Conflict Management Plan

Conflict Management Plan.
1. Identify the available conflict management strategies and their strengths and weaknesses.
Strategy
Strengths

Weaknesses
Collaboration
Makes the team stronger while building morale. Ability to problem solve. Sharing in responsibility Not sharing same ideas
Causes most popular vote
Can be time consuming while coming to an agreement
Competition
Forces team to think outside the box for better results
Cause team members to disagree and never reach a solution
Avoidance
Refocuses team to real problem
Takes personal feelings out of the issue
Problem still exist
Team relationship becomes tainted
Accommodation
Allows the team to come to a resolution by giving and taking
Requires some team members ideas to be put on the back burner
Compromise
Allows team to come to a solution in a timely manner
May effect team negatively if one member feels they compromise more than others
2. Which of the available conflict management strategies is most appropriate for the current situation with Clyde and Dan? Provide your rationale, including what factors you considered in making your selection. Your response should be at least 100 words.
The most appropriate conflict management strategy for the current situation is collaboration. I feel if both men are brought together to discuss their issues in a non-hostile environment then the real problem will present itself. This will allow both team members to voice their opinions and a resolution can be offered up.
Once the problem is in the open they can focus on how to resolve it. I made this selection because it sounds like maybe it could be a personality conflict with a lot of he said she said. The only way to resolve it is to know what the real problem is. The only way to know that is to bring the men together to talk about it.
3. If the selected strategy is not successful, what is your alternate strategy? Provide your rationale for this selection. Your response should be at least 100 words.
If the first strategy is not successful then the next option is avoidance. This will force the team members to put their personal feeling toward each other aside so that they can focus on the project. Team members will not always get along. How they feel about each other can be a problem, but as long as they can put those feelings aside for the betterment of the team then they can focus on the common goal. As long each of the of participating and sharing the work load the team can be successful.
4. What potential road blocks might be encountered in resolving the conflict? How would you address these? Your response should be at least 100 words.
Some potential road blocks is the team members are hell bent on not working together. When every option for resolving the problem has been exhausted then there may be a need for different measures. The idea is to keep the team together and focused on the project. If the actions of these two men lower the morale of the team and make it impossible to work together then it is my recommendation both team members be replaced. The focus is the team and the project.

Conflict Management Plan

Different Approaches in Conflict Management

Different Approaches in Conflict Management.
The case that is being analyzed is about the power issues between Lenore and Caroline. This paper will assess the power relationship between the two and explain in great detail the power balancing strategies that can be used. Also included in this paper, will be the Wilmot- Hocker assessment guide. The Wilmot – Hocker Assessment Guide will be the basic foundation for this paper. This assignment will explain the goals of each individual and the messages they use to achieve them. This case study will include examples from the conversation in order to back up certain ideas.
Before Lenore and Caroline engage in conflict, Lenore felt she was being shunned from the family. This feeling of being shunned, resulted in Lenore having a hostile attitude toward Caroline and her family. Even though Lenore feels neglected, she will only state a few of the reasons why she ” Feels a non-person in Caroline”s life and her kid”s.” The reason why she will not engage fully into conflict is she afraid of conflict. She views confrontation in a negative way.
If she did not perceive conflict in a negative view, she would then be more direct on how she feels. When Caroline begins to defend herself and her family, Lenore instantly backs away and pretends to forget what she had previously stated. Lenore is denying that something was communicated because she is trying to ignore the existence of power (Interpersonal Conflict p. 87).

Caroline is the exact opposite of Lenore. Although Caroline does not initiate the conflict, she does not back down from conflict. It is obvious that Caroline is not afraid of conflict. Since the relationship between her mother and her is important, she wants to understand why her mother feels the way she does. Caroline realizes in order to do so, a conflict between ideas will occur. She understands if the conflict is handled correctly, the relationship will gradually become stronger with her mother. Both of their ideas about how a family should be raised will brought out into the open in a conflict.
After reading over the case, it was apparent that both Lenore and Caroline use metaphoric images when they are communicating to each other. Lenore states that parent”s are the best role models for children. If you”re not going to provide that model for them, who is? Caroline responds by saying, ” I can not buy what you are saying.” Although this type of metaphoric image is not mentioned in the book, one must assume that this is an example of conflict as a product. By saying I can not buy what you are saying, Caroline is stating the metaphoric message that conflict is a product and can be bought if it is at the right price.
When Lenore told Caroline that she is heading into fairly stormy waters, Lenore is using what is considered to be a negative metaphor. Stormy waters can be extremely destructive by being repetitive, powerful, and inescapable. The book would compare Lenore”s statement as being “Conflict is a Tide.” Both Lenore and Caroline do not use metaphoric images in a positive way. If both parties realized those metaphors can cast a negative tone, it would limit the possibility for productive conflict management. Neither party would have used the metaphors.
Lenore is a senior citizen, which would make her over sixty-years of age. Taking her age and the way she communicates into consideration, one can assume that she is a conservative and an old fashion type of lady. She demands that Caroline and her children show her respect because of her age. It is even mentioned in the case, that Lenore would drop everything when her parents came to visit her. Caroline is thirty- years old, and it is obvious that she is more liberal then Lenore.
Caroline can understand her daughter”s actions a lot clearer then can Lenore. The difference in generations is one of the main ingredients of the conflict. The older generation of people can not adapt to the change in families. For example, people in Lenore”s time were not so busy with ” Car pools, tennis games, and trips that we”re really not crucial to any part of your life style.” This generation of families is on a lot more hectic schedule. Lenore and many other people from her generation, have a hard time adapting to the fast pace life many families endure.
Lenore must understand and accept that Caroline”s parenting style suits the lifestyle of the family. Lenore”s parenting style may have worked in the fifties, but it will not work in the nineties. Until Lenore accepts this fact, there will always be a conflict between them.
The event that triggers the conflict, is when Caroline”s daughter runs right past Lenore and does not say hello. Lenore interprets that the kid is “spoiled”, and that Caroline has failed at raising her children correctly. This is the event that brought the conflict into mutual awareness. Since Lenore is Caroline”s mother, she unarguably believes she knows what is best for Caroline”s family. This first event lead”s into a destructive spiral of more of Lenore”s problems with Caroline and her family. One of the other problems in the past that upsets her, is that she wants to feel a part of their lives. It seems that if Lenore is not the center of attention, then there must be something wrong.
Caroline believes that there is nothing wrong with her family. Lenore is overreacting and she should just let her be her own person. However, Lenore feels that there is a crisis in the family. She gets even more upset and angry, when Caroline refuses to agree with her that there is a problem in the family. Because Caroline will not agree with Lenore, it adds fuel to the fire. Caroline will listen to her mother because it is her mother, but that does not mean she will agree or change her tactics. Caroline expresses the struggle in a rational state of mind. She does not ignore her mother; instead, she communicates the message she understands her mother has a problem. The mother expresses the struggle in an over-reacting and unrational state. It is overwhelming to her that her daughter will not conform to what she says. She interprets this as being a sign of disrespect.
In order to understand what the incompatible goals are, we must understand what the relational goals of each party are. First of all, Lenore wants her grandchildren to ” kiss and hug her every time they see her.” She also wants her daughter to show her much more respect. On the other hand, Caroline wants her mother to realize that her grandchildren still love and respect her, even though they do not kiss and hug her every time they see her. Since Caroline wants one thing and Lenore wants another, this leads into incompatible goals. Both Caroline and Lenore want different things and this causes a struggle over goals.
The reason why there is a struggle over goals is because time is a scarce resource. The case study would imply that Caroline”s daughter lives a busy life. She has restraints on her time to play with her friends. When she is not playing tennis or going to school, she wants to spend her time with her friends. This is a normal response for children her age. The grandmother does not understand the time restraints on Tara. The granddaughter would rather spend some time with her friends and have fun, then sit around and listen to outdated theories of Dr. Spock. If both Lenore and Caroline were to engage over what goals are important to them, there would be less of a problem. The situation does not have to be Grandma versus the family.
This particular case study lacks goal clarity. Lenore only discovers her goals during the course of the conflict. She only began to engage in conflict, when Tara ran past her and ignored her. Before this incident, she did not have a plan on how to become a bigger influence in the family. If Lenore really wanted to improve the relationship with the family, she would not have been so individualistic. She could have taken account for the family”s needs as well as hers. Lenore could have mentioned that she thought her knowledge on raising families could benefit Caroline and would also help Lenore feel a part of the family.
Throughout the conflict, Caroline was defending herself and her family. Therefore, she used a lot of self-oriented tactics. She became very defensive when Lenore said that she was not interested in their advice or in their decisions. She was forced to defend herself and her family. By being defensive, it limited her to only being able to respond back. She was unable to make clear exactly what she wanted from her mother.
Although the prospective goal was not mentioned, it was obvious that Lenore was upset with the behavior of Tara and Caroline. Lenore stated that her husband and her “feel like their a non-person in your life and your kids life.” Lenore”s first goal would be an example of a relational goal. Lenore wanted her grandchildren and her own daughter to treat her with respect. The conflict was about who Lenore and Caroline are to each other. If Lenore is Caroline”s mother, she should treat her like a mother. However, Caroline feels Lenore should stop telling her what is best for her and her family. This is also an example of a relational goal. Since Caroline and Lenore have opposing views on their relationship, a conflict developed.
The transactive goals that developed in this conflict happened while the conflict was taking place. Caroline was not aware of how her mother felt about their relationship. Even though this conflict took place, Caroline still does not know how the mother feels about the relationship. In the beginning stages of the conflict, Caroline”s goal was to explain why her daughter did not say hello. That was a relational goal. After Caroline realized that her mother was upset about how Caroline is raising her children, the goal drastically changed from being a relational goal to an identity goal. Who is Caroline to her mother? When Caroline said,” Just because you”re my mother does not mean that we have to think exactly the same,” it showed Caroline was trying to clarify their relationship.
During the conflict, Caroline was trying to save face. In order to do so, she had to stick up to her mother. Her mother ,however, wanted to still have control of Caroline and the way she raised her family. When a valid point was made, her mother would find a way to change it around. For example, when Caroline said, “You brought me up to understand that I am my own person,” her mother responded by saying, ” I hope I threw in some training sessions on respecting other people”s authority.” Lenore was accusing Caroline of being a poor mother and having a poor daughter. Lenore could not accept that her daughter could make good decisions, without her assistance.
Since it is not known what exactly the retrospective goal is, one must assume that Caroline realized she should have handled the conflict differently. If the goals in the beginning were clarified, there would not have been such a dispute. Neither party specialized in any type of goal. By the end of the conflict, both parties still did not know what the other party wanted.
The power issue between Lenore and Caroline is not discussed. Lenore, who has less power then Caroline, is trying to take away Caroline”s power. Lenore uses an either/or approach. Caroline is trying to move Lenore against her will. What this means is she is trying to force Lenore to do what she says. If Lenore says that Caroline is not raising her family correctly, she better change something.
Caroline and Lenore are in a conflict over who should have power in the relationship. The mother believes that she knows best on how to raise children and Caroline should listen to her. French and Raven would describe this source of power as expertise. Since Lenore is the mother of Caroline, she believes she has the wisdom, knowledge, and expertise on how a family should operate. Caroline refuses to accept her mother”s opinion and that leads into a struggle over power. When Caroline was younger, her mother was able to punish (coercion) her when she did not like her behavior. Now that she is older her mother is unable to do that and it causes Lenore to be less powerful. Her mother can only verbally attack Caroline, and that is exactly what she does.
A currency that Caroline did not realize she had was her interpersonal linkage. She serves as the bridge between Lenore and Tara. Lenore would not know how Tara felt if it was not for Caroline. If Caroline choose not to tell Tara how Lenore felt, there is nothing Lenore could do about it. This would make Lenore even have less power.
Lenore and Caroline have a power imbalance. Lenore”s goal is to strive for higher power. She even mentions if she was the mother, the children would not be acting this way. Lenore communicates to Caroline in what is called competitive symmetry. This means that she uses a repeated pattern of one-ups. An example of this would be when Lenore said, “This your mother talking.” Lenore attempted to have Caroline be submissive and to agree with her by communicating with one-downs. Instead, Caroline attempted to communicate in what is called a complementary pattern. She would say, ” Your are twisting this all around to make me see your point of view. So what if we disagree with minor things.” She was using a one-up pattern at first by saying how she truly felt, but she then use a one-down pattern when she explained her reasoning and she hoped her mother would agree.
The type of style that Lenore uses is called competitive. She is highly concerned for her own needs and she really does not have a high concern for others. For example she says, “We just have begun to realize that we are going to start looking out for our own needs-alone.” This statement is implying that her needs must be meet first and foremost.
What makes this case interesting, is that Lenore also uses an avoidance technique throughout the argument. When Lenore said, “Nonsense! I”ve never ever told you what to do or when to do it.” This remark indicates that Lenore decided that she would avoid continuing in the argument. She is using what is called a nonconsensual avoidance. She is ignoring everything that Caroline has to say.
Caroline uses a collaborative style when she communicates with her mother. She has a high concern for her needs, but she also has a high concern for her mother”s needs. The problem is her mother and her can not clarify what they want. So it makes it impossible for Caroline to find an integrative solution that will satisfy them both. What results from this is a symmetrical “attack-attack” patterns, were they are trying to one-up each other.
Caroline, Lenore, and Tara are involved in what is known as a toxic triangle. Tara and Lenore are at the top corners, while the grandmother is at the bottom corner. The results from a toxic triangle can be devastating to the relationship. If the grandmother would accept Tara withdrawing from the triangle, it would give Lenore and Caroline time to discuss their current relationship. The focus would not be about Tara, but instead them. This one to one communication could result in the two collaborating.
All and all, both parties need to realize in order to accomplish their goals, they need to know exactly what their goals are. Lenore uses the avoidance and competitive style, while Caroline uses the competitive and collaboration style. They will only further damage the relationship if they keep competing with each other over who has power.

Different Approaches in Conflict Management

Conflict Management Strategies

Conflict Management Strategies.
 
Re: Conflict Management
Memorandum

Workplace violence is the number one cause of death for women, and the second highest cause for men.  Management must intervene, and the most effective means of intervention is through training in conflict resolution. Managers are likely to spend 20 percent of their time dealing with employee conflicts, from disagreements about the job itself to personality conflicts.
    Conflict increases with increased levels of hierarchy, more workers, and the standardization of jobs The word “conflict” has a negative connotation, but isn’t always a bad thing. It pushes managers to analyze their goals, it forces employees to communicate, and sometimes it can lead to creative solutions. Sometimes, it will result in high-quality decision making that would otherwise be impossible. One such conflict led to the formation of Saturn (automotive). In this regard, it can lead people to step out of their usual way of thinking. One study showed that high-quality decisions occurred in 45 percent of situations where the subordinates resisted. Creative solutions only occurred in 18 percent of cases where resistance was weak or non-existant. Therefore, conflict brings out the best in employee’s thinking.
    There are three popular definitions of conflict: 1) the actions of one person or organization is in direct opposition to the actions of another; 2) the conditions or goals of individuals are incompatible; 3) a struggle over values and scarce resources in which opponents seek to neutralize their rivals. There are four axioms that are relevant to communication: 1) conflict involves at least two parties, and can only be generated or resolved through communication; 2) It develops from perceived mutually exclusive goals, and the important thing to remember is that they are perceived to be mutually exclusive; 3) Conflict involves different value systems, especially with employees who are in vastly different positions; 4) conflict will only terminate when each side is convinced that it has one or lost.
    Managers must understand the source of a conflict in order to find the proper resolution. The lines of authority, and specifically the way one individual or department is dependent on another, can encourage conflict. It is especially exacerbated by the limited availability of resources. Perceived conflict occurs when parties misunderstand each other’s positions. Managers must find ways to prevent conflicts from occurring in the first place, such as unappreciated employees. 55 percent of employees said that they are rarely thanked by their bosses.
    The strategies most commonly employed in conflict resolution are: accommodation, problem solving, avoidance, compromise, and force. Accomodation requires the managers to look at everyone’s needs in order to please everyone. Often, he must give in to ideas that conflict with his own needs or goals. Problem solving evaluates each point of view in order to come to a solution while taking in everyone’s opinions. Avoidance tends to sound like a negative idea, but it can include ignoring the grumblings of negative comments, or a manager who changes the subject when the tone of a discussion becomes threatening. This is typically used in large bureaucracies that have conflicting policies. One might hear “It’s not my fault, it’s just the company policy” when this technique is used. Forcing is used when a manager must accomplish his goals without consideration of others’ opinions and or feelings. It is the number one conflict resolution technique used by managers. It should not be mistaken with a long-term solution. Compromise, which is similar to negotiating, is used when: (1) management does not have the power to “force” the issue on the other party, or (2) the parties realize that winning may not be worth the cost in money, time, or energy.
    A win-win resolution involves solving the conflict so that everyone is satisfied. Rather than using a combative approach, management instead seeks to foster cooperation. One approach that often does not work is taking a vote for the majority rule. In the case of prison officials discussing guard uniforms, they took a vote, which was three to five. The winning members, of course, were pleased while the losing members became angry or refused to participate in further discussion.
 There are four beliefs necessary to implement the win-win strategy. The first is that cooperation is better than competition. While competition can lead to unexpected results, these results can’t be accomplished without the cooperation of other employees. Next, the parties need to be trustworthy, otherwise they may conceal or distort information. Third, status differences can be minimized – a manager should not use influence to force a lower-level employee to give in. Finally, everyone needs to find mutually-acceptable solutions.
    In conclusion, the five steps of the problem-solving process are: 1) define the problem; 2) analyze the problem; 3) brainstorm solutions; 4) develop criteria for a good solution; 5) evaluate the alternatives using independently derived criteria. Conflict in any organization cannot be avoided, but it can be managed effectively.

Conflict Management Strategies

Understanding Conflict Management in the Workplace

Understanding Conflict Management in the Workplace.
Identify causes of conflict at work
“Interpersonal conflict occurs between two or more persons when attitudes, motives, values, expectations or activities are incompatible and if those people perceive themselves to be in disagreement.” – Hunt 1982
It is safe to assume that in every workplace you are always going to get some kind of conflict from within. Conflict in the workplace can be caused by issues from groups, individuals or the organisation itself. It’s in everyone’s best interests to stop conflict as early as possible before a situation escalates.

Some potential causes of conflict are:
1. Power and Ego
2. Clashes of personality
3. When people have contrasting values and beliefs
4. Miscommunication
5. Underlying stress and tension
6. Unresolved disagreements
7. A breach of faith or trust between individuals
Let’s look at a couple of the above examples.
Power and ego can cause major conflicts in the workplace due to people having different leadership styles e.g. authoritarian or democratic. Not all employees respond well to an authoritarian approach where they are told what to do as opposed to being able to have an input into how their jobs are done. This can cause them to feel demoralised and not appreciated meaning they no longer enjoy their jobs and the organisation do not get the best work out of them. Recent conflict at my workplace occurred when the door handle of one of our fork trucks kept getting broken and needed to be replaced hence causing unnecessary expense to the organisation. It was decided by myself that in order to stop this happening the door would be removed for a short period of time.
This caused conflict because some members of the team felt that they were being punished for other peoples actions and couldn’t understand why it was not discussed with themselves first. Contrasting values and belief can also cause conflict in our place of work when members of management at TATA let us know their expectations in our morning meetings. Conflict can occur when they set us daily tonnage targets which in our opinion are sometimes impossible to meet. Sometimes these targets are unrealistic due to machinery needing maintenance or there not being enough manpower to be able to get the coils despatched to clients. Management are sometimes not willing to listen to these problems because they believe they should be sorted quickly so the targets can be reached. This cannot always happen leading to conflict between them and Pd Ports.
A breach of faith or trust between individuals also occurred recently when a member of the team was asked to do some overtime so tonnage targets could be met. When speaking to the individual I learnt that they still hadn’t received payment for the last lot of overtime they completed and so they were no longer willing to do any overtime because trust had broken down and they believed theyd be working the extra hours without getting paid. We will be looking at these examples in more detail later on.
Describe the stages in the development of conflict
Once conflict has started it can sometimes go through several stages before it is resolved. Below is a diagram showing the different stages conflict can go through, although they do not always occur in a set order. Sometimes conflict cannot be resolved and only lies dormant until the problem occurs again.
Latent Conflict
This happens when individuals, groups or organizations have differences that bother one or the other. However these differences are not enough for either party to act to try and change the situation. For example when working in close proximity with someone certain behaviours can annoy another person with a different kind of personality to them. It is sometimes better to keep quiet and try and ignore this rather than get into confrontation. The seeds of this conflict might then exist for long periods of time before another party becomes aware of it.
Conflict Emergence
If the differences between the individuals, groups or organisations are strong enough then a “triggering event” can cause the emergence stage of conflict. The differences are enough to be acted upon but may erupt in low level conflict. If the low level conflict is seen as some form of threat then this can cause dormant issues to be aroused resulting in the next level of conflict occurring.
Escalation
This stage happens when the intensity of a conflict is increased and tactics used in pursuing the conflict can become more severe. Going back to the example used in latent conflict of working in close proximity with someone, if personalities continue to clash then the conflict can escalate by parties bringing in other individuals to back up there ideas and arguments. This can lead to individuals feeling ganged up on and the conflict continues to escalate.
Stalemate
A stalemate is a situation in which neither side can win, but neither side wants to back down or accept loss. This can happen due to a number of reasons for example when group members no longer show solidarity and support for the particular conflict or costs of the conflict become too great for the conflict to continue. This then means all parties involved in the conflict then accept the differences cannot really be resolved although no one is really happy with the situation.
De-escalation / Negotiation
As conflicts cannot continue to escalate eventually they have to reverse direction meaning the differences have been resolved or in the result of stalemate differences end up being forgotten or lying dormant. De-escalation also occurs when compromises are made resulting in all parties feeling happier.
Dispute Settlement
This stage is when a conflict has come to an end. When underlying causes of disputes are settled the conflict may be resolved forever but in some cases are only resolved for a certain period of time. This may be because a difference of opinion may remain and is resolved for the time being but will develop again if the difference again becomes significant.
Post-Conflict Peace Building
This is the process when individuals, groups or the organization tries to prevent the recurrence of the conflict by addressing the root causes and the effects of conflict through reconciliation. Some organizations hold team building events. This works well with people working in close proximity with each other helping them to realise that while there may be a clash of personality they can in fact work well together as a team sometimes managing to stop latent conflict occurring.
Explain the effects of conflict on individual and team performance at work
If conflict has arisen in the workplace then this could affect an individual or team in a number of ways. Effects of conflict in my workplace might be: Individuals
1. Low motivation.
2. Increased absenteeism
3. Stress frustration and anxiety
If conflict has occurred in the workplace with an individual and has reached stalemate or not been resolved satisfactorily then this can again cause latent conflict. Meaning the individual no longer feels strong enough to air his differences but instead harbours these ill feelings towards their job causing them to no longer work to the best of their ability. They are no longer motivated to perform well and so there standard of work slips resulting in other problems. Management then need to address the issue with the individual as business needs still need to be met sometimes resulting in them feeling unhappy, stressed and frustrated.
This can also lead to increased absenteeism as they may no longer want to attend work due to them not enjoying it and not feeling that they are listened to. Deadlines are then harder to meet as the job is no longer being done efficiently or in the case of absenteeism extra manpower is needed to cover an individual’s job. Quality of work is then effected. If we look at the example given earlier of conflict occurring over overtime we can see how this affected the individual. When he agreed with management to do overtime he quite rightly believed he would be paid for this however when payday came he realised he hadn’t been paid for it.
This then led to him being extremely annoyed and unhappy. After discussing the issue with a member of management and being promised it would be sorted out it soon became apparent that it had not been. This then resulted in him lacking motivation in his job. He no longer went the extra mile as he had done previously and was no longer happy when at work. This shows that even low level conflict can have a huge effect on performance of an individual at work.
Groups
1. Loss of productivity
2. Delay in decision making
3. Missed deadlines
4. Strained relationships
Conflict within a group or groups effects performance at work on a larger scale. There are more people involved and productivity can be greatly affected. This can often start as latent conflict but can quickly escalate when individuals start discussing with others things that they aren’t happy about causing a domino effect. Others then become involved in the conflict which can cause problems for other individuals or the organisation. A good example of this is the scenario at my place of work is with regards to the fork truck doors.
Fork truck door handles kept getting broken which was causing an unnecessary and expensive cost to Pd Logistics. The decision to take one of the doors off to stop the door handles getting broken was very unpopular with the fork truck drivers. Those that hadn’t broken a handle felt that they were then being penalised for other peoples accidents thus resulting in them being unhappy and frustrated. The drivers were then wanting to air their views with management meaning there was a loss in productivity as there was no one around to move coils etc.
Luckily this issue was resolved quite quickly but had it not have been and decision making had been delayed then our daily deadlines may not have been met as a result of the delay in lorries being loaded and the relationship between employees and management would have been strained due to the drivers feeling they were being treated unfairly. As a leader it is important that destructive conflict is quickly identified in order to avoid the above effects and stop conflict escalating.
Explain any recognised technique a manager could use to minimise and resolve conflict in the workplace
There are a number of techniques that could be used to minimise and resolve conflict in the work place. One such technique is the method of Positioning Exercises. These exercises are designed to help people “step into each other’s shoes”. This involves imagining the interaction from two or three different perspectives. The perspectives are: 1. The first person is your own point of view
2. The second person is the point of view of the other person 3. The third person is the point of view of an observer
This method can either help stop conflict from occurring or can help stop conflict from escalating. I used this method myself when dealing with the incident over the fork truck doors. Heated debates between everyone were not helping the conflict to de-escalate so it was decided that this may help calm things down. Two of the main fork truck operatives were called for a meeting to try and resolve the issue. They were asked to think about their own views on the problem and then I told them my reasons for taking the door off. These were that every time a door handle got broken it was costing the company £144 just to fix them. At a time where we are told that the company really needs to start saving money and cut down on unnecessary spending this was just unfeasible.
Especially as the numerous breakages were due to carelessness. Every time a handle needed repairing I was expected to justify spending this amount of money to fix them. This was becoming more difficult due to the amount of breakages in a short space of time. My solution to stop this unnecessary spending was to take the door off so that handles could no longer be broken. My opinion was that if they couldn’t respect the machine and take good care of them after numerous warnings then the only action that could be taken was to remove the door hopefully teaching them a lesson. The two fork truck operatives and I were then asked to think about the situation as a whole from an observers point of view. If we weren’t directly involved in the situation what conclusions would we come to with regards to ideas and opinions.
This helped the drivers to understand that whilst everyone was being penalised for the damage it was the only way they would stop and think and start taking care of the vehicles since warnings had been ignored and this in turn would reduce maintenance costs. It also helped me to understand that when operating the fork trucks for a long period of time they were subjected to colder working conditions because of the lack of door which wasn’t fair on operatives who did take care of the machinery. This technique enabled us to understand each other’s point of view and manage to reach a compromise.
The compromise was that they would go back to the other operatives and relay the information with relation to maintenance costs etc. and if after a month they could show me that nothing on the fork trucks had been broken then the doors would be put back on. This meant that the conflict was de-escalated. All parties felt they had been listened to and all points of view taken into account and a compromise was reached and discussed amicably.
Describe how a manager could promote a positive atmosphere in order to minimise the adverse effects of conflict
Managers could promote a positive atmosphere at work by creating harmony within the work place. There are several actions that can be undertaken by a manager to create harmony a few of which we shall look at below:
Expect The Best From Your Staff
In psychology the Self-Fulfilling prophecy states that people will generally perform in the way others expect them to perform. If a team is managed badly and constantly told they are not performing well within their job role and they are not capable of doing something then it is believed that this is how they will continue to perform. So turning this around if a manager has high expectations of their staff, and they treat them as though they are very much capable and competent people and they are expected to perform this way, then it is thought that they will rise to the occasion and be the excellent employees required.
Build Trust
Trust is an important factor in all manner of relationships. Creating a working environment built around trust between all levels of the workforce is one of the most important things a manager can do when building a positive, harmonious work environment. Staff need to know a manager is reliable, responsible and accountable and that they can be relied upon for consistency. Trust is about doing what you say you are going to do and being who you say you are. A positive workforce needs to be led by example. If they trust their manager they will feel much happier and more secure in their jobs thus resulting in them being more motivated at work.
Create Team Spirit
One of our basic human needs is to feel we belong to something bigger than ourselves, and for many people that need is met by being part of a supportive work group. If a manager creates team spirit this enables the work force to feel united and that they are not on their own. They feel valued and that they belong. They want to come to work and they want to work to the best of their ability for themselves and to help their team mates. This will result in minimal absenteeism and increased motivation when at work.
Be Approachable
A manager must always be approachable to their staff. This can be portrayed to the workforce by the manager communicating with them that they are always available and happy to speak to anyone about any issues that may occur no matter what position they hold. This again makes the team members feel valued and that their opinions and differences are listened to. Management need to make the team feel that if differences do occur they can be approached and will endeavour to sort the situation out. If a manager is not approachable then ill feeling can build up and latent conflict can quickly be triggered and escalated which can create lack of motivation at work.
Give Recognition and Appreciation
Most workers respond extremely well to reward and recognition schemes. If a manager notices an employee doing a job exceptionally well or going the extra mile then they should be recognised aloud for it. This can happen by either giving the employee some form of reward i.e employee of the month status or merely just acknowledging it out loud so others can here. This is a great tool for boosting team morale and making team members feel special and vital in their roles. It can also encourage others to strive to do better and improve in their job roles.
Give Credit and Take responsibility
Success within the business should always be credited to the team. This makes them feel invaluable and appreciated and makes them want to perform even better. Managers should remember that success of the business cannot happen without the work force performing well. It’s a managers job to make sure the team are always well trained and are equipped with the correct tools to be able to complete the job correctly and efficiently. If thing don’t go well it’s just as important for management to take responsibility for this as it is to give credit for success. If for some reason the team fail to perform their job in the expected manner it’s the managers responsibility to ensure they receive further training or direction to enable them to complete their job as expected. These are just a few of the examples in which a manager can promote a positive atmosphere in order to minimise the adverse effects of conflict.
In conclusion conflict within the workplace can occur because of many different reasons. A good manager can recognise conflict in its early stages and deal with it using many different techniques in order to stop the conflict escalating. This in turn creates a better working environment for the team in which they feel happy in their work and believe they are a valued member of the team resulting in an increased standard of productivity.

Understanding Conflict Management in the Workplace

Benchmarking conflict management

Benchmarking conflict management.
Benchmarking is a process of determining what is best, may it be a company, organization, business or individual. This is done by setting standards and who attains the set standards. Benchmarking is done by comparing two or more companies in order to get which emerges the best among them. The companies or individuals that do the same kind of work or business are best benchmarked. In benchmarking, also known as geodetic control points there need to be a process to follow in order to get the winner, what process the winner followed to get there.

Benchmarking is a quality improvement initiative this encourages companies and organizations to improve their quality to avoid being the last. (Galdin, 2005) Conflict is the struggle between the incompatible or opposing needs, wishes or individuals. Benchmarking conflict management is trying to come up with the best method to solve the conflicts between the companies or individuals with the same goal or wish e. g. two companies wishing to buy the same piece of land for expansion. Benchmarking Conflict approach Gadency bus services are a company operating from Manchester city to London city.

It is a public transport company having a fleet of more than a hundred buses. It wanted top buy a piece of land to build a garage, it targeted a piece of land owned by Manchester city council. The conflict arises when the city council refuses to sell the land to the company. Conflict rose when the city authority declined to sell the piece of land to them. The company had to look for means to solve the conflict. In this situation the bus company is responsible for the city council actions. Conflict situations offered the company an opportunity to choose a style for responding to the conflict.
The most effective conflict prevention and management is to choose the conflict management style appropriate for the conflict. The company chooses a compromising style to solve the conflict which was very important to them to satisfy their interests, the company compromised to split the difference between them and the city council. The company chooses to ask for lease which was granted for the council was not ready to sell the land. Gadency bus acquired the land for choosing the best method to solve the conflict. (Cavenagh, 1999)
London breweries are a brewing company situated is western suburb of London city. It wanted top buy a piece of land to build a warehouse, it targeted a piece of land owned by London city authority. The conflict arises when the city authority refuses to sell the land to the company. Conflict rose when the city authority declined to sell the piece of land to them. The company had to look for means to solve the conflict. In this situation the bus company is responsible for the city authority actions. Conflict situations offered the company an opportunity to choose a style for responding to the conflict.
The most effective conflict prevention and management is to choose the conflict management style appropriate for the conflict. The company chooses an accommodating style put their interests last and let the city authority have what they want. The brewing company believes that keeping a good friendship is more important than anything else. The city authority declined completely to sell the land to the company and the company moved on by the decision of the city authority’s decision and did not acquire the land. This was as a result of the conflict solving style used by the company. (Simons, 2002) Conclusion
Benchmarking conflict management between the two companies would solve the conflict between them and also improve the quality of their services. By the setting of some standards by the city council has also encouraged the companies to choose appropriate style that is preferred in solving the dispute. Interaction of the Manchester city council and London city authority helped in improving the group behavior and avoiding completely spoiling of the inter-group relation and also helped in solidifying the groups. By each company applying different conflict solving style, this determines the result each company gets.

Benchmarking conflict management

Instructor Conflict Management Style

Instructor Conflict Management Style.
This study looked at three potential relationships: 1) student motivation and perceived instructor immediacy behaviors, 2) student motivation and perceived instructor conflict management style, and 3) perceived instructor conflict management style and perceived instructor immediacy behaviors. With regard to the first relationship, non-confrontation and control were negatively related to perceived instructor immediacy while solution-orientation was positively related to perceived instructor immediacy.
For the second relationship, both non-confrontation and control were negatively related to student motivation while solution-orientation was positively related to student motivation. With the third relationship, perceived instructor immediacy was positively related to student motivation. Instructor gender was found to have no influence on perceived instructor conflict management style. To truly understand the nature of the aforementioned relationships, further research is needed into the potential moderating influences and interaction effects between the independent variables
Introduction Educators are always looking for ways to increase student motivation, and both instructor immediacy behaviors and instructor conflict management styles could have an impact on student motivation. Researchers who focus on the educational sphere are interested in what students learn, how students learn, and what motivates students (Gorham, 1988; Keller, 1983; Plax, Kearney, McCroskey, & Richmond, 1986; Richmond, Gorham, & McCroskey, 1987; Rodriguez, Plax, & Kearney, 1996).

Communication research investigating student motivation within post-secondary educational settings has been extensive, and the college classroom is a natural setting for studying how students develop enlightened self-interest and become self-actuated learners (Frymier, Shulman, & Houser, 1996). The fostering of student motivation is important in higher education because the impetus for learning shifts to the students.
There is a need to investigate the role of instructor in developing environments where “students feel intrinsically motivated to learn” (Frymier, et al. , pg. 181). Two instructor behaviors that may impact this motivational setting are instructor immediacy and instructor conflict management style. The link between instructor immediacy and student motivation is well established (Brophy, 1987; Keller, 1983; Wlodkowksi, 1978), but research into the relationship between instructor conflict management style and student motivation is lacking.
In addition, there is a need to understanding the relationship, if any, between instructor conflict management style and instructor immediacy, In this study, I chose to build from the ideas of Wheeless and Reichel (1990) because their study addressed my interest in supervisor conflict management style and subordinate willingness work with and for supervisors (task attraction). I initially wanted to apply the study’s principles within an educational setting as opposed to the business setting studied by Wheeless and Reichel.
Upon correspondence with Dr.Wheeless (see Appendix A), I found that one of his key scales was a proprietary scale owned by a company no longer in business. This revelation helped me understand why two weeks of searching the literature had not uncovered the scale, and it also helped change the focus of this study. Given that a close replication was now impossible, I took Wheeless and Reichel’s idea of studying supervisor conflict management style and task attraction, and I transformed it into studying instructor conflict management style and student motivation.
I further transformed Wheeless and Reichel’s focus on comparing supervisor conflict management style with supervisor general communication style as measured by the 1978 proprietary Lashbrook, Lashbrook, ; Buchholz’s Social Style scale (cited in Wheeless & Reichel) into focus on comparing instructor conflict management style with instructor immediacy, an important measure of instructor communication style (Christophel, 1990). The goal of this quasi-replication of Wheeless and Reichel is to provide insight into the potential relationships between student motivation, instructor conflict management style, and instructor immediacy behaviors.
Literature Review There are several relevant variables and concepts that need to be defined. In the following literature review, non-verbal and verbal instructor immediacy, conflict management styles, and student motivation will be defined, and existing research will be reviewed as the case is made for the importance of studying these three variables together. Perceived Instructor Immediacy Because the students reported on the immediacy behaviors of the instructor, this variable is labeled perceived instructor immediacy. Immediacy can be described as psychological and physical closeness to another human (Gorham, 1988).
Immediacy has been much studied in the classroom (Frymier & Thompson, 1992; Gorham; Keller, 1983; Richmond, 1990; Rodriquez et al. , 1996), and traditionally, immediacy has two components, non verbal and verbal (Christophel, 1990; Frymier, 1994). Non-verbal immediacy behaviors have been categorized into items such at smiles, eye contact, communicating at short distances, body positions that are forward leaning and/or relaxed, positive gestures, touch, and variety in vocalizations (Christophel; Kearney, Plax, Smith, & Sorenson, 1988).
Verbal immediacy would include self-disclosure, use of “we,” calling on students by name, and humor (Gorham; Kearney et al. ). Instructor immediacy behaviors impact a wide variety of student behaviors. Research has shown that instructor immediacy behaviors impact student time on task (Kearney et al. , 1988), instructor credibility (Frymier & Thompson, 1992), and instructor effectiveness (Frymier & Thompson; Gorham, 1988).
It is also clear that instructor immediacy behaviors positively correlate with student learning (Gorham; Gorham & Zakahi, 1990; Plax et al., 1986; Richmond et al. , 1987; Rodriguez et al. , 1996) and with student motivation (Brophy, 1987; Gorham & Millette, 1997; Keller, 1983; Wlodkowsi, 1978). What is unclear is the relationship between instructor immediacy and instructor conflict management style and what impact this relationship, if any, has on student motivation. Perceived conflict management styles Students will report on the conflict management styles of the instructor, so this variable is labeled perceived conflict management style.
Conflict management styles are often broken into five distinct categories: Contending (pursuing own outcomes strongly and showing little concern for the other party’s outcomes), Yielding (showing little concern whether the individual attains his/her own outcomes yet quite interested in the other party’s outcomes), Inaction (showing little interest in either outcome), Problem Solving (showing high concern for both outcomes), and Compromising (showing moderate concern for both outcomes) (Lewicki, Barry, Saunders, & Minton, 2002; Richmond & McCroskey, 1979) (see Figure 1).

Instructor Conflict Management Style

Xcom100 Conflict Management Summary

Xcom100 Conflict Management Summary.
Xcom/100 Introduction to communication Types of conflict There are several types of conflict. Within our reading it discussed eight different types of conflict. Interpersonal conflict is one type of conflict which is a struggle that happens when two people cannot agree upon a way to meet their needs. Construtive conflict is when there is cooperation regarding the issues and helps build tools to fix the problems at hand. Destructive conflict is the lack of cooperation in dealing with the issues and breaks up relationships forever.
Pseudo conflict is just a misunderstanding a meaning of something portrayed from the opposing party involved. Simple conflict is a basic difference in ideas, definitions, perceptions, or goals. Ego conflict is a personal issue and then the parties involved start attacking the others self esteem. Serial arguments are the same arguments that occur over and over again. Irresolvable conflict is when one or both of the parties involved think that the issue is impossible to resolve. Every conflict has some style of management which are non-confrontational, confrontational, or cooperative.
Non-confrontational style is basically when one person completely backs off avoiding the conflict all together and giving into the other party involved. Confrontational style is a win lose scenario in which one party wants control and to essentially win the argument at the expense of the other. Cooperative style is viewed as both parties want to reach an agreement and come to a solution to the problem at hand. An effective conflict should be managed and problem solving tools should be used so both parties end up in a win, win outcome. There are certain skills that help out in conflict management.

Managing emotions and being able to make logical decisions about the conflict is important. Select a acceptable time and place to discuss the issue, plan your message, manage your nonverbal message, refrain from using profanity and lashing out, and last remember to use self talk. Managing your emotions is often a struggle, but escalating the situation will never help resolve a conflict. By managing your information such as clearly describing the issue, owning your faults, listening and understanding what others say and do are also important skills. Identify what your goals are as well as your partners and see where they overlap.
Both of you obviously want to obtain these goals so finding a way so both parties can achieve their goals is important. Managing the problem is an important skill to have. This enables you to be able to define and then solve the problem, think of all possible outcomes or solutions, and discuss the pros and cons of the problem at hand. My style of management is without a doubt non-confrontational. When I was reading our material this week I actually stopped reading and told my girlfriend to read this because it was definitely me. A couple of the five types of responses I can relate with.
I like to distract with jokes conflict and face the issues. I know that the problem will continue to resurface if not dealt with, but I continue to try and postpone it. Another style is called computing which I also do as I avoid emotional involvement even under pressure. I respond to emotional situations with words and phrases rather than empathy to a situation. I don’t really give in when faced with conflict although I don’t want to deal with it. I have gotten much better at managing conflict and my emotions throughout the last five or ten years because I have got help concerning these issues among others.

Xcom100 Conflict Management Summary

Conflict Management: Overview

Conflict Management: Overview.
Conflicts occur when people (or other parties) perceive that, as a consequence of a disagreement, there is a threat to their needs, interests or concerns. Although conflict is a normal part of organization life, providing numerous opportunities for growth through improved understanding and insight, there is a tendency to view conflict as a negative experience caused by abnormally difficult circumstances. Disputants tend to perceive limited options and finite resources available in seeking solutions, rather than multiple possibilities that may exist ‘outside the box’ in which we are problem-solving.
1. CONFLICT
Conflicts are natural and inevitable results when individuals work together, share diverse thoughts, concerns, perspective and goals. But what exactly is a conflict?

Basically, conflict is “The clashing of opposed principles”. That’s the easiest way to say it. Some of researchers define confict as “process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party”. Generally it is a clash of values, believes, ideas or goals.
There are three main types of conflict:
Relationship Conflict is strictly a personal perspective and can arise when one person behaves in a negative manner or another person has skewed perception due to things like stereotypes and rumors. The relationship between people is affected negatively, and in the workplace, performance is eroded due to poor team cohesion. Value Conflict arises when two people or groups have dissenting views on moral values– that basic understanding of what is naturally right or wrong.
Relationship and value conflicts are the most subjective conflict types, because they are based totally on what someone “feels” about a person or situation. Interest Conflict arises when one person’s desired outcome is in conflict with another person or group’s interests. Typically, this occurs when one person believes that another person’s desires, if enacted, will prevent his or her own interests from being met. This type of conflict can be experienced when two people who have relationship conflict are required by a team manager to work as a part of a team.
2. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
The practice of recognizing and dealing with disputes in a rational, balanced and effective way. Conflict management implemented within a business environment usually involves effective communication, problem resolving abilities and good negotiating skills to restore the focus to the company’s overall goals.
3. METHODS
In the 1970s Kenneth Thomas and Ralph Kilmann identified five main styles of dealing with conflict that vary in their degrees of cooperativeness and assertiveness. They argued that people typically have a preferred conflict resolution style. However they also noted that different styles were most useful in different situations. They developed the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI) which helps you to identify which style you tend towards when conflict arises.
4. TABLE
1) AVOIDANCE The avoiding style is uncooperative and unassertive. People exhibiting this style seek to avoid conflict altogether by denying that it is there. They are prone to postponing any decisions in which a conflict may arise. People using this style may say things such as, “I don’t really care if we work this out,” or “I don’t think there’s any problem. I feel fine about how things are.” Conflict avoidance may be habitual to some people because of personality traits such as the need for affiliation. While conflict avoidance may not be a significant problem if the issue at hand is trivial, it becomes a problem when individuals avoid confronting important issues because of a dislike for conflict or a perceived inability to handle the other party’s reactions.
2)COMPETING People exhibiting a competing style want to reach their goal or get their solution adopted regardless of what others say or how they feel. They are more interested in getting the outcome they want as opposed to keeping the other party happy, and they push for the deal they are interested in making. Competition may lead to poor relationships with others if one is always seeking to maximize their own outcomes at the expense of others’ well-being. This approach may be effective if one has strong moral objections to the alternatives or if the alternatives one is opposing are unethical or harmful.
People who tend towards a competitive style take a firm stand, and know what they want. They usually operate from a position of power, drawn from things like position, rank, expertise, or persuasive ability. This style can be useful when there is an emergency and a decision needs to be made fast; when the decision is unpopular; or when defending against someone who is trying to exploit the situation selfishly. However it can leave people feeling bruised, unsatisfied and resentful when used in less urgent situations.
3) Accommodating: This style indicates a willingness to meet the needs of others at the expense of the person’s own needs. The accommodator often knows when to give in to others, but can be persuaded to surrender a position even when it is not warranted. This person is not assertive but is highly cooperative. Accommodation is appropriate when the issues matter more to the other party, when peace is more valuable than winning, or when you want to be in a position to collect on this “favor” you gave. However people may not return favors, and overall this approach is unlikely to give the best outcomes. Accomodating individuals never meet their needs.
4) Collaborative: People tending towards a collaborative style try to meet the needs of all people involved. These people can be highly assertive but unlike the competitor, they cooperate effectively and acknowledge that everyone is important. This style is useful when you need to bring together a variety of viewpoints to get the best solution; when there have been previous conflicts in the group; or when the situation is too important for a simple trade-off. Requires trust and communication and is time consuming.
5) Compromising: People who prefer a compromising style try to find a solution that will at least partially satisfy everyone. Everyone is expected to give up something, and the compromiser him- or herself also expects to relinquish something. Compromise is useful when the cost of conflict is higher than the cost of losing ground, when equal strength opponents are at a standstill and when there is a deadline looming.

Conflict Management: Overview

Conflict Management in the Workplace

Conflict Management in the Workplace.
Conflict Management Learning Team A: Dana Stinson, Timothy Bird, Sterling Richards, Diana Loutensock LDR/531 October 5, 2010 Richard Hartley, M. A. Conflict Management Training Program Our consulting firm, Conflict Professionals, specializes in training all levels of managers (executive, mid- and entry-level) in the art of managing conflict within their teams and organizations.
What is conflict and how does it arise? Typically, it occurs when two or more people oppose one another because their needs, wants, goals, or values are different. It is almost always accompanied by feelings of anger, frustration, hurt, anxiety, or fear.An individual may also have internal conflict issues causing stress and incapacitating him or her from functioning in a productive manner. Effective Conflict Management is the process of identifying and addressing those differences that, if left unmanaged, would become a destructive element for the individual, project, team, and/or organization.
What Role Does Conflict Play in an Organization?

According to Santosh Karkhanis conflict can create a negative impact on team cohesiveness when it:

Hampers productivity;
Lowers morale;
Cause more and continued conflicts;
Cause inappropriate behaviors;
Takes attention away from other important activities;
Undermines morale or self-concept;
Polarizes people and groups, reducing cooperation;
Increases or sharpens differences.

Generally, when discussing organizational conflict we think of personality clashes or aggressive type behaviors between individuals performing similar tasks or at the same level in the organizational hierarchy. There are managerial actions that can cause or create conflict in the workplace; some of which are: Managerial Actions That May Cause Workplace Conflicts Surprised Employees – managers don’t inform employee of new policies, programs, decisions or manager takes credit for their employees’ work thereby creating distrust and conflict between both individuals.

Poor Leadership – managers that are inconsistent, missing, or too-strong or structured, create conflict by devaluing the employee and lowering his or her self-confidence.
Different Personal Chemistry – this generally occurs when there are very strong-willed individuals who differ in personality and nature. It becomes a matter of ego for these types of individuals.
Disagreement Over Resource Distribution – conflict arises when available resources are not made equally available to all.

According to Craig Runde, Director of the Conflict Dynamics Profile at Eckerd College, over two-thirds of managers spend more than ten percent of their time handling workplace conflict and forty-four percent of managers spend more than twenty percent of their time on conflict-related issues.
If your company is to maintain an edge in today’s liquid markets, then your teams need to be as fluid as the markets themselves. In order to do this they need to work together as a single unit.When you accomplish this then, and only then, your teams will be able to keep up in today’s dynamic environment. Training Outline We have developed a full scale training program specifically designed to educate and train management level employees on what actions are most effective in cultivating conflict management skills. The training will take place over a five week course.
We will meet in a business casual setting for 45 minutes once a week. The day each week, and times, will be determined before we start the program at your organizations convenience.Our goal is to accommodate your company, so either you can make use of our training facilities or we can bring our training into your business whichever supports your company’s productivity needs. Following is the training program’s format: WEEK 1

Review and Update Job Descriptions
Ensure job descriptions are defined and accurate.
Ensure team members understand individual responsibilities.
Ensure all tasks are identified.
Build Relationships with all Subordinates
Meet with team members one-on-one on a monthly basis.
Discuss accomplishments, challenges, issues, and employees’ progress towards goals.WEEK 2
Report progress from week one concepts and address concerns
Get Regular Written Status Reports
Include accomplishments through the month.
Incorporate any challenges employees come across in performing their job functions.
Conduct Basic Trainings
Interpersonal Communication Training
People react to conflict with violence (yelling and placing blame) and silence (agreeing with things they don’t agree with and shutting down communication).
Managers create a safe environment for communicating by determining the facts and focusing on the common goals. WEEK 3 Report progress from week two concepts and address concerns
Employees’ Involvement on Daily Tasks
Employees should be involved in defining tasks. This creates trust and engages employees.
Have employees create written procedures on tasks. All employees should review those documents.
Employees need to be trained on the procedures. The procedural documents should be placed in a visible area with open access for all employees. * Regular Management Meetings
All team members should attend.
Discussion topics should include company initiatives, accomplishments, and the status of current programs.WEEK 4
Report progress from week three concepts, and address concerns
Analyzing, interpreting, and managing personal internal conflict.
Centering thoughts and emotions through meditation.
Listen first, respond second.
Document and discuss analysis.
Minimize mental clutter through organizing your environment. WEEK 5
Report progress from week four concepts, and address concerns

Once again, effective conflict management prevents differences from becoming destructive elements in a project, on a team, or within an organization.By completing this Conflict Management training and implementing the tools learned, your managers will significantly decrease the amount of conflict he or she must deal with on a daily basis. No company can dispute the importance of effective conflict management within their organization.
The positive impact your company will realize from the training will include:

Increased productivity, lower turn-over
Higher morale
Less Conflict
Improves positive behavior
Increased cohesiveness
Teams who work as a single unit
Reduces differences

Conflict Professionals bring our experience and knowledge to your company at a competitive price. The program cost will be quickly absorbed by the increased profits attained from having a happier, more productive team. The cost for the five-week course is only $500 per person.
Combined, Conflict Professionals have over 80 years of experience resolving conflict. The knowledge and tools we bring to your company will provide immeasurable rewards for your company. We have helped hundreds of companies achieve their full potential. We can do the same for you. Call Today.References Santosh Karkhanis. 30 August 2010). Conflict Management.
Retrieved from:  Session 5. Conflict Management. Retrieved from: http://www. fao. org/docrep/w7504e/w7504e07. htm Workplace Conflict. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Retrieved from:  http://en. wikipedia. org/w/index. php? title=Workplace_conflict&printable=yes William King. (2010).  Some Managerial Actions That May Cause Workplace Conflicts. Ezine Articles.
Retrieved from: http://ezinearticles. com/? Some-Managerial-Actions-That-May-Cause-Conflicts.

Conflict Management in the Workplace

Crisis Management, Conflict Management and Negotiation

Crisis Management, Conflict Management and Negotiation.
As people interact within the organization, differences occur. The management must acquire skills to solve the differences to avoid failure of the existing systems. Conflicts happen when individuals have different interests within the organization. The management of conflicts requires proper strategies to create harmony between the conflicting parties. Conflict management is a process and the management should establish clear strategies to carry out the activity in a procedural manner. The management of crisis requires establishment of proper strategies to respond quickly to issues affecting the organization.
The process of negotiation allows the parties involved establish a binding contract such that failure to fulfill the agreement creates some consequences. The essay discusses the three aspects and provides theories about them as well as establishing appropriate systems to solve problems related to the management of an organization. Examples from well known international companies have been provided to link theory about the topics with real life situations. Crisis Management This is the process by which an organization works on events that cannot be predicted and which may create a threat to the stakeholders.
For a crisis to exist, there should be potential threat that the organization faces. A short period of time is available to make decisions about the existing threat. The old systems of an organization become uneconomical to maintain and new systems must be introduced to solve the problems facing the organization. Crisis management deals with transforming the existing systems of the organization to create better systems within a short period of time (Wittenberg, pg. 121). Organizations may be affected by crisis at time and the management should be prepared to solve such incidences.

Several companies have been affected by different crisis and the ability of the management to solve such crisis has determined the ability of the organizations to overcome them. Examples of companies which have been affected by crisis in the recent past are Chrysler, Wal-Mart, Smithfield Hog Company, Microsoft and others. Any company can be affected by a crisis since there is no organization which is free from such incidences. The types of crisis are strikes, boycotts, employee misconduct, environmental crisis, and others. Crisis affects the reputation of the company and may lead to poor image of the company in the global markets.
The management has an obligation to ensure all activities are maintained to avoid crisis from affecting the operations of the company (Hogue, Para. 1). Crisis affects the profits acquired by the organization. Wal-Mart Company, for example, has been affected by a crisis over its employee management strategies. The organization has encountered poor relationship between the management and their subordinates. This has resulted into poor customer relations. The employees claim that the management provides poor work environment such as low wages, restrictions to form trade unions among others.
This crisis has affected the reputation of the company and the management has adopted the strategy of reducing prices of the products sold by the company. The management has also established a system of solving the problems facing the employees. However, despite the increasing efforts to solve the problem, the organization continues to encounter a major challenge about its human resources management strategies (Hogue, Para. 2). Crisis management requires the organization to plan ahead and to establish adequate measures. The management should create a system of dealing with the crisis before it occurs.
Since there is little time to act on the crisis, adequate preparations should be established to enable the organization deal with them when they occur. Many organizations have created a system of dealing with crisis since failure to solve the crisis in the specified time may create harm to the organization (Hogue, Para. 4). According to Hogue (2001, Para. 4) the organizations “spell out the who, what, when, where and how the company should deal with the crises. The plans produce the materials necessary ahead of time so that the missing information is simply inserted and the materials are ready to go.
” The materials required to be prepared before the crisis occurs are official statements, press release, and others (Wittenberg, pg. 125). The management should provide adequate resources for dealing with crisis. This provides preparedness before a crisis strikes the organization. Apple Company is an example of a company which has created strategies of dealing with crisis. The management has created a culture which allows innovation about the products. The company has established a research and development team which deals with issues affecting the organization.
The management allows the employees provide innovative products to capture the competition in the market. Under the leadership of Steve Jobs, the company has become very successful in creating strategies which help the company solve problems which may be encountered. To solve the increasing competition in the global markets for personal computers, the company has manufactured differentiated products which match the demand in the market. A dispute resolution committee exists which provides strategies of solving and managing conflicts within the organization (Graves, pg. 358). Conflict Management
This is the process through which people and organizations handle grievances which occur during the daily operations within the workplace. Difference in ideologies and interests causes conflicts between people and may cause failure in the activities of the organization if not properly monitored. The organization has goals which it intends to achieve within a specific period of time. The individuals working within the organization have their personal goals which they seek to fulfill. When the personal goals over-rule the organizational goals conflicts occur and this may affect the achievement of the organizational goals.
The management has a role to create an environment which allows for a better management of the conflicts to prevent failure of the organizational goals (Henry and Borje pg. 92). Conflicts are inevitable and the management should be prepared to handle conflicts within the organization. Conflicts occur due to the different opinions that people have. The management should have the skills to recognize conflicts at an early stage to prevent them from causing total failure to the organization. To reduce the effects of conflicts, the management can minimize, divert or resolve them (Richard, pg.
146). Conflicts can be caused by poor communication which causes lack of understanding between the people working in an organization. As people seek power they may cause conflicts since not all individuals are satisfied by the personal interests of others. The management style can cause conflicts when there are different opinions between the management and the employees. The management can create conflict when it applies poor styles of managing the resources within the organization. Lack of openness in the organization causes conflicts since people fail to understand each other.
Abrupt changes in leadership causes conflicts. People are opposed to change and they will not accept changes which are poorly communicated. When the leadership changes occur, the members of the organization tend to reject new leaders since they do not understand them (Henry and Borje pg. 35). Apple Inc is an example of a company which has created an efficient conflict management system. The management of the company has established a culture of leadership, risk taking and others. The management of the company resolves conflicts among its stakeholders by creating a conflict resolution team (Graves, pg.
358). Negotiation This is the formal process through which people under conflicts use to resolve their differences and avoid future conflicts. Negotiation can also be used to create an agreement between two parties to enact a common goal which may be beneficial to all parties. The process of negotiation involves two or more parties who are involved in a dispute. When the parties fail to come up with a better solution, a third party may set in to act as a mediator. The parties establish a binding agreement which provides them with a give and take process (Lens, para.
9) During negotiation process, all parties must adhere to the professional ethics. The parties must take time to establish an agreement. The purpose and objectives of the negotiations should be defined to establish a proper goal before the process starts. Communication should be enhanced by creating an environment which enhances free exchange of ideas. A written contract should be established to create a formal process of dealing with the situation. Clarification to the ideas suggested should be allowed so that all parties can feel free to exchange ideas.
Legal tools should be applied to ensure the contract is binding to all parties involved in the negotiation process. Parties should be free to ask questions during the discussion (Lens, para. 14) Negotiations take a formal or an informal process. The management lays down the procedures to be followed when negotiating. The procedures for negotiations should be well laid down by the parties involved. The use of mediators is applied when the parties do not agree upon the required solution. The management of conflicts within the organization deals with establishing negotiations.
The parties involved in a conflict are brought together to create a common understanding. Negotiations involve creating a proper system of activities and re-establishing the normal performance of activities. The management has a great role in creating a proper environment which enhances the parties to discuss their differences appropriately (Lens, para. 23). An example of a negotiation process is observed in the conflicts between Daimler AG and Chrysler LLC. The two companies established a merger to expand their operations in the global markets.
However, the cultural conflicts between the employees of the two companies resulted into failure of the merger. The two companies failed in their efforts to negotiate over the issues which were affecting the merger. The cultural differences were brought about by the different management strategies which caused differences among the employees and the management. Daimler AG is based in Germany and manufactures automobile products which it markets in the international markets. Chrysler LLC is located in the United States and has experienced a turbulent path towards establishment of a better position in the global markets.
The employees from the two companies had cultural ideologies which were different. This created a lot of conflicts and the management failed to solve the problems early enough before they went out of control. Daimler separated itself from the merger. Chrysler continues to experience problems with its management. Negotiations to solve the problem failed since the management from the two companies failed to establish proper strategies to solve the problems affecting the merger (Badrtalei, Jeff, and Bates, pg. 362). Conclusion
Differences in opinions occur within the organization and this causes conflicts. Communication is the best tool to solve conflicts which occur within the organization since people understand each other by communicating their opinions. Crisis management requires the management to make plans to handle a crisis that may affect the organization at a future date. The management must create systems of handling the crisis when it occurs. Negotiations are done to create a common understanding about the systems of the organization. It is a process where two parties under conflict take to solve their grievances.
A formal contract is established to ensure the parties abide by the agreement made. The failure of the merger between Daimler and Chrysler companies was caused by poor negotiation process between the management of the two companies. The cultural conflicts between the employees from the two companies caused the failure of the merger. Apple has been successful in managing crisis. The management has established several strategies to deal with the crisis which may affect the company. Through research and development, the company identifies the possible conflicts, crisis and problems which may be encountered.
The management has been very successful in the utilization of technology in the operations of the company. Work cited Badrtalei, Jeff, and Donald L. Bates. “Effect of Organizational Cultures on Mergers and Acquisitions: the Case of Daimlerchrysler. ” International Journal of Management 24. 2 (2007): 303+. Questia. Web. 2 June 2010. Graves, Scott E. “The Free Flow of (Digital) Information: the Apple Computer Case. ” Justice System Journal 27. 3 (2006): 345+. Questia. Web. 2 June 2010. Henry P Knowles; and Borje O Saxberg. Personality and leadership behavior. Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co. 1971.
Chapter 8. Hogue, Jennifer. What is Crisis Management? 4/19/01. Retrieved 2 June 2010 from; <Http://iml. jou. ufl. edu/projects/Spring01/Hogue/crisismanagement. html. > Lens, Vicki. “Principled Negotiation: A New Tool for Case Advocacy. ” Social Work 49. 3 (2004): 506+. Questia. Web. 2 June 2010. Richard A. Johnson. Management, systems, and society: an introduction. Pacific Palisades, Calif. : Goodyear Pub. Co.. 1976. pp. 148–142. ISBN 0876205406 9780876205402. OCLC 2299496. Wittenberg, Peter M. “Selective Balance and Crisis Management. ” Corrections Today July 1996: 92+. Questia. Web. 2 June 2010.

Crisis Management, Conflict Management and Negotiation