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Forensic Dentistry

Forensic Dentistry.
Forensic Dentistry is used as a major part in solving cases where people are unidentifiable. Forensic evidence is any evidence that can be legally used in a court of law. Many people know what forensics are because of shows such as Bones, Criminal Minds, and Without a Trace. What most people don’t know are the minor details that have to be sought out when using any forensics to solve a case. Odontology; commonly referred to as dental forensics is highly unrecognized by the general population and can be very useful in forensic science.
In forensic science odontology is used to identify the unknown in many unique situations, and can act as evidence in the court of law. Even though most people don’t know about the growing scientific art Odontology, the history goes back decades. Dental forensics began around 66 A. D. , although the study wasn’t as useful as today’s due to the lack of technology it was still useful to those who chose to use it. During World War II the study of Odontology was used to identify both Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun.
Odontology isn’t a specific job on its own; it is studied by dentists, hygienists and other forms of specialists who have correct knowledge about the oral cavity. These citizens work together using the technology created to help in the identification of the deceased. Two common technological systems that are important in finding the records needed in Odontology are the panto morphograph registry and CAPMI (Computerized Assisted Postmortem Identification System). CAPMI was developed by the U. S. Army Dental Research institute. Many other kinds of databases have been created to help aid in the study of Dental forensics.

Together the knowledge of those who choose to study the oral cavity, and the people dedicated to help broaden today’s dental databases has changed the outlook on what can possibly be achieved in the future. Forensic Dentists are responsible for identifying human remains and assess bite mark on the human body. The forensic dentist is to determine age, whether it be the age of an unidentified living individual or the age of the deceased. The only two methods that are used more commonly in the identification process are fingerprint and DNA evidence.
When these two means of identification cannot be found, investigators rely on dental records and evidence to back up their case. Teeth are very durable and strongly resistant to deterioration or harm, due to their hard outer shell known as enamel. Far after decomposition has ended. The oral cavity can be used as evidence, because no one person can have the same dental work and dental structure as another. Generally adults may have up to 32 teeth present in their oral cavity, but a child’s mouth can only accommodate 20 teeth total. When a body is found an odontologist can look at the tooth development to determine the John or Jane doe’s age.
Using dental forensics to determine an age can be extremely accurate. As age increases, the means to identification vary from person to person. The age of a teenager can be estimated by looking at the third molars, when these teeth come into the mouth at an age ranging from 17 to 25 years old. Determining the age of an adolescent can be precise because the oral cavity is somewhat at a standstill. When odontology is used to determine the age of an adult or someone referred to as elderly, the age estimation may not be as accurate. After all of the adult teeth have grown in, the oral cavity goes through slight changes.
As someone gets older their gum tissues soften and their teeth usually become more mobile as the ligaments attaching the teeth grow weak. This alone is not an accurate indication as to how old an adult is because every adult uses and takes care of their teeth in a different manner. Forensic dentists use previously taken FMX (full mouth set of x-rays) and BWX (bitewing x-rays), along with dental records to figure out a subjects identity. When new x-rays are taken, the forensic dentist can try to find x-ray matches in dental records and world wide databases.
This makes it possible for the deceased to be legally identified, if the forensic dentist is able to provide the proper evidence. Both the x-rays of an individual’s teeth and the small amount of nasal passage that can be seen on upper dental x-rays can help to be proper evidence for the odontologist to prove their case. When patients at dental offices receive things such as fillings, crowns, bridges, and braces, the information has to be written down in the patient’s dental chart. These charts can be used as legal references when the forensic dentist looks into the mouth of an unidentified individual.
Postmortem dental profiling technology has made it so when using the overall dental and facial structure of a deceased individual, the general appearance of this individual can be correctly portrayed. After producing a postmortem dental profile, investigators are then able to look through missing person cases and reports so that they can match the postmortem profile created to an individual that fits within the correct age frame, sex and build. Dental profiling is also a common way forensic dentists identify bite marks. Bite marks appear on many individuals, both dead and alive. Usually these injuries occur during carious types of crimes.
Odontology uses impressions of a suspect’s teeth in order to link that specific suspect to the crime they may be accused of committing. Bite mark evidence is also used in cases such as assault, abuse, or murder. When clear human bite marks are present on bodies, it is simple to link the bite mark to a suspect and the suspect to the crime. Specific people such as police and forensic examiners have access to worldwide data records; this means that when an unidentified body is found an odontologist is then able to access the records so he/she can compare previous dental records to the newly found evidence.
When a name needs to be given to an unidentified body the odontologist may take impressions of the oral cavity using various dental procedures. When impressions are taken in alginate: impression trays, wax pieces, or alginate paste may be used. These means of acquiring evidence can help to identify a body, or to link a suspect to a case. The different classifications of dental identification are major parts of the evidence needed to prove forensic based identification to a judge. The amount of evidence that can be gathered from an individual’s new and previous dental records is necessary in the field of Odontology and forensics.
The ABFO (American Board of Forensic Odontology) and the ABFD (American Board of Forensic Dentistry) are two major groups involved in dental forensics. As it is, forensic dentistry is still commonly studied and used as evidence in court cases around the world today. Forensic evidence is widely used in courts of law to ensure correct prosecution of those who are on trial. The jury wants to know all of the legitimate information and evidence, in a criminal investigation so they can give an accurate verdict. It is here that the involved odontologist provides them with all of the knowledge they need.
A forensic scientist may be present in a court case to provide and explain the evidence that ties the accused into the crime presented, in court they will be used as what is known as an expert witness. A development known as LUIS (a machine) has made it possible to trace bite marks left a few weeks before the victim’s body was found. LUIS works after an impression of the suspect’s teeth has been taken, and the plaster model made. The plaster model gets scanned onto a computer where it can be placed digitally on an image of the bite mark wound found on the victim’s body.
This new technology moved dental forensics from tracing the tooth pattern of the bite mark, to actually being able to digitally move the suspect’s teeth onto the bite mark. This makes for a more accurate and quicker paced way of matching a suspect’s bite to the victim’s bite mark. It makes it possible to see if the digital scans of the teeth match up with the marks on the victim. When the bodies of the diseased are so badly mangled that a general picture cannot positively identify them, dental forensics can use dental records instead. Around 99% of forensic cases can be solved using dental knowledge and records.
When other means of identification are used and fail, or simply cannot be used, dental technology will aid in finding the information needed for proper identification. A body’s teeth are extremely durable; they can withstand much force and still be well preserved. When the teeth are affected greatly, DNA can be found deep down in the dried pulp (in the center nerve) of the tooth. Without the knowledge of these dentists, many people in the world would go without emotional closure; identities would be left unfound during events such as brutal accidents, murders and environmental disasters.
References Burnie, David. The Concise Encyclopedia of the Human Body. Dorling Kindersley, 1995. “Forensic Evidence” http://www. buisnessdictionary. com/definition/forensic-evidence. html “Forensic Odontology” http://www. all-about-forensic-science. com/forensic-odontology. html “History behind Forensic Odontology” http://www. biology-online. org/articles/forensic-odontology/history-behind-forensicodontology. Html “How Forensic Evidence is presented to a Jury” http://www. exploreforensics. co. uk/forensic-evidence-presented-to-a-jury. html MacKay, Jenny.
Forensic Art. Detroit: Lucent Books, 2009. MacKay, Jenny. Forensic Biology. Detroit: Lucent Books, 2009. Orwell, Mark. “Forensic Dentistry Information” http://www. ehow. com/about_6815602_forensic-dentistry-information. html Phinney, Donna, and Judy, Halstead. Delmar’s Dental Assisting. United States: Delmar Learning, 2004. Thomas, Peggy. Talking Bones: the Science of Forensic Anthropology. New York: Facts on File, 1995. Cover Art credited to http://dental-times-magazine. blogspot. com/2009/10/forensic-dentistry. html By Stephanie Myers 2012

Forensic Dentistry

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Teeth Essay: Write Your Papers with This Dentistry Guide

Teeth Essay: Write Your Papers with This Dentistry Guide.
Being a medical student imposes great responsibility on a person. Dentists do play important role in people’s lives. No wonder it is so expensive to cover dental insurance – teeth are worth it.
Therefore, the first step to become a wonderful dentist is writing a teeth essay while academic studies. Students choose various subjects for their teeth essays in order to succeed in this type of assignment. No doubt you will pick the best teeth essay topic for your work, too.
Therefore, we are ready to present some nice topic for you to investigate for the teeth essay.

Teeth Essays Topics and Ideas:

Dental Hygiene. Make sure you did not miss this subject for discussion. The teeth essay is likely to cover all possible topics, whereas this is the widest one. Hence, a student is able to narrow it down the way he/she wants.
The Common Diseases. Here your teeth essay subject may touch upon such illnesses as dental caries, periodontal disease, and malocclusion. Talk about ways of treatment and prevention in your teeth essay.
Dental Restoration. The teeth essays may also include outline of ways of replacing the missing or spoiled teeth. Consider dental filling and dental bridges as a nice subject for investigation.

Of course, you will be doing a very serious and a profound research. However, do not forget about the primary sources – your course books. They might be very helpful for topic choice. Mind basic requirements for teeth essay writing and do not forget to edit your paper attentively. You definitely do not want to lose precious points because of the silly typos in your creative work.

Teeth Essay: Write Your Papers with This Dentistry Guide

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Cosmetic Dentistry

Cosmetic Dentistry.
Cosmetic Dentistry This morning I woke up and looked in the mirror and noticed that my teeth were not as white as I like them to be. I think to myself, I need to call and make an appointment to get my teeth whitened with my dentist. Teeth whitening is an example of Cosmetic Dentistry. Cosmetic Dentistry is different than regular dentistry in the sense that regular dentistry deals with oral hygiene and the prevention, diagnosing and treating of any oral diseases. Cosmetic dentistry however focuses on improving a person’s teeth, smile, and mouth.
General dentistry deals with what needs to be done whereas Cosmetic dentistry is what you desire to be done. Cosmetic dentistry takes a lot of extra time and special training on the materials used. So therefore only dentists who are truly passionate about improving the teeth and smile take the time and extra money to do it. Cosmetic dentistry can also be used to restore a cavity. This is because cavities are mostly fixed by digging out the debris and filling them with a material. There used to only be gold, amalgam and other dark materials that left visible spots on the teeth.
Now they have things like porcelain that are closer of a match to your tooth color. This makes it cosmetic dentistry because of the tooth color match. People tend to use porcelain or composite in fillings that they get and they even have their present fillings filled with these resins. In this essay I will go into detail about three different treatments of Cosmetic dentistry. I will explain to you first about how to fix a chipped tooth with dental bonding. Then I will explain to you how to improve that not so beautiful smile to an extraordinary smile by the use of veneers.

And last but definitely not least I will explain to you about teeth whitening and the great effects. So sit back and get ready to enjoy learning about three amazing things we have in this world to make us look and feel amazing. DENTAL BONDING Your riding your bike for a nice trail ride but its starting to get dark and you don’t notice the rock on the ground your about to hit. You Fly off your bike and hit your front teeth on the ground chipping both of your beautiful front teeth. How are you going to fix this? I have a solution.
Dental bonding is a type of cosmetic dentistry that permanently attaches dental materials to the teeth by using adhesives and a special curing light. Dentists use tooth colored composite to restore chips or cracks. Also to fill cavities, close gaps between your teeth and repair worn down edges of your teeth. Dentists are the ones who do the direct composite bonding which means that the procedure is usually done in one dental visit. Dental bonding does not require any impressions or temporaries.
First the dentist will place a plastic coating on the front of the teeth. Then they will place a bonding agent, colors it according to the color of your teeth, and shapes it. Then a light called the curing light is shined through the plastic that causes it to harden and makes the surface look shiny and polished. Then a thin layer of etch is placed on your teeth to make little fine holes in the enamel of your teeth. This is so the resin can stick to your teeth very well. Then many coats of composite resin are placed on your teeth and after each coat the curing light is used to harden that coat.
Finally when the final cure is done, the tooth is sculpted to match the ones around it. The cost of dental bonding depends not only on the location, it can also depend on the bonding process and how small or big the procedure you had done was. The average cost of dental bonding is $300 to $600 dollars per tooth. Dental insurance sometimes covers the procedure depending on if it is used for structural purpose. Let’s say that you are a ex-smoker, and after 5 to 10 years of smoking your teeth are just not as white as you like them to be.
An easy fix for your tooth discoloration are Veneers. Veneers commonly known as porcelain veneers are thin sheets (half a mm thick or about as thick as a fingernail) of tooth colored porcelain that cover the front and sides of your teeth. They are used to fixed severe discoloration, chips, and cracks. They are also to help fix the gaps in your teeth. The placement of veneers usually takes two appointments. At the first appointment your tooth is prepared. The dentist does this by removing a thin layer of the surface of your tooth (about 0. 5 mm) so that the veneer can fit on the tooth.
Next a gingival retraction cord is placed so that the dentist can get a good impression. Then an impression is taken so that the Lab Tech can create your veneers. Since your teeth feel rough after this preparation, the dentist will usually place temporary veneers. If he doesn’t it is ok because they are not always needed. They are easier to stain while in this state though, so you should keep your teeth very clean. At the second appointment you will first have a try-on. The dentist will place a temporary bonding agent on your teeth and place the veneers on to see if the shape and color look good.
If they do the dentist will then clean the veneers. A thin layer of acid etch is placed on the teeth to roughen the surface for a extra good hold. Then cement is placed on your teeth, followed by the veneer. Then the tooth is light cured and the cement dries and hardened within seconds. Finally the edges will be trimmed and the tooth will be polished. These veneers will provide you with a beautiful smile. Although veneers are amazing for smile improvement they are also a bit pricey. The type of veneers you get determines your price. Porcelain veneers are higher in price.
They average at $925 to $2500 dollars per tooth but last for 15 to 20 years. Composite veneers average at about $250 to $1500 dollars per tooth, but only last 5 to 10 years. Dental insurance doesn’t cover veneers. TEETH WHiTENiNG If your teeth are looking yellow and you just want them white, you could get teeth whitening. Teeth whitening is the most common cosmetic dentistry procedure there is. There are many forms of teeth whitening. You could do an hour under a light in the dental office or use one of the at home teeth whitening kits or even over the counter whitening solutions.
They all have effects though some work better or faster. In the office dental whitening procedure they start by first protecting your gums with a rubber dam. Then they apply a high concentrated peroxide gel. After applying the gel they put you under a light for 15-20 intervals for up to an hour but no longer than that. People with very high amounts of staining may have to return for a second time. The average cost for an in office whitening is $650 dollars. The at home whitening that the dentist may send you home with a lower concentrated peroxide gel that is placed in a custom tray that fits your teeth.
It is left on for an hour at least but sometimes the dentist will tell you to leave it on overnight. It has the greatest effects but takes longer to achieve the whiteness you want. The average cost of the professional take home kits average at $100 to $400 dollars. The last kind of teeth whitening I am going to tell you about is over the counter whitening kits. These kits have the same kind of gel that the professional take home kits have but it is at a even lower concentration. They also have one size fits all trays, strips, or paint on gel. This may only whiten the anterior teeth because they are not custom fit trays.
The average cost of over the counter whitening is $15 to $100 dollars. I have taken you through three amazing cosmetic dentistry procedures. Although they may be pricey they all have payment plans. So if you have a chipped tooth, remember there is dental bonding to fix it. Or if you have a smile that you want to add some beauty to that there are veneers. And the most popular of all if you have some yellow teeth you want to get rid of, there is teeth whitening you can turn to. Cosmetic dentistry is an amazing thing we have to improve your teeth and smile with.

Cosmetic Dentistry

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Dentist: Dentistry and Dental School

Dentist: Dentistry and Dental School.
Dentists There are many different careers out there. Dentistry is a career that requires more training than others. There is a wide variety of different specialties that one can do in dentistry, but the majority of dentists are general practitioners. On average, general dentists in South Carolina make about $137,400 a year (Dentists). In order to become a dentist in South Carolina, you are required to graduate and attain a dentistry license. Dentists must be able to do different tasks throughout the day and work with many people.
To become a dentist, one must attend dental school which usually takes four years beyond undergraduate college. You may graduate with a degree as a doctor of dental surgery or a doctor of dental medicine. The admittance requirements for dental school vary based on each school. Some of the more common requirements include: at least three or four years of college and at least a GPA of 3. 5 (Dental Schools Ranked by GPA). It is not mandatory to have a Bachelor of Science degree, however, it is encouraged.
Some dental schools require you to take certain science classes such as, chemistry (organic, inorganic and biochemistry), mathematics, physics, biology, and psychology. Before you apply to a dental school, you must pass the Dental Admission Test. The DAT measures your scientific knowledge, reading comprehension, and reasoning skills. After graduating from dental school, you have the option of specialty training. Specialty training is offered at many schools and normally takes about two more years beyond dental school. About one-fourth to one-third of new graduates enroll in postgraduate training programs to prepare for a dental specialty” (Henderson). Some dental school graduates start out working as associates for established dentists. They usually work for them for about a year or two while gaining experience. Others purchase or open up a practice immediately after graduation. Many aspiring dentists also receive additional experience by working in clinics affiliated with the school. Another way dental school students may receive experience would be through internship.

While interning for a practice, they are able to get used to the physical demands and everyday tasks of a dentist. Dentists should be trained to offer a wide variety of professional services. They should be able to aid gum inflammation, tooth decay, chipped, infected or broken teeth. It is important for a dentist to be able to stand and keep their hand steady for a long period of time. They must “develop a gentle touch” for the comfort of their patient (Field). This gentle touch will also help them when they have to perform root canals, remove teeth, or corrective surgery on the gums.
They should also be able to determine the difference between shades of color and brightness. Dentists are exposed to diseases and infections carried by patients on a daily basis. For this reason, it is important for them to wear protective gear when working. I researched this career because I hope to become a Pediatric Dentist someday. I plan on going to college and majoring in psychology and biology and then going to dental school. My uncle is a dentist and has inspired me to become one. He is very successful and loves his job. Hopefully one day I can become successful and love my job just like my uncle.

Dentist: Dentistry and Dental School

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Sociology As Applied To Dentistry Health And Social Care Essay

Sociology As Applied To Dentistry Health And Social Care Essay.

Sociology every bit applied to dentistry is an indispensable portion of preparation for tooth doctors. The instance for inquiring, even necessitating, medical and other pupils of the wellness professions to prosecute with the multiple ways in which health-related phenomena, from single behaviors through categorizations of and schemes for get bying with medically defined disease to the support of healthcare systems, are embedded in the societal universe remains undeniable ( Scambler 2008 ) . “ He or she needs it at the really least for protection against the really existent jeopardy of defeat and sadness when it proves hard to implement medical steps ; but above all it is needed if the medical and other health-related professions are to do their greatest possible part to the public assistance of the populations they are privileged to function ” ( Margot Jefferys 1981, in Scambler 2008 )
Sociology is the survey of how society is organized and how we experience life ( British Sociological Association 2010 ) . ‘It seeks to supply penetrations into the many signifiers of relationship, both formal and informal, between people. Such relationships are considered to be the A?fabricA? of society. Smaller scale relationships are connected to larger scale relationships and the entirety of this is society itself ‘ ( British Sociological Association 2010 ) . It is a comparatively new add-on to the dental course of study, holding been ab initio introduced in the 1980s. An increasing acknowledgment of the importance of ‘social ‘ factors associated with assorted unwellness provinces has ensured medical sociology a go oning topographic point in learning and research enterprise ( Reid 1976 ) . The General Dental Council ‘s acquisition results for the first five old ages specifically states that as portion of the undergraduate course of study, pupils should be ‘be familiar with the societal, cultural and environmental factors which contribute to wellness or unwellness ‘ ( GDC 2008 ) and many of the other larning results have a sociological attack at their bosom.
The General Dental council highlight six cardinal rules that dental professionals are expected to follow ( GDC 2005 ) . The first two of these rules regard a patient centred attack to dentistry. They specifically province that tooth doctors should be ‘putting the patients involvements foremost, moving to protect them ‘ and that as tooth doctors we have to ‘respect a patients ‘ self-respect and picks ‘ . In order to carry through these criterions it is imperative that we understand that each person will see a figure of different influences on their wellness, and how that person will respond to each influence will depend greatly on what has come before and what will come after. Without this basic apprehension, tooth doctors will neglect to of all time understand their patients or supply them with the best attention.

How a patient will move in any given state of affairs will really much depend on several factors that have influenced their life. What is accepted as ‘normal ‘ to one patient may be wholly different to another patients position. With peculiar mention to wellness and unwellness, societal and cultural variables have a important portion to play. Aukernecht showed this in 1947 when analyzing a South American folk. The folk had a skin status that harmonizing to biomedical criterions was a ‘disease ‘ . But this ‘disease ‘ was considered ‘normal ‘ by the members of the folk, so much so that if they did non hold it they were non allowed to get married! ( Aukernecht 1947 ) . Although this might be regarded as an utmost illustration, if you consider some of the information from the most disadvantaged countries of the UK, our position on what is regarded as ‘normal ‘ may be challenged. In the most recent kids ‘s review, it was shown that 52.1 % of primary seven kids in the most disadvantaged class showed obvious marks of decay experience ( Scots Dental 2010 ) . Similarly if we look at the most recent grownup dental wellness study, it was shown that over half the people populating in the most disadvantaged countries ( DEPCAT 6 & A ; 7 ) were reliant on either full or partial dental plates ( ADHS 1998 ) . It is ‘normal ‘ for people in disadvantaged countries to see dental decay. What the people in this group in society respect as ‘disease ‘ may be wholly different than our perceptual experience.
The universe wellness administration defines wellness as ‘the complete physical, mental and societal wellbeing and non simply the absence of disease or frailty ‘ ( WHO 1948 ) . It is of import that dentists receive preparation in the sociological influences that determine what wellness means to different people in order that they understand that this definition is unachievable for the bulk of the population. The medical theoretical account of disease causing as localization of function of pathology is flawed. There should be a alteration off from our focal point on disease. Switching tooth doctors perceptual experiences off from a disease orientated position that dental diseases are the consequence of distinct pathology, to the position that wellness or unwellness occurs as a consequence of complex interactions between several factors including familial, environmental, psychological and societal factors is cardinal ( Tinetti & A ; Fried 2004 ) . Our focal point should be shifted to a position of wellness that encompasses an persons ‘ ability to be comfy and map in a normal societal function ( Dolan 1993 ) . It is indispensable that tooth doctors are trained to hold a holistic attack to the attention of their patients, and are able to admit the impacts that socio-environmental factors have on wellness. As described by Dahlgren and Whitehead in 1991, forms of unwritten wellness and unwellness can non be separated from the societal context in which they occur ( Figure 1 ) .
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Figure 1. Main determiners of Health ( Dahlgren & A ; Whitehead 1991 )
Even with this cognition, tooth doctors must be able to associate this to their patient. The universe is non an equal topographic point and tooth doctors must be trained to admit the effects that inequality can hold on wellness.
As antecedently discussed, socio-economic position has a major influence on the wellness position of an person. Equally early as 1842, Edwin Chadwick looked at life anticipation of those in different societal categories ( Chadwick 1842 ) . This showed that the mean age at decease in Bethnal Green at that clip was 35 for aristocracy and professionals but merely 15 for laborers mechanics and retainers. Although life anticipation has improved for all categories in Britain since this clip, inequalities have remained.
The Black Report, published in 1980, showed that there had continued to be an betterment in wellness across all the categories ( DHSS 1980 ) . But there was still a co-relation between societal category and infant mortality rates, life anticipation and inequalities in the usage of medical services. In 1998 The Acheson Report once more highlighted the turning spread between the richest and poorest in society in relation to wellness and life anticipation ( Stationary Office 1998 ) .
Regardless of whether you look at mortality, morbidity, life anticipation or self- rated wellness position, the gradients remain the same and the wellness of those at the underside of the category system is worse than that of those at the top.
When looking at Oral Health a similar form emerges. Social inequality in unwritten wellness is a cosmopolitan phenomenon ( Peterson 2005 ) . More disadvantaged countries have higher degrees of disease in the industrialised and non-industrialized universe alike. The inequalities between groups are comparatively stable and persist through the coevalss.
In the 1998 Adult Dental Health Survey, dental wellness was reported to be worse in the lower societal categories and that there was a clear gradient between the rich and hapless. Between 1978 and 1998, large betterments in the Numberss of edentate grownups were detected. However, the spread between those in the lower and upper categories was still evident. By 1998, those in societal category IV and V had merely reached degrees of unwritten wellness found in societal categories I, II and IIIm in 1978.
In a more recent study of kids ‘s unwritten wellness in 2003 ( Children ‘s Dental Health Survey 2003 ) , similar forms were found. Those in lower societal categories were more likely to see tooth decay, were more likely to hold dentitions extracted due to disintegrate and were twice every bit likely to hold unmet orthodontic demand than their wealthier equals.
Entree to dental services has besides been shown to change between societal categories. The 1998 grownup dental wellness study showed that people from a higher societal category were more likely to utilize dental services, and that in-between category grownups were more likely to go to for preventative intervention whereas working category grownups were more likely to go to for alleviation of symptoms. Working category grownups were besides most likely to see jobs in paying for dental intervention, and more likely to go to irregularly.
Socio-economic inequality shows no marks of change by reversaling, rather to the contrary. In the last 20 old ages the spread between rich and hapless has widened. Harmonizing to the office for national statistics, informations shows that the top 1 % of the population ain 21 % of the wealth. Possibly more astonishing is the fact that about half the population portion merely 7 % of the entire wealth ( ONS 2003 ) . This has a major impact on how we deliver dental services. Dentists have to be cognizant of the fiscal restraints that face a big part of the population. With a limited budget to manus, dental intervention or so preventative steps such as toothpaste and floss may go a luxury that they can non afford.
There is besides a demand for tooth doctors to be trained to recognize the effects of other inequalities such as gender, ethnicity and age on wellness. There are cardinal differences between work forces and adult females that non merely find their place within society, but besides their place in the wellness spectrum. Womans are less likely to keep a place of power and are paid less than their male opposite numbers ( Scambler 2008 p134-140 ) . They are besides more likely to endure sick wellness, although possibly surprisingly they outlive their male opposite numbers, so much so that adult females from societal category 5 unrecorded significantly longer than work forces from societal category 1- ? this ref, in notes but ca n’t happen elsewhere! ( ONS 2000- ? 2004 ) . There is argument about the consequence that gender has on unwritten wellness, with some surveies proposing that gender does consequence unwritten wellness, with adult females sing poorer dental wellness than their male opposite numbers ( Todd & A ; Lader 1991 ) ( Downer 1994 ) . Other surveies suggest that the contrary is true ( Scambler 2002 ) . The issue appears to be related to the inability to pull a decision on whether it is gender entirely that is doing the inequality, or if it is by virtuousness of the fact that adult females are in lower societal categories than work forces and are presently populating longer.
Age is the individual biggest ground for the lessening in sound and untreated dentitions across the population as a whole, with the following most of import factor being part of the UK, the more deprived the country, the more disease. Older people are more likely to be populating in poorness than any other sector of the population. In 2007/08, an estimated 2 million pensionaries in the UK were populating in poorness ( ONS 2010 ) . As seen in the treatment on societal category, this will hold obvious deductions for their unwritten wellness.
Whilst life anticipation is increasing this does non needfully intend that people are populating longer in good wellness and there is some argument about the thought of healthy life anticipation ( in notes ) . It can be surmised that possibly an aging population will convey with it a catalogue of dental disease as they are non merely more susceptible to disease by life thirster, but by virtuousness of them falling down the societal ladder. Older people presently experience higher degrees of hapless unwritten wellness than other groups and overall they make less usage of dental services and receive poorer attention than other groups ( in notes ) . However, the older population is altering. More people are retaining natural dentitions into their old age, and are more likely to do regular usage of dental services. Dentists have to be cognizant of the alterations that are traveling to go on with their patient demographic over the following few old ages. This group of patients will necessitate more renewing and decorative interventions but will be further down the societal ladder and less able to pay for such interventions.
Poor socioeconomic position is besides thought to account for the differences that are seen in unwritten wellness of cultural groups ( Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology 2007 ) . Programs have been designed to better dental pupils understanding of and attitudes to patients, such as Otto wagners cross-cultural patient teacher programme to better dental pupils understanding of and attitudes towards ethnically diverse patients ( Wagner et al 2008 ) . But what this type of programme fails to turn to is that the biggest factor in finding the wellness of an person is their socio-economic position ( Watt and Sheiham 1999 ) .
Not merely do people in the lower socio-economic groups experience more ill-health, they besides are more likely to comprehend a deficiency of control over their wellness. Cornwell ( 1984 ) found that people in low socio-economic groups would travel to great attempts to turn out deficiency of duty if they became sick. In add-on to this, Blaxter ( 1982 ) found that people in lower socio-economic groups tended to specify wellness in a functional manner. These two points are important for tooth doctors to hold on. On the whole, tooth doctors by nature of their profession autumn into a traditional in-between category position. Middle category people are more likely to take a moral duty for their wellness and to experience that they can make something about it ( Scambler 2002 ) . Given that the bulk of the population in the UK position themselves as working category ( BBC 2006 ) , it is extremely likely that the tooth doctor and the patient will hold really different positions on non merely how they define wellness but besides on their personal ability to alter their wellness position.
The differences between tooth doctors and their patients do non halt at that place. Recent research suggests that the lower the socio-economic position the less likely that a patient will go to wellness services in the first topographic point. Several ‘barriers ‘ have been suggested including fright ( Todd and Lader 1995 ) , handiness of tooth doctors ( acquire ref ) , cost and dissatisfaction with attention. It is deserving observing that the presence of barriers increases the lower the socio-economic position of the person. Even when people recognise that they are sing symptoms, they do non needfully seek medical aid ( Zola 1973 ) . Decisions about help-seeking are elaborately bound-up with the societal fortunes that people find themselves in. Evidence clearly demonstrates that there is a important sum of unmet demand in the community and that many people who experience symptoms do non seek aid from medical or dental professionals. By far the most common unwellness behavior is self intervention with nonprescription medical specialties such as hurting alleviation ( Wadsworth 1971 in Scambler pg 49 ) Others have indicated the presence of a ‘lay referral system ‘ , whereby “ the whole procedure of seeking aid involves a web of possible advisers from the intimate confines of the atomic household through in turn more choice, distant and important laypersons until the ‘professional ‘ is reached ” ( Friedson 1970 ) . “ A state of affairs in which the possible patient participates in a subculture which differs from that of physicians and in which there is an drawn-out ballad referral system would take to the ‘lowest ‘ rate of use of medical services ” ( Scambler 2008:48 ) . This all adds fuel to the fire of the ‘inverse attention jurisprudence ‘ which states that those in demand of the most healthcare have least entree to it ( Tudor-Hart ) .
Consulting behavior has besides been seen to non be entirely related to the experiences of symptoms, with every bit many as 48 % of those sing terrible hurting non confer withing a tooth doctor ( Locker 1988- in notes ) . The type of symptom ( i.e. hurting ) is merely one factor and the consequence that the symptom has on daily life is besides an of import consideration.
It is indispensable that tooth doctors are educated in sociology as applied to dentistry in order that they are able to handle their patients efficaciously. Without an penetration into the bigger image, tooth doctors will efficaciously be clean uping the deckchairs on a sinking ship. The society in which a individual lives shapes the wellness, unwellness, life anticipation and quality of life of those within it. In order to do any alteration on an single degree, so alterations have to happen on a social degree.
From work done by Wilkinson and Picket ( 2009 ) it would look that the best manner of cut downing wellness inequalities would be to cut down the income inequalities that exist in the UK. Their work showed that “ there is a really strong inclination for ill- wellness and societal jobs to happen less often in the more equal states. With increasing inequality, the higher is the mark on our index of wellness and societal jobs. Health and Social jobs are so more common in states with bigger income inequalities. The two are inordinately closely related- opportunity entirely would about ne’er produce a spread in which states lined up like this. ” Dentists have to be cognizant of this job. There is a demand for tooth doctors to force for authorities to implement policies that will undertake these inequalities. Dentists ( and other wellness professionals ) need to work together to seek to promote authorities alteration. There has to be a move off from tooth doctors accepting disease at face value, tooth doctors have to be trained to gain that no sum of Restoration placed within a patients oral cavity is traveling to convey about the alteration that is needed to assist that person have a healthy life. Every oral cavity we see is portion of a individual, which is portion of a household, which is portion of a society. Dentists should be taught to ‘think sociologically ‘ ( Scambler 2008 ) . By believing sociologically we can get down to gain that whilst we are all knitted together in the rich tapestry which is society, we are besides co-creators of the design for that tapestry. Dentists need to take a more active function in the creative activity of that design, a function that is indispensable if we hope to accomplish a more equal society.
Unit 1- Health, Disease and Society
Purpose:
To present the relationship between wellness, disease and society and to specify
and research cardinal theoretical accounts within wellness and unwritten wellness.
Aims:
Define Disease, Illness, Health and Oral Health
Disease- a biomedically defined pathology within the human system which may or may non be evident to the person
Illness- the ballad reading of bodily or mantal marks or symptoms as somehow unnatural
Illness and disease exist in a societal model and indices of disease and unwellness produced by alveolar consonant and medical professionals do non ever make sense to the ballad population. Understandings of wellness and unwellness are constructed through the interplay between the symptom experience and the societal and cultural model within which this experience occurs.
Health is a many-sided construct that can be experienced in different ways by different people at different times and in different topographic points
Oral health- a comfy and functional teething that allows persons to go on their societal function.
Describe cardinal historical fluctuations in disease patterns- Knowledge about the organic structure, about disease and about medical specialty, are merchandises of their clip ; they are socially constructed by what is ‘known ‘ or thought to be ‘known ‘ at any point in clip. Diseases themselves are socially constructed and can alter over clip.
Describe cardinal theories of disease causation- monism and localization of function of pathology
Monism- all disease in due to one underlying cause ( normally one of balance ) in the solid or unstable parts of the organic structure. Balance distrupted, unwellness will happen. Restoration of balance, remedy and unwellness irradicated
Localization of function of pathology- Medical scientific discipline developed this theory. Cases
Discuss the altering nature of dental disease forms in grownup populations
Unit 2- societal construction and health- inequalities
Purpose:
To present the nature of societal construction and how this relates to forms of unwritten
disease in the UK population
Aims:
Introduce and discourse the significance of societal construction and societal stratification
Describe ways of mensurating inequalities
Discuss the relationship between societal category and wellness
Discuss the relationship between societal category and unwritten wellness
Discuss accounts for societal category related differences in health/oral wellness
Unit of measurement 5: Social Structure and Health II – Gender ;
Ethnicity ; Ageing and Oral Health
Purposes:
To depict societal differences between the genders in relation to such factors as
equality, work, matrimonial functions, and wellness behavior.
To analyze the wellness and unwritten wellness of cultural minority groups in Britain today.
To look at the impact of ageing and the lifecourse on wellness experiences,
integrating outlooks of old age and differential intervention of older people.
Aims:
Define gender, ethnicity and ripening.
Understand the mortality and morbidity derived functions for work forces and adult females.
Understand gender differences in wellness behavior.
Outline and discourse gender differences in unwritten wellness.
Be cognizant of the inequalities in the general wellness and unwritten wellness of cultural
groups.
Have cognition of some of the major dental wellness jobs of older people.
Be cognizant of the societal impact of ageing on dental wellness.
Unit of measurement 5: Health and Illness Behaviour and the Dentist-
Patient Relationship
Purpose:
To present the constructs of wellness and illness behavior and measure the scope of factors which influence what happens when people become sick.
Aims:
aˆ? To sketch and discourse different perceptual experiences of wellness and unwellness.
aˆ? To discourse the clinical iceberg in populations and its deductions for dental wellness.
aˆ? To present and discourse the nucleus variables Influencing illness behavior.
aˆ? To discourse the construct of ‘triggers ‘ for seeking dental attention and their deductions for the dental intervention experience.
aˆ? To present the construct of entree to wellness attention.
aˆ? To discourse the nature of the dentist -patient relationship.
In order to get down to look at these inequalities, persons can be stratified into different groups, harmonizing to specified standards and ensuing in a hierarchy with those at the lower terminal agony in comparing with those at the top of the system. “ Social stratification involves a hierarchy of societal groups. Members of a peculiar stratum have common individuality, similar involvements and a similar life style. They enjoy or suffer the unequal distribution of wagess in society as members of different societal groups. ” ( Haralambos and Holburn 2000 ) .
Webber devised a hierarchal theoretical account, in which category relates to occupational standing. Occupational type is considered along with societal position and power. This theoretical account forms the footing for the two theoretical accounts of societal category which are most frequently used within research in the United kingdom: Registrar Generals Model of Social Class and National Statistics Socio-economic Classification.
Social Class has long been associated with degrees of wellness.

Sociology As Applied To Dentistry Health And Social Care Essay

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Stainless Steel Crowns in Pediatric Dentistry

Stainless Steel Crowns in Pediatric Dentistry.

In primary dentition, large, multisurface carious lesions often advocate the use of a full-coverage restoration. Full coverage is likewise indicated in deep approximal cavities, circumferential caries, bilateral approximal cavities and history of root canal treatment. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry also included children at high risk with anterior and/or posterior decay, and children requiring general anesthesia.
Historically, such restorations have been in the form of stainless steel crowns (SSCs). Stainless steel crowns were introduced in 1947 by the Rocky Mountain Company and popularized by Humphrey in 1950. With only 0.2 mm metal thickness, these crowns are strong, resilient and malleable.
Stain Steel Dental Crowns for Pediatrics

They do not fracture and can be modified by crimping to ensure proper adaptation to the prepared tooth structure. Several studies have reported their superiority, in terms of better retention and less recurrent decay, relative to posterior composite resin and amalgam Class II restorations. Yilmaz et al. 2006 showed that after two years of clinical use, the rate of perforations or dents of SSCs was only 12%. Also SSCs do not require complete isolation for bonding, as do crowns made of composite resin, nor do they require a preparation incorporating mechanical retention into the design, as do amalgam restorations.
Over the years, design modifications have simplified the fitting procedure and improved the morphology of the crown so that it more accurately duplicates the anatomy of primary molar teeth and thus, the SSC have become the standard for restoration of compromised pediatric dentition and proved to function satisfactorily for over 36 months. However, these crowns have one potential drawback owing to the unattractive color of the restorative material, which fails to meet the esthetic demands of patients’ parents. In order to address parents’ esthetic wishes while effectively treating the decay, Pre-veneered Stainless Steel Crowns “PSSCs” were introduced in the early 1990’s, initially developed for anterior teeth, but later for primary molars.
These are basically SSC with a tooth colored material (either a resin composite or porcelain) coating that is chemically or mechanically attached to the metal coping. The composite veneer covers the facial, occlusal, mesial, and distal aspects of the crown, and its thickness varies from 0.6 mm at the mesiobuccal to 1.5 mm at the occlusal surface in order to withstand the patient’s occlusal forces. These crowns combine the thin strong foundation of stainless steel, with the tooth colored appearance of composite or porcelain. As such, they can provide full coverage, durability, ease of placement and aesthetics.
Although PSSCs resolve some problems associated with SSCs, they still have several shortcomings; they require a greater reduction of tooth structure during preparation than is the case for traditional SSCs. The greater occlusal reduction can increase the risk of exposing vital pulp, necessitating vital pulpotomy, a procedure which increases chair time and cost.
In addition, these crowns cannot always be crimped to fit to the prepared tooth. Crimping could cause fracture or chipping of the esthetic facing. Esthetic facing may also get fractured if exposed to uniaxial force and repair of fractured coatings may entail complete replacement. Fracture of an esthetic SSC can lead to loss of space in the developing pediatric dentition, as well as increased retention of plaque.
Zirconia Dental Crowns for Pediatrics
For decades, dentists had been limited to those two types of full coronal coverage for primary molars. However, the overwhelming need for lifelike restorations that mimic natural tooth have driven the profession towards metal free whenever possible. In pediatric dentistry, this is represented through the use of zirconia crowns which are considered “cosmetic” in nature compared to other alternative crown materials. Initially, zirconia crowns were predominantly fabricated with a zirconia coping layered or pressed with different types of porcelain. Recently, monolithic (full-contour) zirconia crowns have been developed, which are extraordinarily strong, and argued to be just as aesthetic as layered zirconia crowns.
Initially, zirconia ceramic parts were just applied as the cores for manufacturing dental crowns in the form of bi-layer restorations, with veneer porcelain shells fused on them. Therefore, the porcelain made of softer amorphous silicates is the one that comes in contact with the natural tooth structure. Nowadays, by increasing the translucency of zirconia ceramics, full contour zirconia crowns are used to reestablish the posterior teeth. This type of ceramic restorations made of one single material by computer assistant design (CAD) and computer assistant machining (CAM) approach shows excellent mechanical properties.
They were proved to be extraordinarily strong, and argued to be just as aesthetic as layered zirconia crowns. While using different restorations, it always remains the issue of avoiding or minimizing the pathological damage of natural teeth during the friction process between restorations and natural teeth. Surface wear of enamel is a physiological process going with the opposite movement between upper and lower teeth through mastication. This natural process may be accelerated by the introduction of restorations whose properties of wear differ from those of the tooth structure that they slide against.
Therefore and despite the truth that a constant wear of the entire dentition is possible independent of dental restorations, it is desirable that wear behavior of restorative materials is similar to natural enamel, because excessive wear could lead to clinical problems such as damage of teeth occluding surfaces, loss of vertical dimension of occlusion, poor masticatory function associated with temporomandibular joint remodeling, dentine hypersinsivity or death of the tooth and at least may lead to esthetic impairment. It is therefore of particular interest to carry out in vitro friction tests between dental materials and natural teeth.
With the increasing development of new esthetic full coverage’s for primary teeth, and the relatively short application time of the newest addition of zirconia crowns, there is an increasing demand for analyzing the resultant pathological tooth wear against these types. Unfortunately, clinical documentation of enamel wear, when opposing restorative materials, is difficult to obtain. However, these data can be acquired from in vitro studies.
Analyzing enamel wear after in vitro cycling and loading. The present study investigated the amount of wear in primary enamel, caused by zirconia crowns, pre-veneered stainless steel crowns and stainless steel crowns. In addition, the wear behaviors and patterns were characterized by examination using scanning electron microscopy.

Stainless Steel Crowns in Pediatric Dentistry

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Dentistry and Senior Citizen

Dentistry and Senior Citizen.
As a student under the curriculum of health education, to bring about our service is now more than treating the patient illness but improving the patient whole being. This is what being taught to us in the lectures under the subject community dentistry. Recently, I have the opportunity to apply this knowledge and get hands on knowledge what health, community and dentistry are all about. What other best method than to dive into the community itself. Under the supervision and guidance by Professor Dr Noorliza, my friends and I visited a house of old folks or senior citizen 20 minutes away from the college.
Such projects or activities like this are no longer a stranger to me as I did this frequently during my years of studying for my International Bachelorette diploma and for each project a similar report like this was also required. Therefore, the planning of our events would come as easily as I had experience such conduct before. However, this time around, the approach and set of mentality was more toward a dentist point of view and as a person who is to educate the community. The target group was senior citizen and the aim is to promote dental hygiene.
However, the targeted group consists of people who are already wear out by time. The gap between our generations is pretty wide and there are almost zero to none topic of interest to be discussed. Nevertheless, such barrier is to be overcome and I tried as hard as I can to keep the conversation going and even slip in advices regarding importance of maintaining and monitoring the oral health. There were other obstacles also, with the old age, their senses started to deteriorate.

The slurry speeches and their hearing also were not as well as they were in youth. What amazes me is how each person still put up a smile trying their best to enjoy our company. Though there were awkward silences now and then, we all manage to share couple of laughter here and there. I had the opportunity to talk to Mr Bulam who was a teacher and is already 80 years old. However, compare to the other inhabitant of the old folk home, he still maintain his intellect to a certain degree. His secret is reading and I am sure to apply throughout my life.
Most of our conversation involves me as the listener and it teaches me to be patient. However language or slang that people are conversing in, if we make an effort to listen, the meaning is sure to come across. Besides that, I also manage to interact with the caretaker. Looking at the condition of the residents and the house itself shows that these people did a really good job in taking care of them. Even more so, it amazes me as most of them do it from the goodwill of their heart. To be expose to this humble people really make me more grounded.
This kind of humanity experience is not the kind of thing that can be taught, it has to be experienced by oneself. To bring joy to their daily mundane life, waiting for time to pass by, we perform some songs. Looking how their face light up like a kid in a clown show, gives my heart a wrench and I somehow realize that they must have been really lonely to be away from their family, friends and home. Therefore, I was glad that our little visit breaks their daily routine and provided them with the company they longed.
We even presented each of them with a Chinese New Year card and oranges. I hope that this little souvenir reminded them of us and shows the effort we put in to accompany them. The time given was short and at the end of the visit I still wonder whether I had done the duty required by me as a dental student or better yet just as another compassion human being. The trip has opened my eyes to the various communities present and how each of them requires equal amount of attention by health practitioners.
I believe that I still need to improve my communication skill and adopt a more compassionate approach to the people around me. Last but not least, I was really glad that the trip was done with my friends as it teaches me to also learn how to cooperate with each other and work together. I long discovered that certain things are not meant to be done alone and this trip reinforces its importance. Finally, in the near future I hope to achieve greater success and becomes wiser over the accumulated experiences especially this one.

Dentistry and Senior Citizen

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