.
Accounting technology will continue to evolve, and tracking money will become even easier. References DisplaySearch. com. (2011). Mini-Note PC (Netbook) Shipments Grow at Twice the Rate of Notebook PCs in Q2’09. Retrieved May 16, 2011, from http://www. displaysearch. com/cps/rde/xchg/displaysearch/hs. xsl/090831_mini_note_pc_netbook_shipments_grow_at_twice_rate_notebook_pcs_q2_09. asp Loter, D. (2009). History of QuickBooks. Retrieved May 16, 2011, from http://business. intuit. com/directory/article-history-of-quickbooks

Cast System in india

History of the Indian caste system From Wikipedia, the tree encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Indian society has consisted of thousands of endogamous clans and groups called latis since ancient times. The Brahmlnlcal scriptures and texts tried to bring this diversity under a comprehensible scheme which hypothesised four Idealised meta groups called varna.
The first mention of the formal varna Indian caste system Is in the famous Purusha Sukta of the Rigveda, although it is the only mention in the entire body of the Vedas and has been decried as a much later, non-Vedic insertion y numerous Indologists like Max M?ller and also by Ambedkar. [citation needed] Contents 1 Hindu scriptures 2 Emergence of rigid caste structures 2. Mobility across the castes 3 Reform movements 4 Reterences 5 External links Hindu scriptures In the Vedic period, there also seems to have been no dlscrlmlnatlon against the Shudras on the Issue of hearing the sacred words of the Vedas and fully participating in all religious rituals, something which became progressively restricted in the later citation needed] Manusmriti, dated between 200 BCE and 100 CE, ontains some laws that codified the caste system. The Manu Smriti belongs to a class of books that are geared towards ethics, morals. nd social conduct – not spirituality or religion. Emergence of rigid caste structures In its later stages, the caste system is said to have become rigid, and caste began to be inherited rather than acquired by merit. In the past, members of dfferent castes would not partake in various activities, such as dining and religious gatherings, together. In addition, the performance of religious rites and rituals were restricted to Brahmins, who were the designated priesthood. Mobility across the castes The view ot the caste system as “static and unchanging” has been disputed by many scholars.
For Instance, sociologists such as Bernard Buber and Marriott McKlm describe how the perception of the caste system as a static and textual stratification has given way to the perception of the caste system as a more processual, empirical and contextual stratification. Other sociologists such as Y. B Damle have applied theoretical models to explain mobility and flexibility in the caste system in India. [2] According to these scholars, groups of lower-caste individuals could seek to elevate the status of their caste by attempting to emulate the practices of higher castes.

Some scholars believe that the relative ranking of other castes was fluid or differed from one place to another prior to the arrival of the British. [3] According to some psychologists, mobility across broad caste lines may have been “minimal”, though sub-castes (Jatis) may change their social status over the generations by fission, re- the question of rigidity in Caste. In an ethnographic study of the Coorgs of Karnataka, e observed considerable flexibility and mobility in their caste hierarchies. [5][6] He asserts that the caste system is far from a rigid system in which the position of each component caste is fixed for all time.
Movement has always been possible, and especially in the middle regions of the hierarchy. It was always possible for groups born into a lower caste to “rise to a higher position by adopting vegetarianism and teetotalism” i. e. adopt the customs of the higher castes. While theoretically “forbidden”, the process was not uncommon in practice. The concept of anskritization, or the adoption of upper-caste norms by the lower castes, addressed the actual complexity and fluidity of caste relations. Historical examples of mobility in the Indian Caste System among Hindus have been researched.
There is also precedent of certain Shudra families within the temples of the Shrivaishava sect in South India elevating their caste. [2] Reform movements There have been cases of upper caste Hindus warming to the Dalits and Hindu priests, demoted to outcaste ranks, who continued practising the religion. An example of the latter was Dnyaneshwar, who was excommunicated from society in he 13th century, but continued to compose the Dnyaneshwari, a Dharmic commentary on the Bhagavad Gita. Other excommunicated Brahmins, such as Eknath, fought for the rights of untouchables during the Bhakti period.
Historical examples of Dalit priests include Chokhamela in the 14th century, who was India’s first recorded Dalit poet, Raidas, born into Dalit cobblers, and others. The 1 5th- century saint Ramananda also accepted all castes, including untouchables, into his fold. Most of these saints subscribed to the Bhakti movements in Hinduism during he medieval period that rejected casteism. Nandanar, a low-caste Hindu cleric, also rejected casteism and accepted Dalits. [7] In the 19th century, the Brahmo SamaJ under Raja Ram Mohan Roy, actively campaigned against untouchability.
The Arya SamaJ founded by Swami Dayanand also renounced discrimination against Dalits. Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa founded the Ramakrishna Mission that participated in the emancipation of Dalits. Upper caste Hindus, such as Mannathu Padmanabhan also participated in movements to abolish Untouchability against Dalits, opening his amily temple for Dalits to worship. While there always have been places for Dalits to worship, the first “upper-caste” temple to openly welcome Dalits into their fold was the Laxminarayan Temple in Wardha in the year 1928 (the move was spearheaded by reformer Jamnalal Baja]).
Also, the Satnami movement was founded by Guru Ghasidas, a Dalit himself. Other reformers, such as Mahatma Jyotirao Phule also worked for the emancipation of Dalits. Another example of Dalit emancipation was the Temple Entry Proclamation issued by the last Maharaja of Travancore in the Indian state of Kerala in the year 1936. The Maharaja proclaimed that “outcastes should not be denied the consolations and the solace of the Hindu faith”. Even today, the Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple that first welcomed Dalits in the state of Kerala is revered by the Dalit Hindu community.
The 1930s saw key struggles between Mahatma Gandhi and B. R. Ambedkar, most notably over whether Dalits would have separate electorates or Joint electorates with reserved seats. The Indian National Congress was the only national organisation with a large Dalit following, but Gandhi nalysis of Untouchability, but lacked a workable political strategy: his conversion to Buddhism in 1956, along with millions of followers, highlighted the failure of his political endeavours. 8] India’s first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, based on his own relationship with Dalit reformer Ambedkar, also spread information about the dire need to eradicate untouchability for the benefit of the Dalit community. In addition, other Hindu groups have reached out to the Dalit community in an effort to reconcile with them, with productive results.

Project Report on Retail

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Retailing consists of all activities involved in selling goods and services to consumers for their personal, family or household use. It covers sales of goods ranging from automobiles to apparel and food products and services ranging from hair cutting to air travel and computer education. Sales of goods to intermediaries who resell to retailers or sales to manufacturers are not considered a retail activity. Retailing can be examined from many perspectives. A manufacturer of white goods like washing machine and refrigerators has many options to reach out to consumers.
It can sell through dealers, the company showrooms (Sony World, Videocon Plaza) or hypermarkets (Big Bazaar). The retail sector in India is highly fragmented with organized retail contributing to only 2% of total retail sales. The retail sector in developed countries was also highly fragmented at the beginning of the last century but the emergence of large chains like Wal Mart, Sears, and Mc Donald’s led to rapid growth of organized retail and growing consolidation of the retail industry in the developed countries.
Today, in India we see a rise in the purchasing power and growth of a middle class which follows the western lifestyle. Hence, conditions are conducive for the rapid growth of organized retail in India. Organized retail is growing rapidly and we see the emergence of large organized retail chains like Shoppers’ Stop, LifeStyle and Westside. We also find retail malls mushrooming all over the country. The opportunities in retail industry in India will increase since Indian retailing is on the threshold of a major change.

However, with the rapid growth in organized retail and increased emphasis of manufacturers on understanding sales at the retail level, the study of retailing has become increasingly relevant. -1- OBJECTIVE OF PROJECT v To understand the concept of retailing. v To understand the role and relevance of retailing for business and economy. v To identify the activities associated with retailing v To understand the operational structures associated with retail organizations v Understanding consumer behaviour in retailing v Understanding the importance of store location for retailer v To understand the nature of merchandise budgeting and unit planning v To understand the concept of relationship marketing and how does it apply to the retail sector. -2- METHODOLOGY This project is the mixture of theoretical as well as practical knowledge. Also it contains ideas and information imparted by the guide. The secondary data required for the project was collected from various websites and books of reputed authors. The project started with sorting all the raw data and arranging them in perfect order.
To add value to the project and to understand the practicality of retailing business, I have visited various stores who are the best ones in retailing business. Further, to understand the consumers better, a field survey was also conducted to find out the tastes and preferences, purchasing habits, expectations of the consumers etc. Analysis of this primary data has been done to actually understand the survey in a better way. -3- ORIGIN OF RETAILING Although retailing does not enjoy the status of an Industry, the sheer size this behemoth will develop into, is grabbing attention.
The origin of retail in India dates back to ancient times when the melas and mandis made heir presence felt. The changing socio economic patterns coupled with the consumption increase led to the emergence of the convenience stores, which became a par of the civic planning. The next step was the commercial plazas, which comprised merely shops offering a variety of goods and services clubbed together. The inconveniences caused by lack of parking place, toilets and maintenance, ushered in the entry big international brands opening their exclusive showrooms.
The opening up of the economy only fueled this globalization. There are, however, certain bottlenecks as well; the scarcity of space, coupled with the stringent provisions of the Rent Control Act, act as a dissuasive factor for many players to initiate operations in the main markets. This also explains why the Raheja’s forayed into their retail venture- Shoppers’ Stop. CURRENT SCENARIO The Indian population is whooping 1 billion with 75% of the people living in villages and small towns. It is only natural that the agricultural sector is the biggest employer with its contribution to GDP pegged at 26. %. Retail is India’s larges industry after Agriculture with around 20% of the economically active population engaged in it and generation 10% of our country’s GDP. The growth of the efficient small store culture can be attributed to the 6 million villages distributed across the length and breadth of the country. The 12 million retail outlets in India are the highest in the world, and cater to the purchase need of its pole. It is interesting to note, that the Urban Population although just 25% of the total, is an astounding 250 million in size and is growing at a healthy rate of 7% per annum.
The chief driver of growth in the retail sector has been the consumer, with the spending increasing at an average of 11% per annum. The Core and the Lower middle have increased their share in the Growth. -4- The Indian consumer’s shopping needs are and traditionally have been fulfilled by Kirana sores (corner stores), Kiosks, street vendors, weekly bazaars and high-street shops for consumer durables and luxury goods. To cater to this, each city developed its own identity and shopping cluster, for instance in Pune there is MG Road, Bangalore has Brigade Road and Commercial Street, Delhi has Connaught Place, Karol Bagh and South Extension.
India will have 358 shopping malls by 2007. Droves of middle-class Indians have broken off their love of traditional stand-alone shops that have no ACs, organized parking lots and other public amenities, according to a study by fashion magazine Image. At present (September 23, 2005), In India we have 96 malls, covering an area of 21. 6 million sq ft. And by year end the count will shoot up to 158 malls. It will cover 34 million sq ft area. Currently estimated at $205 billion to grow to $400-500 million, over the next 2-3 years. v Smaller cities will have about 12. 8 million sq ft of mall space by 2007. Ludhiana to account for 2. 5 million sq ft. v Ahmedabad about 3. 4 million sq ft. v Delhi and Mumbai now have maximum number of shopping centres. v Gurgoan saw the largest development in terms of retail outlet. v North region has 39% of India’s retail share. v East region has 10% of India’s retail share. v West region has 33% of India’s retail share. v South region has 18% of India’s retail share. v Government and co-operative sector is also making their steps in retailing. For example, Kendriya Bhandar, Apna Bazar, Mother Dairy, Super Bazar etc. -5- MAJOR RETAILER SPACE HOLDERS IN INDIA
ORGANIZATION Bata RPG Raymond Area Sq. ft 10,00,000 6,00,000 5,42,000 Pantaloon/Big Bazaar 5,00,000 Metro cash-n-carry Spencer LifeStyle Shoppers Stop Trent Globus Piramyd 3,00,000 2,80,000 2,50,000 2,00,000 2,00,000 1,75,000 1,50,000 The 2nd Annual Images Retail Awards (September 22, 2005):v Retail Face of the Year: Kishore Biyani, MD, Pantaloon Retail India Ltd. v Retail Destination of the year: Shoppers’ Stop v Retail Launch of the Year: Pantaloon Central. v Shopping Centre of the Year: Inorbit Mall v Retail Brand of the Year: Titan v Retail Concept of the Year: Reliance Truck Stop. Retailer of the Year: Value Retailing: Big Bazar v Retailer of the Year: Catering Service: McDonald’s. v Retailer of the Year: Food & Grocery: Food Bazaar. v Retailer of the Year: Health & Beauty: VLCC. v Retailer of the Year: Entertainment: PVR. v Retailer of the Year: Department Store: Westside. v Retailer of the Year: Forecourt Retailing: Bharat Petroleum Corp. Ltd. v Retailer of the Year: Leisure: Crossword Bookstore. -6- SWOT OF THE MARKET STRENGTH 1. Organized retailing at US$ 3. 31 billion, growing at 8%. 2. 2nd largest contributor to GDP after agriculture at 20%. . Pattern of consumption changing along with shopping trends. 4. A Growing population will translate to move consumers. 5. Consumer spending increasing at 11% annually. 6. Almost 25 million sq. ft. retail space available. 7. Paradigm shift in shopping experience for consumers pulling in more people. 8. Most of the entrants to organized retail come from 3 main categories, and have ventured into retail as their business extension. v Real Estate Developers v Corporate Houses v Manufacturers/Exporters WEAKNESSES 1. Shortage of quality retail spaces at affordable rates. 2.
Government regulations on development of real estate(Urban Land Ceiling Act) 3. Need to provide Value for Money-squeezing margins 4. Lack of industry status. 5. Retail revolution restricted to 250 million people due to monolithic urban-rural divide. 6. Footfalls not a clear indicator of sales as actual consumers lower in number. 7. Lack of huge investments for expansion. OPPORTUNITIES 1. Increasing urban population-more participants in retail revolution. 2. Increase in consuming middle class population. 3. Social factors like dual household income has enhanced spending power. 4.
Spends moving towards lifestyle products and esteem enhancing products. 5. Availability of old industrial lands-prime real estate locked in sick industrial units. -7- 6. Average grocery spends at 42% of monthly spends-presents a huge opportunity. 7. Increase in use of credit cards. THREATS 1. Rising lease/rental costs affecting project viability 2. FDI restrictions in the retail sector 3. Poor monsoons and low GDP Growth could affect consumer spending drastically. 4. Archaic labour laws are a hindrance to providing 24/7 shopping experience 5. Personalized service offered by Mom-&-Pop stores. 6.
Unavailability of qualified personnel to support exponential growth in retail. 7. Differentiate taxation laws hindering expansion. RETAIL VIABILITY As per the CII McKinsey report, based on a GDP growth rate of 6-7% per annum, by 2010 the retail sector is expected to be US $ 300 Billion industry. Some of the major factors hindering the growth of this sector are as follows: v The non-industry structure and status v The lack of adequate infrastructure v FDI restrictions in this sector v The huge investments required in expanding their markets, v Problems associated with working Capital funding from lending Institutions. 8- BIG BAZAAR: THE INDIAN WAL-MART Pantaloon Retail (India) Limited is today recognized as one of the poneers in the business of organized retailing in the country with a turnover of over RS 400 crores in the financial year ending June 2003. The company is headquartered in Mumbai with zonal offices at Kolkata, Bangalore and Gurgaon (Delhi). It has 4 kinds of stores; 14 Pantaloon Family Stores, 7 Big Bazaar discount hypermarkets, 6 Food Bazaar Stores with over 6. 5 lakh sq ft retail space across Kolkata, Mumbai, Thane Pune, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Bagpur, Ahmedabad, Kanpur, Chennai and Gugaon (Delhi).
Pantaloon Retail India Limited is the flagship company of the Pantaloon group promoted by Mr Kishore Biyani. It has been one of the pioneers in organized retailing in India. It began its retailing operations in India way back in 1987. Currently, it manufactures and sells ready-made garments through its own retail outlets and two discounting stores. The company plans to diversify into the business of discounting in a big way, which is targeted at the growing middle class segment. It has India’s second largest retail chain with 17 retail outlets and two discounting stores branded as Big Bazaars across the country at an estimated retail space of ,01,300 sq. ft. The company plans to double its retail space in the next couple of years. Pantaloon has come up with an excellent revenue model, focusing on ‘value for money’ segment. Pantaloon plans to target the upper middle and the middle class segment, which forms the large chunk of Indian population. This segment is very price conscious and always looks out for value for money. Pantaloon successfully launched its discount store chain, which targets the large and growing upper-middle and middle class of Indian society.
This is totally in contrast to the other organized retail players, which focus on high net-worth of individuals. Big Bazaar has strong own brand names in its portfolio across product categories. The brands include Pantaloon, John Miller and Bare. Higher percentage of ‘own brand’ sales improves margins, thus reducing the breakeven level of sales. Big Bazaar has diversified from apparels to household items in its discount stores. This has enabled them to enlarge their basket of offerings. -9- RETAIL CONCEPT The distribution of consumer products begins with the producer and ends at the ultimate consumer.
Between the producer and the consumer there is a middleman—the retailer, who links the producers and the ultimate consumers. Retailing is defined as a conclusive set of activities or steps used to sell a product or a service to consumers for their personal or family use. It is responsible for matching individual demands of the consumer with supplies of all the manufacturers. The word ‘retail’ is derived from the French work retaillier, meaning ‘to cut a piece off’ or ‘to break bulk’. A retailer is a person, agent, agency, company, or organization which is instrumental in reaching the goods, merchandise, or services to the ultimate consumer.
Retailers perform specific activities such as anticipating customer’s wants, developing assortments of products, acquiring market information, and financing. A common assumption is that retailing involves only the sale of products in stores. However, it also includes the sale of services like those offered at a restaurant, parlour, or by car rental agencies. The selling need not necessarily take place through a store. Retailing encompasses selling through the mail, the Internet, doorto-door visits—any channel that could be used to approach the consumer.
When manufacturers like Dell computers sell directly to the consumer, they also perform the retailing function. Retailing has become such an intrinsic part of our everyday lives that it is often taken for granted. The nations that have enjoyed the greatest economic and social progress have been those with a strong retail sector. Why has retailing become such a popular method of conducting business? The answer lies in the benefits a vibrant retailing sector has to offer— an easier access to a variety of products, freedom of choice and higher levels of customer service.
As we all know, the ease of entry into retail business results in fierce competition and better value for customer. To enter retailing is easy and to fail is even easier. Therefore, in order to survive in retailing, a firm must do a satisfactory job in its primary role i. e. , catering to customers. Retailers’ cost and profit vary depending on their type of operation and major product line. Their profit is usually a small fraction of sales and is generally about 9-10%. Retail stores of different sizes face distinct challenges and their sales volume influences 10- business opportunities, merchandise purchase policies, nature or promotion and expense control measures. Over the last decade there have been sweeping changes in the general retailing business. For instance, what was once a strictly made-to-order market for clothing has now changed into a ready-to-wear market. Flipping through a catalogue, picking the right colour, size, and type of clothing a person wanted to purchase and then waiting to have it sewn and shipped was the standard practice in the earlier days.
By the turn of the century some retailers set up a storefront where people could browse, while new pieces were being sewn or customized in the back rooms. Almost all retail businesses have undergone a similar transition over the years. DRIVERS OF CHANGE IN RETAILING v Changing demographics and industry structure v Expanding computer technology v Emphasis on lower costs and prices v Emphasis on convenience and service v Focus on productivity v Added experimentation v Continuing growth of non-store retailing. In today’s competitive environment retailers have redefined their role in general, and in the value chain in particular.
Retailers act as gatekeepers who decide on which new products should find their way to the shelves of their stores. As a result, they have a strong say in the success of the product or service launched by a business firm. kA product manager of household appliances claimed, ‘Marketers have to sell a new product several times, first within the company, then to the retailer and finally to the user of the product. ’ It is a well-established fact that manufacturers need to sill their products through retail formats that are compatible with their business strategy, brand image, and market profile in order to ensure a competitive edge.
The role of retailers in the present competitive environment has gained attention from manufacturers because external parties such as market intermediaries and supplying partners are becoming increasingly powerful. It is necessary for -11- marketers of consumer products to identify the need and motivations of their partners in the marketing channel. This is especially true in the case or new products. The increasing numbers of product categories followed by multiple brands in each category complicate decision-making for both manufacturers and market intermediaries.
Retailers want of optimize sales within the limited shelf space, governed by their individual sales philosophy. Retailers undertake risk in selecting a portfolio of products or brands to offer to their customers. Retailers have to make optimum selection of goods to be sold given the following major concerns: v Selling space available is relatively fixed and must return maximum profits. If such space is occupied by merchandise that is not moving, it will not result in profit. The retailer may have to resort to substantial price reductions in order to get rid of the unsold stock. There is always the risk of non-performance in terms of quality, supplies etc. , which in turn harms the image of the retail outlet. Retailing is a dynamic industry—constantly changing due to shifts in the needs of the consumers and the growth of technology. Retail formats and companies that were unknown three decades ago are now major forces in the economy. Therefore, the challenges for retail managers the world over are increasing—they must take decisions ranging from setting the price of a bag of rice to setting up multimillion dollar stores in malls.
Selecting target markets, determining what merchandise and services to offer, negotiating with suppliers, training salespeople—these are just a few of the many functions that a retail manager has to perform on a perpetual basis. The world over retail business is dominated by smaller family run chain stores and regionally targeted stores but gradually more and more markets in the western world are being taken over by billion dollar multinational conglomerates, such as Wal-Mart, Sears, McDonald’s, Marks and Spencer.
The larger retailers have managed to set up huge supply/distribution chains, inventory management systems, financing pacts and wide-scale marketing plans. In the backdrop of globalization, liberalization and highly aware customers, a retailer is required to make a conscious effort to position himself distinctively to face the -12- competition. This is determined to a great extent by the retail mix strategy followed by a company to sell its products. GLOBAL RETAIL-INDUSTRY-RELATED FACTS v Worldwide retail sales are estimated at US $7 trillion. v The top 200 largest retailers account for 30% of the worldwide demand. The money spent on household consumption worldwide increased by 68% between 1980 and 1998. v Retail sales are generally driven by people’s ability (disposable income) and willingness ( consumer confidence ) to buy. v The 1998 UNDP Human Development Report points to the fact that global expenditures on advertising are ( including in developing countries ) increasing faster than the world economy, suggesting that the sector is becoming one of the major players in the development process. REGIONAL FACTS v Some two-thirds or US $6. 6 trillion out of the US $10 trillion American economy is consumer spending.
About 40% or that ($3 trillion) is spent on discretionary products and services. v Retail turnover in the EU was almost 2,000 billion in 2001 and the sector’s better than average growth looks set to continue in the future. v Retail trade in Europe employs 15% of the European workforce (3 million firms and 13 million workers). v The Asian economies (excluding Japan) are expected to have 6% growth rates in 2005-06. -13- CONSUMER EXPECTATIONS v Time and quality of life are becoming relatively more important than money; 60% of Americans want to lead a simple life. Product performance was found to be the top purchasing criterion, while environmental features were a close second in a survey conducted by the Alliance for Environmental Innovation in conjunction with SC Johnson Wax. CHARACTERISTICS OF RETAILING Retailing can be distinguished in various ways from other businesses such as manufacturing. Retailing differs from manufacturing in the following ways: v There is direct end-user interaction in retailing. v In is the only point in the value chain to provide a platform for promotions. v Sales at the retail level are generally in smaller unit sizes. Location is a critical factor in retail business. v In most retail businesses services are as important as core products. v There are a larger number of retail units compared to other members of the value chain. This occurs primarily to meet the requirements of geographical coverage and population density. Direct Interaction with Customers Retail businesses have a direct interaction with end-users of goods or services in the value chain. They act as intermediaries between end-users and suppliers such as wholesalers or manufacturers.
Therefore, they are in a position to effectively communicate the response and changing preferences of the consumers to the suppliers or sales persons of the company. This helps the manufacturers and markets to redefine their product and change the components of its marketing strategy accordingly. Manufacturers require a strong retail network both for reach of the product and to obtain a powerful platform for promotions and point-of-purchase advertising. Realizing the importance of retailing in the entire value chain, many manufacturers have entered into retail business by setting up exclusive stores for their brands.
This has not only provided direct contact with customers, but has also acted as advertisement for the companies and has provided -14- the manufacturers with bargaining power with respect to other retailers who stocked their product. Retailing provides extensive sales people support for products which are information intensive, such as in the case or consumer durables. Lower Average Amount of Sales Transaction The average amount of sales transaction at retail point is much less in comparison to the other partners in the value chain. Many consumers buy products in small quantities for household consumption.
Due to lower disposable incomes, some consumer segments in India even buy grocery items on a daily basis rather than a weekly or a monthly basis. Inventory management becomes a challenge for retailers as a result of the many minor transactions with a large number of customers. Hence, retailers must take care of determining average levels of stock, order levels and the retailer has to keep a tight control on costs associated with each transaction in the selling process. Credit verification, employment of personnel, value-added activities like bagging, gift-wrapping and promotional incentives all add up to the costs.
One way to resolve this is for the retail outlets to be able to attract the maximum possible number of shoppers. Point-of-purchase Display and Promotions A significant relevant chunk of retail sales comes from unplanned or impulse purchases. Studies have shown that shoppers often do not carry a fixed shopping list and pick up merchandise based on impulsive or situational appeal. Many do not look at ads before shopping. Since a lot of retail products are low involvement in nature, impulse purchases of the shopper is a vital area that every retailer must tap into.
Therefore, display, point-of-purchase merchandise, store layou8t and catalogues become important. Impulse goods like chocolates, snack foods and magazines can sell much more quickly if they are placed in a high visibility and high traffic location. Larger Number of Retail Business Units Location of retail store plays an important role compared to other business units. Manufacturers decide the location on the basis of availability of factors of productions -15- and market. Similarly, retailers consider factors like potential demand, supply of merchandise and store image-related factors in locating the retail outlet.
The number of operation units in retail is the highest compared to other constituents ot the value chain, primarily to meet the needs for geographic reach and customer accessibility. THEORIES AND MODELS OF RETAILING 1. DIALECTIC PROCESS: – An evolutionary theory based on the premise that retail institutions evolve. The theory suggests that new retail formats emerge by adopting characteristics from other forms of retailers in much the same way that a child is the product of the pooled genes of two different individuals. 2. GRAVITY MODEL: – A theory about the structure of market areas.
The model states that the volume of purchases by consumers and the frequency of trips to the outlets are a function of the size of the store and the distance between the store and the origin of the shopping trip. 3. RETAIL ACCORDION THEORY:- A theory of retail institutional changes that suggests that retail institutions go from outlets with wide assortments to specialized, narrow, line store merchants and then back again to the more general, wide-assortment institution. It is also referred to as the generalspecific-general theory. 4.
RETAIL LIFECYCLE THEORY:-A theory of retail competition that states that retailing institutions, like the products they distribute, pass through and identifiable cycle. This cycle can be partitioned into four distinct stages: i. Innovation, ii. Accelerated development, iii. Maturity, and iv. Decline. 5. WHEEL OF RETAILING THEORY: – A theory of retail institutional changes that explains retail evolution with an institutional life cycle concept. 6. NATURAL SELECTION THEORY: – A theory of retail institutional changes that states that retailing institutions that an most effectively adapt to environmental changes are the ones that are most likely to prosper or survive. -16- 7. CENTRAL PLACE THEORY: – A model that ranks communities according to the assortment of goods available in each. At the bottom of the hierarch are communities that represent the smallest central places (centres of commerce). They provide the basic necessities of life. Further up the hierarchy are the larger central places, which carry all goods and services, found in lower-order central places plus more specialized ones that are not necessary.
FUNCTIONS OF RETAILING Retailers play a significant role as a conduit between manufacturers, wholesalers, suppliers and consumers. In this context, they perform various functions like sorting, breaking bulk, holding stock, as a channel of communication, storage, advertising and certain additional services. SORTIONG Manufacturers usually make one or a variety of products and would like to sell their entire inventory to a few buyers to redu7ce costs. Final consumers, in contrast, prefer a large variety of goods and services to choose from and usually buy them in small quantities.
Retailers are able to balance the demands of both sides, by collection an assortment of goods from different sources, buying them in sufficiently large quantities and selling them to consumers in small units. The above process is referred to as the sorting process. Through this process, retailers undertake activities and perform functions that add to the value of the products and services sold to the consumer. Supermarkets in the US offer, on and average, 15,000 different items from 500 companies. Customers are able to choose from a wide range of designs, sizes and brands from just one location.
If each manufacturer had a separate store for its own products, customers would have to visit several stores to complete their shopping. While all retailers offer an assortment, they specialize in types of assortment offered and the market to which the offering is made. Westside provides clothing and accessories, while a chain like Nilgiris specializes in food and bakery items. Shoppers’ Stop targets the elite urban class, while Pantaloons is targeted at the middle class. -17- BREAKING BULK Breaking bulk is another function performed by retailing.
The word retailing is derived from the French word retailler, meaning ‘to cut a piece off’. To reduce transportation costs, manufacturers and wholesalers typically ship large cartons of the product, which are then tailored by the retailers into smaller quantities to meet individual consumption needs. HOLDING STOCK Retailers also offer the service of holding stock for the manufacturers. Retailers maintain an inventory that allows for instant availability of the product to the consumers. It helps to keep prices stable and enables the manufacturer to regulate production.
Consumers can keep a small stock of products at home as they know that this can be replenished by the retailer and can save on inventory carrying costs. ADDITIONAL SERVICES Retailers ease the change in ownership of merchandise by providing services that make it convenient to buy and use products. Providing product guarantees, after-sales service and dealing with consumer complaints are some of the services that add value to the actual product at the retailers’ end. Retailers also offer credit and hire-purchase facilities to the customers to enable them to buy a product now and pay foe it later.
Retailers fill orders, promptly process, deliver and install products. Salespeople are also employed by retailers to answer queries and provide additional information about the displayed products. The display itself allows the consumer to see and test products before actual purchase. Retail essentially completes transactions with customers. CHANNEL OF COMMUNICATION Retailers also act as the channel of communication and information between the wholesalers or suppliers and the consumers. From advertisements, salespeople -18- and display, shoppers learn about the characteristics and features of a product or services offered.
Manufacturers, in their turn, learn of sales forecasts, delivery delays, and customer complaints. The manufacturer can then modify defective or unsatisfactory merchandise and services. TRANSPORT AND ADVERTISING FUNCTIONS Small manufacturers can use retailers to provide assistance with transport, storage, advertising and pre-payment of merchandise. This also works the other way round in case the number of retailers is small. The number of functions performed by a particular retailer has a direct relation to the percentage and volume of sales needed to cover both their costs and profits.
As a result of these functions, retailers are required to perform the following activities: ACTIVITIES PERFORMED BY RETAILERS Retailers undertake various business activities and perform functions that add value to the offerings they make to their target segments. Retailers provide convenient location, stock and appropriate mix of merchandise in suitable packages in accordance with the needs of customers. The four major activities carried out by retailers are: 1. Arrange for assortment of offerings 2. Breaking quantity 3. Holding stock 4. Extending services
ARRANGING ASSORTMENT An assortment is a retailer’s selection of merchandise. It includes both the depth and breadth of products carried. Retailers have to select the combination of assortments from various categories. The assortments must include substitutable items of multiple brands and price points. They should be distinguished on account of physical dimensions and attributes e. g. , colour or flavour. The small retailer takes assortment decision on the basis of his experience; -19- on the other hand retailers from organized retailing depend on a detailed study of past trends and future projections.
Retailers need to consider certain factors while devising assortment plans for their stores: profitability associated with particular merchandise mix, store image, layout and the level of compatibility between the existing merchandise. For example, FoodWorld, a leading food supermarket positioned as a one-stop shopping centre, deals in multiple product categories along with all possible variants of brands, stock keeping units, and physical attributes in order to meet the expectations of their consumers and survive in the business.
Whereas, Subhiksha, a grocery chain in south India has impressive assortments of only the fast moving brands rather than all available variants in the market. Their assortment plan is governed by location, size and store image of their stores. BREAKING BULK Breaking bulk means physical repackaging of the products by retailers in small unit sizes according to customer’s convenience and stocking requirements. Normally, retailers receive large quantities of sacks and cases of merchandise from suppliers to reduce their transportation costs.
In order to meet their customers’ requirements retailers have to break or arrange the bulk into convenient units. This entire function of the retailers adds value to the offerings not only for the end customers but also for the suppliers in the value chain. Even in the earlier days of generic and commodity-based trading most of the retailers used to perform this important function in the value chain. This function receives negligible attention from the retailers now due the introduction of new product categories, such as FMCG and readyto-wear apparel.
HOLDING STOCK To ensure the regular availability of the offerings retailers maintain appropriate levels of inventory. Consumers normally depend on the retailers directly to replenish their stocks at home. Therefore, retailers, on periodic basis, maintain the required levels of stock to meet the regular or seasonal fluctuations in the demand. Retailers need to maintain equilibrium between the range or variety carried and the sales which it gives rise to. Retailers have to face the negative consequences of holding unwanted levels of stock—for instance, too little stock -20- ill hamper the sales volume, whereas, too much stock will increase the retailer’s cost of operation. Generally, in small towns of India most retailers have arrangements with the nearby warehouses to stock the goods. Some are so small that they have to stock only on the shop floor. Retailers in the organized sector, to a certain extent, are using effective software packages for maintaining adequate levels of inventory. At the same time, retailers avail of just-in-time deliveries with the help of efficient consumer response systems, which reduces the burden of maintaining high levels of stocks.
EXTENDING SERVICES Retailing provides multiple services to immediate customers and other members of the value chain. The set of services extended by particular retailers may be part of their core product offerings or it may be ‘add on’ to their product or service. Retailers offer credit, home delivery, after-sales services and information regarding new products to their customers, thereby making the shopping experience convenient and enjoyable. At the same time, they provide stocking place, reach to the ultimate customers, and information about the oncerned target segment to the suppliers. For example, Time Zone, the first organized retail chain of wristwatches in India, started by leading watch manufacturers Titan, set up in all its stores, service centres with proper equipment and trained manpower. This has not only diluted the relevance of service providers in the unorganized sector but has also enhanced the confidence of the customers in the retai9l services provided by the particular retail chain, as after-sales service is considered to be an integral ingredient of the watch purchase.
CATEGORIZING RETAILERS Categorizing retailers helps in understanding the competition and the frequent chandes that occur in retailing. There is no universally accepted method of classifying a retail outlet, although many categorization schemes have been proposed. Some of these include classifying on the basis of v Number of outlets v Margin Vs Turnover v Location v Size. -21- The number of outlets operated by a retailer can have a significant impact on the competitiveness of a retail firm.
Generally, a greater number of outlets add strength to the firm because it is able to spread fixed costs, such as advertising and managers’ salaries, over a greater number of stores in addition to acquiring economies of purchase. While any retailer operating more than one store can be technically classified as a chain owner, for practical purposes a chain store refers to a retail firm which has more than 11 units. In the United States, for example, chain stores account for nearly 95% of general merchandise stores. Small chains can use economies of scale while tailoring merchandise to local needs.
Big chains operating on a national scale can save costs by a centralized system of buying and accounting. A chain store could have either a standard stock list ensuring that the same merchandise is stocked in every retail outlet or an optional stock list giving the outlets the advantage of changing the merchandise according to customer needs in the area. Because of their size, chain stores are often channel captains of the marketing channel—captains can influence other channel partners, such as wholesalers, to carry out activities they might not otherwise engage in, such as extended payment terms and special package sizes.
Big stores focus on large markets where their customers live and work. They use technology to learn more about their customers and target them with point-of-sale machines interactive kiosks, and sophisticated forecasting and inventory systems. They tend to stock a narrow range of inventory that sells well and maintain an extensive inventory of the fast selling products. Branding is important to them. Pricing is often a key area of focus for these retailers. Big stores have many strengths, including regional or national reputation, huge buying power, vast inventory and hassle-free return and exchange policies.
Their prime locations, the consistency in their products and services, the fact that they are open when people can and want to shop and the clear consistent image and identity they develop and maintain challenge the abilities and resources of many small retailers. Perhaps their biggest advantage is their knowledge in every aspect of their business, from inventory selection to store layout. However, large retailers are not perfect. They have competitive weaknesses that small retailers can exploit. Most offer the same standardized assortments of products nationally. Local managers have little say in inventory selection.
Often, sales staff has minimal product knowledge. Staff turnover is extremely high. Most large retailers have little connection with -22- the community they serve. They usually do not offer special services. Larger companies are often slow to recognize and react to changes in their local markets. Independent retailers can co-exist and flourish in the shadow of the big chains by developing a niche within the diverse market. The niche should be developed on the basis of new or unusual product offerings, superior service and overall quality. While value is important, price may be less important.
Efficient operations, including precise buying practices, are a must. Customer contact within the niche market must be characterized by ‘high-touch’ service. The key factor is innovation: stores that do not change will perish. The road to success for the independent retailer lies in doing all the things those big chain stores can not or will not do. The successful independent retailers embrace the following principles: v Be prepared for change. v Move to a narrower niche market and stop competing directly with the big retailers. v Learn more about customers and include best customers in a database. Invest appropriately in advertising and promotion. v Charge regular prices and avoid discounting (ensure requisite mark-up). v Buy with precision and search out speciality suppliers. v Maintain essential inventory. v Focus on profit instead of volume (be ready to lose an occasional sale). v Provide extraordinary service. v Employ the best possible staff. v Understand the significance of the Internet. Gross margin and inventory turnover is another means of classifying retailers. Gross margin is net sales minus the cost of goods sold and gross margin percentage is the return on sales.
A 30% margin implies that a retailer generates Rs 30 for every Rs 100 sales that can be used to pay operating expenses. Inventory turnover refers to the number of times per year, on average, a retailer sells his inventory. On the basis of this, retailers are classified as low margin low turnover—those that cannot survive the competition—and low margin high turnover, exemplified by Amazon. com. Jewellery stores and appliance stores are examples of high margin low turnover stores and only a few retailers achieve high margin high turnover. These -23- etailers are in the best position to combat competition because their high turnover allows them to withstand price wars. The drawback of the classification by this method is that service retailers who have no inventory turnover cannot be encompassed. One of the old means of classification of retailers is by location, generally within a metropolitan area. Retailers are no longer satisfied with traditional locations within a city’s business district but are on the constant lookout for alternate locations to reach customers. Besides renovating old stores, retailers are testing unorthodox locations to expand their clientele.
With the advent of the Internet, this area of retailing is likely to undergo tremendous changes in the coming years. Size is often used as a yardstick to classify retailers because costs often differ on the basis of size, with big retailers having lower operational costs per dollar than smaller players. However, in this sphere too, the Internet may make size an obsolete method of comparison. TRENDS IN RETAIL FORMATS Retail industry is continuously going through changes on account of liberalization, globalization and consumer preferences.
While multinational retail chains are looking for new markets, manufacturers are identifying, redefining, or evolving new retail formats. The existing retail houses are also gearing up to face the emerging competition from the organized sector and the changing outlook of the consumers. For example, consumer spending is shifting from goods to services. Accordingly the retailers too are fast adjusting to the changing consumer preferences. Consumers are not only looking for the core products or functional benefits from the retailers but also the non-functional benefits, which need to be compatible with their lifestyles.
For example, most of the traditional eating joints in India such as Haldiram, Bikaner and Sagar Ratna have revised their product offerings and atmospherics on the lines of the multinational chains to compete with them and to serve changed expectations of the consumers. Mom-and-pop Stores and Traditional Kirana Stores The retail sector is changing as new store categories have started dominating the marketplace. Mass merchandisers (Wal-Mart, Big Bazaar), discount clubs (Subhiksha), -24- so-called category killers (Home Depot, Vishal chain), and speciality retailers (Time Zone, Tanishq) have all developed a successful retail models.
At the same time, the small mom-and-pop stores and the traditional department stores, are finding the competition intense. In 2002, while Wal-Mart and Target saw revenues grow (by 12% and 10%, respectively), department stores such as Saks and Federated experienced declining revenues (down 3% and 1% respectively). But even in the mass-merchandising segment, the competition is fierce, as is evidenced by Kmart’s bankruptcy announcement in 2002. Small independent stores, across product categories, is a very common retail formats they are also undertaking large scale renovations to appeal and attract their target consumer segments.
E-commerce The amount of retail business being conducted on the Internet is growing every year. Indeed, Forrester Research Agency projects e-commerce revenue to rise to $123 billion in 2004, an increase of some 28% over the previous year and for e-tailing to comprise a bigger slice of the overall retail pie (5. 6%, up from 4. 5% in 2003). Many major retail organizations and manufacturers have online retail stores. Companies like Amazon. com and First and second. com, which helped pioneer the retail e-commerce concept, are now being followed by bricks-and-mortar and catalogue retailers like J.
Crew, which are expanding retail e-commerce into new markets. Department Stores A few years ago, names like Sears, J. C. Penney, Macy’s, and Montgomery Ward dominated malls and downtowns all over America. Over the last decade or so, however, these department stores have suffered badly. In part, this is a result of changing shopping patterns and increased competition from discount stores. It has also come from financial burdens incurred by companies that acquired competing companies and grew too fast. It is unlikely that these players will disappear from the market.
However, they should be ready to expect more bumps as the strong get stronger and the weak get absorbed. -25- Discount Stores These are giants such as Wal-Mart (the largest retailer in the world, with more than a million; employees), Target and Kmart, as well as membership warehouses, such as Costco. These, along with the category killers, have changed the landscape of both the retail industry and America. Where once mom-and-pop and department stores dominated retail, now the discount retailers and category killers are at the top of the heap.
And where once shopping malls, anchored by at least one major department store, ;used to be the dominant retail presence lining the nation’s roads, now it is the behemoth Wal-Marts and Home Depots. Category Killers These are the giant retailers that dominate one area of merchandise (e. g. , Office Depot, Tower Records and The Sports Authority). They are able to buy bathroom tiles, file cabinets, electronic goods or pet food in such huge volumes that they can then sell them at prices even fairly large competitors cannot match.
The future of this category is better than that of many of the more general discounters, but the same employment caveats apply. For most job seekers, these companies offer earn-and-learn experiences with vendors and distributors before they move onward and upward. Speciality Stores These include Crate & Barrel, the Body Shop, and Victoria’s Secret. These stores concentrate on one type of merchandise and offer it in a manner that makes it special. Some are very high-end (Louis Vuitton) while others cater to the price-conscious masses (Old Navy).
Many are so successful that department stores have started to emulate their buying, marketing, and merchandise display strategies. Industry experts predict growth in this segment, particularly in home furnishings and home improvement, and it seems to attract many of the best and brightest in retail. Promotion and responsibility come quickly to those willing to work hard, and in many of these stores the hand of bureaucracy is not heavy. -26- E-tailers While most retailers have online storefronts, strictly online purveyors with no bricksand-mortar counterparts are hoping to snare a percentage of the retail profit.
Major players, such as Amazon. com, have generated enough business to cause top brick-andmortar competitors to come up with their own Internet sites. Traditional retailers like Wal-Mart and Starbucks, hugely successful in their own right, have also set up online stores so as not to miss out on the revenue opportunities that the Interned offers. -27- BARISTA Barista positioned its outlets as a place where people meet each other in an environment, which fulfills both their social and intellectual needs. The music is not too loud and encourages conversation, and the person behind the counter is non-intrusive and friendly.
Any consumer knows that even when it is crowded at Barista, you will have your share of privacy. This is because the other consumer is not listening in; he is too involved in himself. MARGIN FREE MARKETS Margin Free Markets is the largest retail chain in the state of Kerala and one of the leading retail chains in India. The first outlet of this chain started functioning on 26 January 1994 at Thiruvananthapuram. There are currently more than 275 franchisees of Margin Free Markets spread all over south India. The outlets are franchises and are not actually owned by the chain.
The Consumer Protection and Guidance Society currently control Margin Free Markets, which is registered charitable institution that started functioning in 1993. The consumers are assured of quality, quantity and fair price of the goods sold through the Margin Free Markets. Any retailer can upgrade his shop to a Margin Free outlet by sending in an application to the society. If his application is accepted, he has to make the necessary investment as required. These shops deal in the enter gamut of foods required by a home for its monthly onsumption, grocery, food and non-food FMCG items, fruits and vegetables, consumer goods and household articles. Margin Free outlets are typical discount stores, offering one-stop-shop convenience and self service facility at significant discount to its customers. Most of these customers, in time, turn out to be its permanents customers by taking discounts cards, which permit them to obtain larger discounts than the non-card holders. The necessity to offer protection against the rising prices gave birth to the idea of Margin Free Markets. An enthusiastic entrepreneur, named Mr N.
Ravikumar, conceived the idea. The idea turned out to be an instant success in Kerala especially because Kerala is more of, a ‘consumer’ state than a ‘producing’ state Kerala depends on her neighbouring states for her consumer needs. Due to the large number of intermediaries involved and the transportation costs, the prices are high and there is a wide fluctuation in the prices of groceries, fruits and vegetables. -28- RETAIL ORGANIZATION The term retail organization refers to the basic format or structure of a retail business designed to cater to the needs of the end customer.
Recently, some scholars have started referring to India as a nation of shopkeepers. This epithet has its roots in the huge number of retail enterprises in India, which were over 12 million in 2003. About 78% of these are small family businesses utilizing only household labour. Retail firms may ;be independently owned, parts of a retail chain, operated as a franchisee, leased departments, owned by manufacturers or wholesalers, consumersowned or co-operative society. A retail unit could be owned by: v Manufacturer (e. g. , company owned retail outlets) v Wholesaler (e. g. Vastra outlet in Rajouri in New Delhi) v Independent retailer (Chanakya Sweet Shop near Hazratganj in Lucknow) v Consumer (consumer owned grocery stores in man y residential societies) v Co-operative society (e. g. , Mother Dairy milk booths in Delhi) v Government (e. g. , Cottage Emporia) v Ownership shared among franchiser and franchisee (e. g. , Archies Gallery) Although most Indian retailers fall in the category of small-scale units, there are also some very big retailers. Organized retail stores are generally characterized by large, professionally managed store formats providing goods and services hat appeal to customers, in an ambience that is conducive for shopping and provides a memorable experience to customers. From positioning and operating perspectives, each ownership format serves a marketplace niche and presents certain advantages and disadvantages. Retail executives must not lose sight of this in playing up their strengths and working around their weaknesses. THE CHANGING STRUCTURE OF RETAILING All dynamic developments in retailing, from the birth of departmental stores in the last century to the recent emergence of warehouse clubs and hypermarkets, have been -29- responses to a changing environment.
Changing customer demand, new technologies, intense competition, and social changes create new opportunities even as they shake up existing business. The retail business formats have been changing very fast mainly due to technological influences. The Internet and the Web technologies have created a myriad f opportunities for the Web-based business model of retailing. This has created a competition for the retailer with its own self. Besides, the challenge for the retailer now is to keep abreast of these latest formats in order to maintain and grow its share of market and compete within its band of retailers.
A key impact of technology has been provision ;of greater information to the customer. Hence, a big challenge for the retailer in the information savvy world of today is that the opportunities for price differentiate itself qualitatively by superior customer services or better value for money to the customer. CLASSIFICATION OF RETAIL UNITS Conceptual classification of a business unit provides the marketers with strategic guidelines, useful in the design of retailing strategy. Besides, retail businesses are extremely diverse and there are quite a few types of retail units.
Therefore, retail units are classified on multiple of ownership, geographical locations, kind of customer interaction level of services provided etc. Retailers Classified on the Basis of Ownership One of the first decisions that the retailer has to make as a business owner is how the company should be structured. This decision is likely to have long-term implications, so it is important to consult with an accountant and attorney to help one select preferred ownership structure. There are four basic legal forms of ownership for retailers: 1. Sole proprietorship: – The vast majority of small businesses start out as sole proprietorships.
These firms are owned by one person, usually the individual who has the day-to-day responsibility for running the business. -30- 2. Partnership: – A partnership is a common format in India for carrying out business activities (particularly trading) on a small or medium scale. In a partnership, two or more people share ownership of a single business. 3. Joint venture: – A joint venture is not well defined in the law. Unless incorporated or established as a firm as evidenced by a deed, joint ventures may be taxed like association of persons, sometimes at maximum marginal rates.
It acts like a general partnership, but is clearly for a limited period of time or a single project. 4. Limited liability Company (public and private):- The Limited Liability Company (LLC) is a relatively new type of hybrid business structure that is now permissible in most states. The owners are members, and the duration of the LLC is usually determined when the organization papers are filed. Classification of Retailers on the basis of Operational Structure Retail businesses are classified on the basis of their operational and organizational structure.
Operational structure defines the key strategic decision of retail entity, whether to hire employees and manage the distributed sales function internally or to reach customers though franchised outlets owned and operated by local entrepreneurs. Retail firms can be classified into five heads on the basis of their respective operational structures: 1. Independent retail unit: – The total number of retailers in India is estimated to be over 5 million in 2003. About 78% of these are small family businesses utilizing only household labour. An independent retailer owns one retail unit. 2. Retail Chain: – A chain etailer operates multiple outlets (store units) under common ownership; it usually engages in some level of centralized (or coordinated) purchasing and decision making. 3. Franchising: – Franchising involves a contractual arrangement between a franchiser (which may be a manufacturer, a wholesaler, or a service sponsor) and a retail franchisee, which allows the franchisee to conduct a -31- given form of business under and establishments name and according to a given pattern of business. 4. Leased Department or Shop-in-shop:-It refers to department in a retail store that are rented to an outside party.
Usually this is done in case of department and speciality stores and also at times, in discount stores. 5. Co-operative Outlets: – Co-operative outlets are generally owned and managed by co-operative societies. In this context the detailed example of Kendriya Bhandar in India. Classification of Retailers on the basis or Retail Location Retailers have also been also been classified according to their store location. Retailers can locate their stores in an isolated place and attract the customers to the store on their own strength—such as a small grocery store or paan shop in a colony, which attracts the customers staying close by.
Classification of retailers on the basis of location is discussed below: 1. Retailers in a free-standing location:- Retailers located at a site which is not connected to other retailers depend entirely on their sore’s drawing power and on the various promotional tools to attract customers. This type of location has several advantages including no competition, low rent, better visibility from the road, easy parking and lower property costs. For example the Haldiram’s outlet on the DelhiJaipur highway and the McDonald’s outlet on Delhi-Ludhiana highway. 2.
Retailers in a Business-associated Location:-In this case, a retailer locates his store in a place where a group o retail outlets, offering a variety of merchandise, work together to attract customers to their retail area, and also compete against each other for the same customers. 3. Retailers in Specialized Markets: – Besides the above location-based classification, we also have in India-retailers who prefer specialized markets, particularly traditional independent retailers or chain stores. -32- In India, most of the cities have specialized markets famous for a particular product category.
For example, in Chennai, Godown Street is famous for clothes, Bunder treet for stationery products, Usman street for jewellery, T Nagar for ready-made garments, Govindappan naicleen street for grocery, Poo Kadia for food and vegetables. 4. Airport Retailing: – For quite some time, duty-free shops and newsstands dominated the small amount of commercial space provided at airports. Lately, serious efforts are being made to design new airport facilities in order to incorporate substantial amounts of retail space.
The key features of airport retailing are: v Large groups of prospective shoppers v Captive audience v Strong sales per square foot of retail space v Strong sales of gift and travel items v Difficulty in replenishment v Longer operating hours v Duty-free shopping possible. ` -33- VARIETY OF MERCHANDISE MIX The retail merchandising has come a long way in India since the days when general stores (kirana) that stocked everything from groceries to stationery and small shops that sold limited varieties of products (such as clothes, furniture, medicines) reigned supreme.
There are many different retail stores in India—convenience stores, supermarkets, hypermarkets, department stores, brand stores and discount stores characterized by the variety of merchandise mix offered by a respective retail format. The consumer can choose between different stores for different needs. Retail units, on account of variety of merchandise mix, can be classified as follows: . Department Stores: – It is a large retail store organized into a number of departments, offering a broad variety and depth of merchandise, commonly part of a retail chain.
Usually, department stores are located within the planned shopping centres or traditional up market downtown centres. The leading fashion department stores in India are Ebony, Globus, LifeStyle, Pantaloon, Shoppers’ Stop and Westside. All of them are multiproduct stores, Ebony has 7 stores, Globus has 4 stores, LifeStyle has 3 stores and there are 12 Pantaloon Family Stores. Discount Stores: – Retailers offering a broad variety of merchandise mix, limited or no service and low prices are characterized by low margins, heavy advertising, low investments on fixtures, limited support from sales people etc.
Discount stores prefer shopping centres that provide space at lower rents as they attract customers from other adjoining stores in the shopping centre. Speciality Stores: – Speciality stores stress on one or a limited number of complementary product categories and extend a high level of service to their customers. In India, the traditionally independent retailers in the specialized market centres operate in a particular product category, at these centres attract large crowds. Such specialized retail operations provide expertise economies of scale, bargain and image to the particular stores.
Supermarkets and Hypermarkets:- A hypermarket is a very large retail unit offering merchandise at low prices. Superstores have a sales area of over 50,000sq. ft. Hypermarkets are characterized by large store size, low operating costs and margins, low prices and comprehensive range of merchandise. -34- RETAIL IN INDIA The retail industry in India is largely unorganized and predominantly consists of small, independent, owner-managed shops. Retailing is India’s largest industry in terms of contribution to GDP and constitutes 13% of the GDP (Gross Domestic Product). There are around 5 million retail outlets in India.
There are also an unaccounted number of low cost Kiosks (tea stalls, snack centres, barber shops) and pushcarts mobile vendors. Total retail sales area in India was estimated at 328 million sq. mt. in 2001, with an average selling space of 29. 4 sq. mt. per outlet. In India, the per capita retailing space is about 2 sq. ft. , which is quite low in comparison to the developed economies. In 2000, the global management consultancy AT Kearney put retail trade at Rs 400,000 crore, which is expected to increase to Rs 800,000 crore by the year 2005—an annual increase of 20%.
According to a survey by AT Kearney, an overwhelming proportion of the Rs 400,000 crore retail markets is unorganized. In fact, only a Rs 20,000 crore segment of the market is organized. There is no integrated supply chain management outlook in the Indian traditional retail industry. Food sales constitute a high proportion of the total retail sales. The share was 62. 7% in 2001, worth approximately Rs 7,039. 2 billion, while non-food sales were worth Rs4189. 5billion. However, the non-food retailing sector registered faster year-on-year growth than the food sales sector.
The trend to market private labels by a specific retail store is catching on in India as it helps to improve margins. The turnover from private labels by major retail chains was estimated at around Rs 1200 million in 2000. Growth in retail outlets (millions) Year 1978 1984 1990 1996 Urban 0. 58 0. 75 0. 94 1. 80 Rural 1. 76 2. 02 2. 42 3. 33 Total 2. 35 2. 77 3. 36 5. 13 Source: indiainfoline -35- Composition of urban outlets Retail Outlet Grocers Cosmetic stores Chemist Food stores General stores Tobacco, pan stores others Source: indiainfoline Composition 34. 7% 4. % 6. 3% 6. 6% 14. 4% 17. 0% 17. 0% Composition of rural outlets Retail Outlet Grocers Composition 55. 6% General stores 13. 5% Chemists Others 3. 3% 27. 6% Source: Indiainfoline EMERGENCE OF ORGANIZED RETAILING Organized retailing in India repres

A Gathering Of Old Men

Ernest J. Gaines’ novel, “A Gathering of Old Men” employs experimental narrative techniques in order to probe themes of racism and classicism, as well as to examine the nature of storytelling in humanity’s past and also for humanity’s future.

By employing no less than fifteen separate narrators  in this novel, Gaines is able to penetrate deeply into the subjective experiences of a a number of men — together whom comprise a social microcosm of African American history and experience.

Through the diverse range of voices at his disposal, Gaines probes a wide range of grievances and also exaltations among his characters and demonstrates the strength of communal unity. The diverse range of narrators used in the novel expresses the novel’s theme of strength-through-diversity adn unity-through-intimacy.
A careful reading of the novel reveals the deep motivations of its characters, each of which reveals the novel’s theme of redemption and social renewal. Because of the “tribal” nature of the diversity of narrators, the reader is able to feel as though they are a direct participant in the action, as though reading the novel is an initiation rite of sorts.
The novel’s central intrigue: the murder of  Beau Baton, also forwards the initiation or ritualistic them: the novel is meant to show the growth (or initiation) not only of chronologically grown men into — long delayed – manhood, but to redefine standards of black masculinity altogether for the characters in the novel itself and also for the novel’s readers.
In the novel, the fifteen separate narrators are drawn out of their ordinary lives and into a civic, almost mythic role. Gaines signals that the unfolding of events is meant to have this mythic, ritualistic overtone when the old men gathering proclaim that things seem new again, that they feel good about what they are doing.
Wallace sees the water of the river “as if it were still a mystery,” while  Mat admits that he is happy that they  “and all the rest are doing something different, for the first time” ( Gathering, 40).
There is also the symbolic/ritualistic firing of guns, urged by Clatoo who tells the men “Let them down there hear you” ( Gathering, 48) and contrasted with the brutality of combined experience among the novel’s protagonists, this symbolic gunfire demonstrates controlled violence and anger: emotions turned to ritualistic healing.
There can be no doubt that these feelings of race-based anger contributed to the murder. When asked, Uncle Billy admits that he killed Beau out of a longing for revenge:
What they did my boy…. The way they beat him. They beat him till they beat him  crazy and we had to send him to Jackson (the state mental facility). He don’t even know me and his mama no more. We take him candy, we take him cake, he eat it like a hog eating corn….
The ritual-based and initiation based theme of the novel is meant to transform the violence of the murder into a healing process,where each of the novel’s narrators “confesses” their anger and need for revenge and then each learns something through the experience of participating after-the-fact in a murder that only a single man committed.
Later, for example, Gable reveals his son is killed for the false accusation for rape on a  white woman and Coot talks about his war experiences.
The man who could break horses, Yank, relishes his role without at first realizing it makes him subservient to whites. But there is also a shadow of environmental awareness tied to the ritual murder: that the renewal of black masculinity is directly tied to the renewal of nature.
Johnny Paul explains the murder on behalf of the flowers: “That’s why I kilt him, that’s why….
To protect them little flowers. But they ain’t here no more. And how come?” (Gathering, 92).       Gaines’ intention is to tie subjective individual renewal with the renewal of both community and environment and he portrays the murder an consequent ruse in symbolically charged terms.
Killing Beau might revive the river: “That river…. Where the people went all these years. Where they fished, where they washed they clothes, where they was baptized. St. Charles River. Done gived us food, done cleaned us clothes, done cleaned us soul. St. Charles River — no more, though. No more.
They took it. ” (Gathering, 107). Because the novel relies on complex themes, it is dangerous to assume that racial issues are any more dominant than issues of community preservation and environmental preservation.
The key theme in the novel, as m,mentioned, is the reviving of masculinity: the renewal of masculine energy which is seen to extend beyond race and into the elements of the earth and nature themselves.
Mathu’s discovery of his community is the most starkly profoundly as portrayed in “A Gathering of Old Men.” When he says “I been changed….I been changed. Not by that white man’s God. I don’t believe in that white man’s God. I been changed by y’all.
Rooster, Clabber, Dirty Red, Coot — you changed this hardhearted old man.” (Gathering, 182 ); he as admitting that even his previous contempt and mistrust of white people has been challenged by his new-found notions of community.
While it is relatively easy to spot the racial themes of “A Gathering of Old Men” the communal themes and the themes of renewal through nature may be a bit more difficult for the casual reader to understand.
When the various themes of the novel are begun to be regarded as a whole, the picture which emerges is not a picture of “black” anger of African American bitterness or even of racism or classicism, but issues of humanism.
The reclaiming of masculinity by the men in the novel can be regarded, symbolically, as the renewal of any person or any group which seeks to finally reaffirm its power after a period, perhaps even a protracted period, of suppression and duress.
Rather than portray this accumulated anger and resentment as exploding in, say, a violent — if even localized — revolution, Gaines views the kind of fusion of bitterness, anger, and resentment, to a call to awareness of and an identification and re-claiming of communal ties and environmental awareness.
Taken this way, the subjective stories presented by the various narrators of “A Gathering of Old Men” can be seen to transform into universal voices of awareness, and cathartic change.
This transformation is heralded by community and the liberation of private anger and private experience as culturally accepted, in fat culturally imperative information.
The novel’s experimental narrative techniques weld the ancient oral tradition of tribal cultures with the scathingly sharp awareness of modern political and psychological realities.

Ada Research Paper

DORRIS 1 Dominique Dorris Meyers BASK Reading October 25, 2012 Americans With Disabilities Act The Americans with Disabilities act is a law that was created by the US congress in 1990 and signed into law by George W. Bush on July 26, 1990. The ADA is civil rights act that prohibits discrimination on people with disabilities. In 1975 the Education for All Handicapped Children Act was passed. Before this act was passed only one out of five children with disabilities attended a public school, according to the U. S. department of Education (L. S).
There was a Civil Rights Act of 1964 created that made discrimination based on race, religion, sex, and other characteristics illegal. The original intent of the law was to create a civil rights law for people with disabilities that would be permanent, would not be able to be weakened, and would stop all discrimination. The ADA was suppose to be a flexible set of laws that could only be strengthened and never weakened. Title 1. 1 of the Americans with disabilities act is employment, and explains how people shall not discriminate against qualified individuals with disabilities. Title I prohibits employers with fifteen or more employers from discriminating against qualified individuals with disabilities in a job application procedures, hiring, DORRIS 2 advancement, compensation, job training, and other conditions and privileges of employment simply because they have disabilities” (K, S). Title 1. 2 of the ADA discusses public entities and public transportation. It prohibits discrimination by all public entities. This includes physical access for Accessible Design. Public entities and transportation have to have accessible utilities for disabled people.
Title II applies to public transportation provided by public entities through regulations by the U. S. Department of transportation. Title II also applies to all state and local public housing, housing assistance, and housing referrals. Title 1. 3 of the ADA prohibits discrimination of disability in the activities of places of public accommodation. This law indicates that all restaurants, movie theatres, buildings, etc. are accessible for people with disabilities. Title III has had more effect on the lives of Americans with Disabilities than any other ADA title.

Individuals with and without disabilities should be accessible to do the same things throughout life. Title 1. 4 of the ADA is Telecommunications. “The law requires that all telephone companies that provide telephone voice transmission services, whether interstate or intrastate, also provide telephone relay services that allow people who are hearing or speech impaired to place and receive calls through devices to or from people who do not use such devices” (American Rehabilitation). This act led to installing public teletypewriter machines and other TDDs. TDD’s are the telecommunication devices for the deaf.
For blind people they will change all written texts into voice messages and will change all voice recordings into texts for the deaf. DORRIS 3 The last title of the ADA is miscellaneous provisions. Title V includes technical provisions and this law applies to and person that prevents an individual from exercising his or her rights. This is any form of retaliation including threats, intimidation, or interference is not allowed if it is intended to interfere in a negative way. Any person who exercises their rights under the ADA or helps someone else in exercising their rights is protected from retaliation.
Since the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990 was created, there have been a lot of changes made that have positively affected people with disabilities. “This long awaited piece of federal legislation was expected to protect individuals with disabilities from discrimination in employment opportunities and ensure and access to various social institutions” (Bowman). The ADA helped people with disabilities get jobs, make social places and transportation accessible for them and even created phone operator systems to help translate messages to deaf and blind people.
The Americans With Disabilities Act made disabled individuals feel accepted and they were not discriminated anymore in things they wished to do. Contrary to the positive outcomes of the ADA there were also still downfalls for people who had disabilities. “Pro-business conservative commentators mentioned that the Americans With Disabilities Act was an expensive headache to millions”(Doherty 18). Because of all the changes that had to be made to make things accessible for people with disabilities it ended up being very costly for everyone. Even though the ADA was created some cases of disabilities were not DORRIS 4 covered. Some courts even found that individuals with serious conditions such as diabetes and cancer were not covered by the ADA” (B,L). Unfortunately some bars and clubs were not changed to fit the needs of people with disabilities. Even though the Americans with Disabilities act had many positive affects, some individuals still unable to do certain things. After researching about the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990, I think that it was a great idea to create such an amazing act. I feel as if people with disabilities should be able to do as much as they can in order to live a happy and normal life just like everyone else.
Even though there are downfalls of the ADA individuals have a lot more rights then they ever had several years ago before the act was established. If I was disabled I would want to be able to live my life just like every other person, and the ADA helped people feel that they could. The most interesting and best idea that the ADA had was title 1. 4 telecommunications. This was an amazing idea and helped both the deaf and blind. DORRIS 5 Work Cited Page Bowman, L. (2011). Americans with disabilities act as amended: Principles and practice. New Directions For Adult & Continuing Education, (132), 85-95. oi:10. 1002/ace. 434 Doherty, Brian. Reason, Aug-Sep 95, Vol. 27 Issue 4, p. 18 Kopels, S. (1995). THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT: A TOOL TO COMBAT POVERTY. Journal Of Social Work Education, 31(3), 337-346. LAFEE, S. (2011). The Americans With Disabilities Act at 20. Education Digest, 76(7), 51-55. The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. (cover story). (1990). American Rehabilitation, 16(2), 2. The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. (October 2012). Retreived October 23, 2012, from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Americans_with_Disabilities_Act_of _1990