The Use of Computers Should Be Restricted

The Use of Computers Should Be Restricted.
Some people think that the use of computers should be restricted. Agree and disagree? Being invented in technology revolution, computers play an essential role in our daily life. Despite of its advantages, computers have negative effects. To be frank, I strongly agree that the use of computers should be limited. There are numerous reasons why I hold my points of view on this issue and I would like to explore only a few primary ones in this essay. The first drawback I would like to talk about is that computers make people waste time instead of doing useful things.
Nobody can deny that computers bring about a variety of benefits for our life, with the help of computer our work become easier and more effective. On the other hand, computers can make students neglect their studies. They can spend so many hours on computer games or social network that they have no time for their studies, or even when they are being in class, they may not pay attention to the lesson. One thing which is equally important is that using computer too much, people are certainly harm to their health.
Gazing at a screen of a computer, people easily have eye strain without suitable relaxing. Furthermore, electro-magnetic waves from computers affect people’s nervous systems, which is the reason why people have headache after using computer for a long time. Sitting one place and lacking of doing exercise due to computers, osteoarthritis and obesity are the serious diseases people may deal with. Finally, computers may affect people’s thoughts and characteristics. Using computer too much make people lazy instead of doing useful things such as doing housework, playing sports.

In addition, people approach bad information such as violent actions, sexual videos when they have access to the Internet. This fact can lead people’s attitudes and behaviors to become bad. Otherwise, computers make people can not build their confidence when they get into reality. Using social network limit people to have face-to-face relationships and improve communication skills From what has been said above, I may come to the conclusion that people should restrict using computers. To minimise these drawbacks of computers stated above, people should have a detail plan or purpose to use it

The Use of Computers Should Be Restricted

Human Computer Interaction

Human Computer Interaction.
This system will allow a user to directly pay for their food with a queue number that is created by the system. We created a system that is easy to be understood by the user and is more practical to use. Ill. We made this assignment with a few stages, as follows: First: The user must choose what language will be used to select the food in our restaurant, we provide two languages are English and Indonesian. After selecting the engage the user can choose a Vegetarian menu or Non Vegetarian menu.
Then if the customer chose the Vegetarian menu Vegetarian menu list will be displayed, as well as for Non Vegetarian menu. Second: Users only need to choose the desired food and beverages. After the costumer have chosen their desired food, the list of names and food prices will be displayed on payout table on the left screen. If the user wants to change the food menu to be ordered then select the name of the food that want canceled then press the symbol on the right price.
Third: If the list of foods that ordered the user is correct press the “ORDER”, then select payment by cash or credit card. After completion of the selection of the payment method, the user selects the “K” and the memorandum of the payment will come out automatically. From the stage we give the conclusion that this view has the initial appearance, vegetarian and non-vegetarian menu and a menu of payment and this will make the user or customer order food easily and is equipped with a menu display “HELP” which will help users who are confused using the drive-thru this.

Human Computer Interaction

Computer and Enrollment

Computer and Enrollment.
Chapter I: Background of the Study Introduction The technology todays plays a vital role in our society. It makes man work easier and fast. The discovery of computer was the great function of modernity for different to make work easier, more capable and more adaptable for the humanity. This desire to simplify lives and perform more effectively creates a new technology for improving lives within our society. Because need exist, man developed and applied technology to fill those needs. Technology is one of the tools to solved man’s craving for their needs.
It made the man more efficient for students and provide path to communicate to entire earth. Many manual transactions can be computerized by using software application or computer system to make work easier and efficient. Information technology can give a company ready access to improve product and service quality, reduce costs, increase productivity in smallest time possible, and communication between employees and to make things with lesser effort but having better output and even improve quality. Computerization is a control system that manages processes in industrial workplace.
It reduced human errors and processing time, thus it can boost productivity and resulted into high quality of product produce. In Information System, computerization is concerned about interrelating different but interdependent transactions. This can result in a system with well-integrated processes that can perform much faster and more accurate than a manual system. Enrollment is the process of entering and verifying data of student to register on a particular school. Different interrelated processes build up enrollment procedures called Enrollment System.

Enrollment System is used particularly in recording and retrieving students’ information. Tracking students’ information is also one feature of Enrollment System, in which the school can trace the standing of a student. Verifying payments was also added to update or browse students’ billings. Enrollment System is a good example of a computer generated process. This can lessen the workload and provides accurate information needed of the school. As a result, it will benefit not only the student but the administration as a whole.
The system design project, Enrollment System that will provide the needed and storing information in a faster,   more convenient way by storing file of the student enrollees in a computer system that will lessen the effort of faculty staff in storing files of each student every now and then. This will also serve as information especially for the irregular students, freshmen, transferee, and professor in able to get access in course, subject, professor, and student enrollees. This information here can be viewed in just a second without worrying that a single file is lost.
The idea behind a enrollment system is not a new concept. As student enrollees increase every year, enrollment procedure become harder to deal. This will only serve to increase the problem facing enrollment that provides more easy way in enrolling. A computer based system is a system in which the computer plays a major role and this kind of system is needed by every companies and institutions nowadays. This is the best way of storing and retrieving data on a server or hard disk rather than using papers and file cabinets.
This will also be a big help to all the enrollment staff especially under the computer department because they are the one who are entitled to touch and read the information from here. It will help our institution to have another system that will upgrade the enrollment processes so as to meet the quality that our institutions are trying to meet. This study is to know if Computerization is very much in need in Enrollment System of Montessori Professional College. We conducted reserches and survey to get information from the student to know what does computerization can give to improve this institution. Significance of the Study
This study aimed impart to the mind of the readers the importance of the technolgy in an institution. The advantages and disadvantages ofusing this extra-ordinary creation of man. How the students and employee will respond if this computerization will be implemented. The reason why the researchers conduct this study is because of the reason that many of students having difficulty in enrolling because of Manual Operation Enrollment in Montessori Professional College. This study will may be a references from the administration to implent or not the Computerization Enrollment System. To avoid some conflict to the students nd administration the survey we prepared have no means of any identifacation, and the actual Survey Report will be kept secretly by the reserachers. After this study, we will determined how the students will respond to the Computerization, the current experiences encountered by the students in Montessori Professional College while enrolling, the comment of the employee regarding this proposal. The actual percentage of the agree and disagree students to the survey conducted. This study also serves as a references in Administration of Montessori Professional College to change the current Enrollment System.. . Defnition of Terms
Computer-is a general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a finite set of arithmetic or logical operations. Since a sequence of operations can be readily changed, the computer can solve more than one kind of problem. Manual Operation- Any processing operation performed by hand. Computerized- To furnish with a computer or computer system. To enter, process, or store (information) in a computer or system of computers. Institution- is any structure or mechanism of social order and cooperation governing the behaviorof a set of individuals within a given community — may it be human or a specific animal one.
Institutions are identified with a social purpose, transcending individuals and intentions by mediating the rules that govern cooperative living behavior. Enrollment- The act or process of enrolling, The act or process of enrolling, A record or an entry. System- is a set of interacting or interdependent components forming an integrated whole or a set of elements  and relationshipswhich are different from relationships of the set or its elements to other elements or sets. Boredom-is an emotional state experienced when an individual is left without anything in particular to do, and not interested in their surroundings.
Administration- The act or process of administering, especially the management of a government or large institution. The activity of a government or state in the exercise of its powers and duties. Students- is a learner, or someone who attends an educational institution. In some nations, the English term is reserved for those who attend university, while a schoolchild under the age of eighteen is called a pupil in English . In its widest use, student is used for anyone who is learning.
Employee- A person who is hired to provide services to a company on a regular basis in exchange for compensation and who does not provide these services as part of an independent business. Survey- A detailed study of a market or geographical area to gather data on attitudes, impressions, opinions, satisfaction level, etc. , by polling a section of the population. Research- is formal work undertaken systematically to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications CHAPTER II: Project Description Statement of the Problem 1.
How does Manual Operation in Enrollment affect the Institution’s image to the students? 2. What was the advantages and disadvantages of using Manual Operation in Enrollment? 3. In Montessori Professional College, does Manual Operation in Enrollment was still effective? 4. What was the advatages and disadvantages of Computerization of Enrollment System? 5. How will Computerized Enrollment System affect Montessori College System? 6. Would the student agree if the administration apply this new system in Montessori Professional College? 7. If Computerized Enrollment System will be implemented, how will the employee respond to the new system?
Proposed Research Project Scope and Dilimitation Out of all the students in Montessori Professional College, 50 students were randomly selected to be used as a sample in conducting survey about the curent Enrollment System. This study limits only to those who were studying in MPC. Its main purpose is to determined the comment of the students with regard to the existing system. The advantages and disanvantages of Manual and Computerized Enrollment System. This study considers every aspect of students personal information that has an impact on their academic performances as their educational background, allowance, gender and age.
Each of the respondents are given same questionnaire to answer. And this study focuses on the current student of the present academic year 2012 – 2013. General Objectives This study was aiming to impart to the mind of the reader the importance of innovation in an Institution. Specific Objectives This study aims to create an idea for the current Adminstration of Montessori Professional College to change the old system of the enrollment as a demand of students to lessen the work but with greater payoff. Scope and Limitation Cases Study on Computerized Enrollment System A computerized enrollment system is a multi-function processing operation.
Computerization of enrollment information interrelates different yet interdependent transactions in a systematized and functional way. The use of computerized enrollment systems by organizations to help coordinate people and information is increasing throughout the world. Many experts cite numerous reasons why computerized  enrollment systems are viable choices for schools, training programs and workplace operations. Educational institutions, such as colleges and grade schools, are assessed for a case study. Computerized enrollment systems for educational services and training programs reduce processing time and human errors.
Online automated systems, which accept and organize enrollee information, can boost productivity. Systems operations proceed faster, more efficiently and with greater accuracy than manual enrollment systems. Programs are comprehensive and capable of handling all interrelated processes, including: completion of all related forms; development, organization and maintenance of files; creation of master lists and other special reports; fee assessments and balances; departmentalized accounts receivable reports; class schedules; and record updates.
Computer generated enrollment solutions afford students choices like options for payment 24/7 that can benefit the whole operation. Systems typically include data protection and backup frameworks. Student enrollees have access to their personal information only. School personnel are able to keep up with teacher and student photos, grade point averages and other pertinent identification data, such as grades, quizzes and any other modules that are considered necessary for efficient administration.
Modifications in school policies and requirements are easily edited online. Career guidance and evaluations are facilitated and traceable. What the online enrollment program effectively amounts to is a self-service, on-demand student and administrator friendly guide and process optimizer. Employee workload is decreased and administrators can spend more time giving students more personalized attention and encouragement. Also, the enrollment system is compatible with mobile app versions for students and school staff. In Philippine Setting

Computer and Enrollment

How Has Computer Hacking Interfered Modern Society Essay

How Has Computer Hacking Interfered Modern Society Essay.
How has computing machine choping inferred modern society? In this transition I will be speaking briefly about the basicss of computing machine choping from the yesteryear to the present. Computer hacking has changed more over clip ensuing in computing machine outgrowths to corporate system closures. This research paper will be speaking about three major parts of computing machine hacking. The first construct of hacking is the beginning of creative activity. The following portion will be how hacking has affect on the contemporary society.
Finally. the last piece of information will be traveling over the hereafter of system choping. What is a drudge you may inquire your ego but non hold an reply or one word phrase for the term? A drudge has ever been a sort of cutoff or alteration. a manner to short-circuit or make over the standard operation of an object or system. The first computing machine hackers emerge at MIT. They borrow their name from a term to depict members of a theoretical account train group at the school who hack the electric trains. paths. and switches to do them execute faster and otherwise.
A few of the members transfer their wonder and set uping accomplishments to the new mainframe calculating systems being studied and developed on campus. Choping groups begin to organize. Among the first are Legion of Doom in the United States. and Chaos Computer Club in Germany. The film “War Games” introduces the populace to choping. A computing machine hacker intends to destroy concerns executing an act much more unprincipled than an enthusiastic life scientist ‘hacking’ off at work or theory. The truth is that computing machine hacking is in fact easy in the general sense. but more consideration must be given.

Some facets of choping are used in mundane life and you may non cognize that accessing wireless cyberspace from another person’s history is considered wireless choping even though your adoption there connexion. During the 1970’s. a different sort of hacker appeared: the phreaks or phone hackers. They learned ways to chop the telephonic system and do phone calls for free. Within these group of people. a phreaker became celebrated because a simple find. John Draper. besides known as Captain Crunch. found that he could do long distance calls with a whistling.
He built a blue box that could make this and the Esquire magazine published an article on how to construct them. Fascinated by this find. two childs. Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs. decided to sell these bluish boxes. get downing a concern friendly relationship which resulted in the initiation of Apple. By the 1980’s. phreaks started to migrate to computing machines. and the first Bulletin Board Systems ( BBS ) appeared. BBS are like the yokel groups of today. were people posted messages on any sort of subject.
The BBS used by hackers specialized in tips on how to interrupt into computing machines. how to utilize stolen recognition card Numberss and portion stolen computing machine watchwords. It wasn’t until 1986 that the U. S. authorities realized the danger that hackers represented to the national security. As a manner to antagonize this threat. the Congress passed the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. doing computing machine interrupting a offense across the state. During the 1990’s. when the usage of the cyberspace became widespread around the universe. hackers multiplied. but it wasn’t until the terminal of the decennary that system’s security became mainstream among the populace.
Today. we are accustomed to hackers. crackers. viruses. Trojans. worms and all of the techniques we need to follow to battle them. Hackers were classified into three unusual types the first class is called In-house hacker. In-house hacker is an employee who is responsible for operating and keeping the system. who interacts instantly with the system as a coder or informations entry employee and is cognizant of all the system security capablenesss and spreads. He and should be the guard of the system but for different motives he hacks the system and gets what he needs bewraying all the trust given to him.
The 2nd type is called ace hacker who doesn’t interact with the system but at the same clip proctors the system on day-to-day footing and has an oculus on what is traveling on and what type of informations is entered at what clip so depending on the entries he decides the minute he should acquire these information and recover them for personal motives while the 3rd type is called professional hacker and this hacker is really strong and capable of acquiring any type of informations. he has the ability of carrying the user or the operator to supply him with the needed information by programming fast ones or user friendly screens and this sort of hackers frequently gets alone preparation specially when being used in military undertakings as what happened in the cold war.
Thesiss are merely brief ways hackers have impacted the modern universe we all live in. Within the past twelvemonth at that place have been two major instances right in the country. Both involve extended harm. and both are presently in tribunal. The closest instance is that of Thomas Crandall. otherwise known as St. Elmo’s Fire. Crandall is accused of estroying attending and subject records in a computing machine at Central Technical and Vocational Center. Police charge that Crandall used a personal computing machine at his place to entree the computing machine. He is besides accused of making $ 25. 000 in harm to files at Waste Management Inc. of Oakbrook. Ill. Crandall’s lawyer claims that many other pupils besides had entree to the computing machine. and that to individual out Crandall in unjust. Hackers are responsible of the immense development in computing machine and cyberspace engineering. but these yearss we consider them as stealers and interlopers who penetrated our ain privateness and used the accomplishments they were buttockss for their ain benefit.
Hackers have different sentiments and motives. However. they all portion the spirit of challenge and ever seeking to turn out their capablenesss of making what all believe is impossible possibly because they were mistreated. or uncertainties surrounded their abilities and past accomplishments. Hackers believe that information should be shared and they fight against information owning. Effectss that choping caused and still doing to the society can’t be ignored. Hacking nowadays is taking new stages and the danger is increasing because we are now populating in a society that runs by ICT. and any onslaught to the ICT particularly in advanced states will do critical effects.
ICT still lacks a powerful security tools that are capable of tracking. catching hackers. and protecting computing machine systems from their onslaughts. My ain position is that the best manner to protect ICT from hackers is to analyze their psychological science and seek to understand their manner of thought. because hackers are human existences. who have two sides ; evil and good. and they used to demo their good side but all of a sudden they turned to be evil. The grounds which caused the transmutation from good to evil persons should be studied and given the highest precedence in the war against hackers because since we put our custodies on the cause. we can repair it to make for better effects.
Peoples can grocery store. earn grades. receive bank statements and pay measures from their laptop or Personal computer. The possibilities are endless when it comes to simplifying life with the aid of the World Wide Web. but at the same clip possibilities are eternal hackers to perplex your life with cyber offenses. The Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines a hacker as both “an expert at programming and work outing jobs with a computer” and “a individual who illicitly additions entree to and sometimes tamping bars with information in a computing machine system. ” Those three grounds I have stated above were the hackings past present and future. Until engineering Michigans turning the possibility of hackers is limited less.

How Has Computer Hacking Interfered Modern Society Essay

Essential Parts of Computer and How It Works

Essential Parts of Computer and How It Works.
Contents II. Introduction2 III. Computers2 A. CPU2 B. Memory storage3 1. Primary storage3 2. Secondary storage4 C. Peripherals8 1. Ink-jets (bubble-jets) printers8 2. Laserjet printers9 IV. Connecting To Internet10 V. Conclusion12 VI. Reference List13 * Introduction Nowadays, running business in 20th century means that you got to be clever about technology. When companies are striving for higher achievements and more-efficient workability, innovation is what everyone craving for. That’s the spot where technology shoots. Computer is one essential breed of our modern technology.
However, while the majority of people know how to use computer, they don’t know how the machine works; the technical stuff. It becomes a problem when the technical stuff got broken and almost everybody does not get a clue. To improve our business means that we need to improve our consciousness to computer itself. So, with this guide, I hope we can understand the system of our computer, not just by its advantages, but by its personality too. Enjoy a new relationship with your computer. Computers For this matter, these are some of essential parts from computer that support its function A.
Central Processing Unit (CPU) B. Storage devices C. Peripherals CPU Central Processing Unit (CPU), or called as processor, is the central part of computer, which accepts and processes data into information and maintaining its system (Gilster, 2000). In comparison, a brain to human is the same for CPU to computer. It stabilizes and ensuring computer to run normal. Moursund (1978) says that CPU consists of two units: control unit and arithmetic/logic unit. The control unit gives instructions to the system for executing programs. The control unit doesn’t do the tasks, but just giving orders to other units to do its jobs.

The arithmetic/logic unit execute arithmetic and mathematical equations in the system, like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. To work in a constant and stabile period of time, CPU uses a small quartz crystal called the clock system (Shelly, Cashman, Vermaat, 2008). The system clock produces electronic pulses, or ticks, that set the operating period to the components of the system unit. The clock system speed is measured by the number of ticks per second or Hertz unit. Hertz (Hz) is the measurement of speed in data processing. The faster the clock speed, the more instructions the processor can execute per second.
For usage in our computer schools, there are two brand options, AMD & Intel. AMD’s Athlon X2 Dual Core, and Intel’s Pentium D 925, both of them have 3 GHz clock speeds which are compatible for our student’s needs in computer. I recommend Intel’s for our school since it has lower price than AMD. AMD has lower heat though in its operation, but this problem can be maintained by putting a fine working fan to cool the processor. Memory storage Extra There are terms of measure we need to know that used in byte (B) and hertz (Hz). They are: 1 Kilo (KB/ KHz) = 1000 (B/Hz) 1 Mega (MB/MHz) = 1000 Kilo = 1,000,000 (B/Hz) Giga (GB/GHz) = 1,000,000 = 1,000,000,000 (B/Hz) 1 Tera (TB/THz) = 1000 Giga = 1,000,000 Mega = 1,000,000,000 Kilo = 1000,000,000,000 (B/Hz) (Shelly et al. , 2008) Memory storage is the place where computer store all data and information in the machine. To measure memory storage, we use Byte unit. Byte is the measurement of space, determines the quantity of data that memory can save. There are two kinds of memory storage: primary storage & secondary storage. Primary storage RAM Random Access Memory (RAM), is used to open up programs, images, or any details when the computer is on.
Its function is to accelerate the speed of processing programs. When the computer is off, the memory loses its data too and will be restarting when the computer is on again. That’s why RAM also called as temporary memory (Stokes, 2008). ROM Read-Only Memory (ROM) is used to store essential programs for computer, such as system operation (Smith, 2011). Data in ROMs cannot be changed again or written, unless for some types of ROM like EPROM (erasable programme read-only memory) or using some technique like exposing ROM to sunlight. Cache Cache located between CPU and RAM.
It is a high-speed memory that accelerates CPU to exchange information from RAM (Shelly, et al, 2008). Cache works in a frequently accessible files and programs in the computer so it can be processed in shorter time. For example, a secretary’s computer which used for typing a lot will have its word-processing program opened faster than the other staffs’ computer. Secondary storage * Stokes (2008) states that secondary storage is used for saving files and information in the matter of capacity. When programs are installed into the computer or files are inserted, secondary memory is the place where all the stuffs are put into.
It gives information about how much computer can store data in its system. Files, programs, and other stuffs that put in secondary storage are saved permanently in the system. So, when the computer is off, the stuffs will stay at the same state and condition without having any lost parts. Picture 2. 1 Secondary storage works like cloth drawers for computers. As long as there is a space, it is fine to put more things. Image source: http://corriehaffly. wordpress. com There are various forms of secondary storage. Some attached in CPU and some is separated from computer.
These are the kinds of it. Hard Disk Picture 2. 2 Physical appearance of a hard disk. Image source: http://www. pcguide. com A hard disk is a metal platter coated with magnetic oxide that can be magnetized to represent data (Shelly, et al, 2008). The large disk has top side and bottom side which used for recording and storing data in computer. To be used, hard disk must be attached in computer. Optical Disc Picture 2. 3 Physical appearance of optical disc. Image source: http://www. digitalmatrix. us An optical disc is a flat, round, portable, disc made of metal, plastic, and lacquer.
These discs usually have 4. 75 inches in diameter and less than one-twentieth of an inch thick (Shelly, et al, 2008). Optical disc commonly used for storing music, pictures, or programs depend on its capacity. There are many types of optical discs. Some types can be used for reading and recording files in it, some can only be used for read. CD-ROM A CD-ROM (Compact Disc Read-Only Memory), is a type of optical disc that can only be used for read the files in it (Shelly, et al. , 2008). The disc’s content cannot be write-able or erase-able anymore.
A typical CD-ROM has capacity from 650 MB to 1 GB of data, instructions, and information. To read a CD-ROM, you can use CD-ROM drive or CD-ROM player. Commonly, CD-ROM is used in licensed application, programs, music albums, or encyclopaedias so it cannot be pirated. CD-R and CD-RW A CD-R (Compact Disc Recordable) is a multisession optical disc which users can write, but cannot erase the items in it, like text, graphic, or audio. Multisession means you can write on part of the disc one time and another part at a later time (Shelly, et al. , 2008). Write in this term means to record files.
A CD-R can only be written once and the content cannot be erased. To write and read a CD-R, you need a CD-R drive. DVD-ROM and DVD-R A DVD-ROM (Digital Versatile Disc Read-Only Memory or Digital Video Disc Read-Only Memory) is a high capacity optical disc on which users can read but not write or erase (Shelly, et al. , 2008). To read a DVD-ROM, you need DVD-ROM software. DVD-R has the same characteristic as CD-R, only with bigger capacity. DVDs usually has 4 GB capacity. Flash Memory Picture 2. 4 Physical appearance of flash memory. Image source: http://techcrunch. com
Flash memory is a small, portable stick which implanted electrical chips that used to store files in computer (Shelly, et al. , 2008). Its size is none bigger than adult human thumb. It connects to a computer via an USB port. Its files can be read and written in multiple times. Flash memory has various capacities, from 256 MB until 32 GB are available in stores. Peripherals Peripherals are electronic devices that support computer functions to more useful and understandable (Gilster, 2000). Peripherals commonly consist of computer screen, speaker, printer, keyboard, and mouse.
Each device is connected through port cables that inserted into CPU ports. In this handout, I would like to discuss the function of printer itself. Since it is a primary office need, so it is nice to know and be aware for this machine. Printer is an electronic device that used for printing images and texts in computer file, usually using papers as its medium (Gilster, 2000). There are many types of printers which available in the market and usually used for business and office work. Ink-jets (bubble-jets) printers Picture 3. 1 Bubble jet printer. Image source: http://www. inkjet-laser. com
Ink-jet printer sprays ionized tiny inks on the paper. The printing pattern is organized by using magnetized plates in printer (Shelly et al. , 2008). It can produce high quality images that frequently used for photography. There are models that designed to black and white (B/W) colour printings too. Laserjet printers Picture 3. 2 Laser printer. Image source: http://www. hypercup. org Laser printers works by using lasers that melts powdered inks in cartridges, then the ink putted on a paper by desired pattern (Shelly et al. , 2008). Photocopy services usually use this type due to its fast process.
Here are the comparisons of bubble jet printer and laser printers as shown below. Ink-jet Printer| Laserjet Printer| 1. Print by spraying inks into paper, which makes the ink is more liquid on paper. If the paper is touched or get heated, the ink can melt and smear the paper| 1. Print by heated powdered inks with laser. The ink is fast to dry. | 2. Printing process are quiet and does not cause any mechanical noise| 2. Printing process causes mechanical noise. | 3. Many models come in portable sizes, which are suitable for home and personal use that do not demand frequent printing. 3. There are portable sizes and large sizes. Portable size are suitable for home and personal use, while large sizes are suitable for office or business use that demands frequent printing. | 4. The quality of printing can be adjusted for faster printing process| 4. The quality of printing cannot be adjusted| Ink-jet Printer vs. Laser Jet Printer (Frost, 2010) Connecting To Internet To obtain much information, internet is always helpful for providing sources anywhere and anytime. Connecting our computer to internet means that open the access of our computer through signals.
To make it do so, computers are needed to be included in a network. Network is a group of computers and devices that connected together through communication devices and transmission media (Sosinsky, 2009). It is used in houses, cafes, libraries, or offices for many purposes, even for personal or business purposes. The ability of network allows people to communicate through each other (in verbal or in visual), sharing files, transfer money, etc. As Sosinsky (2009) states, network’s patterns are divided into two categories: client/server and peer-to-peer. 1. Client/server
One computer works as a server, then the other computers or devices in network work as client. A server controls access to the hardware, software, and other resources in network. It makes a server the centre storage of programs, data, and information. The clients are other computers and devices that rely on a server for its resources. 2. Peer-to-peer Peer-to-peer system is like two friends sharing stories to each other. One has useful information that the other one did not know, and vice-versa. In this network, each computer, called a peer, has different responsibility and capability, sharing hardware (e. printer), data, or information with other computers. Each computer has its files in own storage, but also have the same operating system and application software that allows them to connected to each other. For creating networks, computers need some equipment to make them connected through each other. Here are some services which make our computer available to internet. 1. Dial-Up Modems Dial-up modems are working by using telephone devices. When a computer connects to internet, computer transmits digital signals which converted into analog signal then it is transmitted over standard telephone lines (Shelly, et al. 2008). The internet speed is up to 56 kilobyte/second. Many people do not really interested in using dial-up modems now because it requires one telephone lines for working and other services have faster speed. 2. Broadband Services Broadband internet is a high-speed internet that connected through a wire (Shelly, et al. , 2008). Broadband internet services are provided through vary methods. Some known methods are: a) DSL (digital subscriber line), using telephone lines but does not interfere telephone connection; b) A cable modem that uses cable television network ) A Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity) network uses radio signals to provide internet connection to computers and devices. Conclusion CPU plays the part of accepting data and processed it into relevant and understandable information based on logic and arithmetic way of work. Data and information that has been processed comes in the shape of programs and files. The computer’s program and files are kept in memory storage. Some memory storage attached in computer, like hard disks, RAMs, ROMs, Registers, and Caches. Some are separated from computer for its portability, like optical discs and thumb drives.
Printers are machines that used for printing and photocopying documents and images in computer. This can be used for printing in colour and black/white printings. Connecting computer to internet means to put it into a network. In a network, computer users can obtain information from many other sources and communicate with other computer users. Internet can be accessible through these two services, dial-up modem and broadband internet services. Through this guide, I delighted if you feel informed and become more common to computers. Knowing new things means to get to you into new insights.
I hope the knowledge you read here can be useful for now and the future. Reference List Cashman, T. J. , Shelly, G. B. & Vermaat, M. E. (2008). Discovering computers 2008 complete. Boston, Massachusetts: Thomson Course Technology. Cashman, T. J. , Shelly, G. B. & Vermaat, M. E. (2008). Discovering computers fundamentals (4th eds. ). Boston, Massachusetts: Thomson Course Technology. Frost, M. (2010). Laser vs. inkjet printers. Retrieved September 28, 2011, from http://www. ehow. com/about_5390377_laser-vs-inkjet-printers. html Gilster, R. (2001). PC hardware: a beginner’s guide. Berkeley: Osborne/McGraw-Hill Moore, C.
Laserjet vs. Inkjet. (n. d). Retrieved September 20, 2011, fromhttp://www. ehow. com/about_5327065_laserjet-vs-inkjet. html Moursund, D. G. (1978). Basic programming for computer literacy. New York: McGraw-Hill Smith, M. (2011). What is read only memory. Retrieved September 28, 2011, fromhttp://www. ehow. com/info_8751600_readonly-memory. html Sosinsky, B. (2009). Networking bible. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Stokes, A. P. (2008). Is this thing going on. New York: Workman. How computer work: the CPU and memory. (n. d). Retrieved September 19, 2011, from http://homepage. cs. uri. edu/faculty/wolfe/book/Readings/Reading04. htm

Essential Parts of Computer and How It Works

Health Hazards of Using Excessive Computers

Health Hazards of Using Excessive Computers.
Computers are very important and help us in many ways but they can also cause us problems. Some of the problems are,backache which is caused by improper sitting posture and can be prevented by sitting upright with your back resting on the backrest chair. The other problem is eye strain which can be caused by radiations emitted by the monitor and can be prevented by regulating the amount of light from the monitor and avoid using a flickering monitor. A neck ache is caused by putting the monitor above the eye level and can be avoided by positioning your monitor on the same level with your eyes.
The Risks With the increase in computer use, a number of health and safety concerns related to vision and body aches and pains have arisen. Many problems with computer use are temporary and can be resolved by adopting simple corrective action. Most problems related to computer use are completely preventable. However it is important to seek prompt medical attention if you do experience symptoms including: * continual or recurring discomfort * aches and pains * throbbing * tingling numbness * burning sensation * or stiffness Seek help even if symptoms occur when you are not working at your computer. Laptop computers can present particular problems due to small screens, keyboards and inbuilt pointing devices (e. g. a small portable mouse or touchpad). Prolonged use of laptops should be avoided. If using a laptop as a main computer (i. e. use as a normal desktop computer in addition to use as a portable), it is advisable to use the laptop with a docking station.
This allows an ordinary mouse, keyboard and monitor to be used with the laptop. The main risks associated with using computers include: * Musculoskeletal problems * Eye strain and a greater awareness of existing eye problems Rashes and other skin complaints have also been reported, although it is thought these are caused by the dry atmosphere and static electricity associated with display units rather then by the display units themselves. There are potential risks from radiation though this is a contentious area. Musculoskeletal problems

These can range from general aches and pains to more serious problems and include: * Upper limb disorders such as repetitive strain injury (RSI) tenosynovitis and carpal tunnel syndrome – by far the most important as it can quickly lead to permanent incapacity * Back and neck pain and discomfort * Tension stress headaches and related ailments These types of problem can be caused by: * Maintaining an unnatural or unhealthy posture while using the computer * Inadequate lower back support * Sitting in the same position for an extended period of time * An ergonomically poor workstation set up
Eye strain Computer users can experience a number of symptoms related to vision including: * Visual fatigue * Blurred or double vision * Burning and watering eyes * Headaches and frequent changes in prescription glasses Computer work hasn’t been proven to cause permanent eye damage, but the temporary discomfort that may occur can reduce productivity, cause lost work time and reduce job satisfaction. Eye problems are usually the result of visual fatigue or glare from bright windows or strong light sources, light reflecting off the display screen or poor display screen contrast.

Health Hazards of Using Excessive Computers

Cybercrime & Computer Crime Research Center

Cybercrime & Computer Crime Research Center.
The internet has increasingly become a convenient avenue for commitments of crimes in the ever sophisticated information age. This is due to the defining characteristics of the online world where one can interact without physical contact. A computer consultant in Utah was sentenced to five years in prison for stealing 2 million dollars from a credit company where he worked (Computer Crime Research Center).

In another incident, Jeffrey Lee Parson who pleaded guilty to charges of unleashing part of a worm that caused chaos in the internet in 2003 got off with 18 to 37 months in jail (Computer Crime Research Center) In most cases of cybercrime, the punishment does not fit the crime. The damages by computer users in the hands of cybercrime offenders are very real and so the penalties should also be as real. This paper will attempt to discuss and draw more light on this issue. This paper will attempt to discuss and draw more light on the issue of cybercrimes and some of the proposed solutions that have been suggested to counter the cyberterrorism.

Problem Definition According to the Computer Crime Research Center, the penalty for illegally accessing a computer ranges from 6 months to 5 years. The penalty for illegal system access ranges from 5 to 10 years of imprisonment. Communication interception, offensive material dissemination and telecommunication piracy crimes carry punishment of 1 to 5 years. Individuals who hack computer and computer devices get an imprisonment of up to 3 years or a fine (Computer Crime Research Center. An act of trying to gain access to a government protected system, results in a 10 year imprisonment and a heavy fine.
Over the years this penalties have been made more severe, but the question still remains on whether they are still too lenient (Computer Crime Research Center). Cybercrime is the criminal exploitation of the internet. According to research carried out by the National Computer Security Association (NCSA) in 1996 two out of three U. S. companies were affected greatly by viruses. 3-5 billion dollar losses were incurred in the United States annually in the late 1980s as a result of computer abuse. With advancement in technology, newer and more complicated crimes have emerged which usually go unprosecuted.
Cybercrime can be categorized into violent or potentially violent criminals, and nonviolent crimes (Shinder & Cross, 15). Types of violent or potentially violent crimes include: Cyber stalking, cyber terrorism, and child pornography. Cyber terrorism refers to deliberate politically motivated violence committed against innocent people by individuals, group(s) of people through computer networks. It involves use of the internet to convey information to be used in violent activities as well as recruiting members to terrorist groups through Web sites.
In extreme cases, it could include interrupting computer systems used in air traffic control to cause planes to crash or collide; sabotaging the computer system controlling water treatment so as to cause contamination of water supplies. It also includes hacking into hospital database and deleting or changing information that could result in incorrect or dangerous treatment of patients (Shinder & Cross, 15). Cyber stalking is a form of electronic harassment which involves implied physical threats which create fear in the victim. It mostly targets people in a certain race, gender, religion or social status.
Paparazzi use the internet to stalk celebrities and get unauthorized access to confidential information on them in order to blackmail them. People from a particular race are harassed by distribution of hate e-mails through the internet; this often occurs in chat rooms and news groups. Child pornography becomes a cyber crime when computers and networks are used to create, distribute and access pornographic materials that use minor children. Child pornography is considered a violent crime because sexual abuse is practiced in order to produce pornographic materials.
Any related activity to enhance child pornography is considered to be a crime. Pedophiles use the internet to distribute and access pornographic material involving children through the internet (Shinder & Cross, 15). Most cyber crimes are nonviolent offenses. The perceived anonymity of virtual experiences is one of the elements that make cyberspace an attractive “venue” to commit crimes. Nonviolent cyber crimes include: cyber trespass, cyber theft, cyber fraud, destructive cyber crimes and other cyber crimes.
Cyber trespass refers to accessing of a computer’s or networks resources without authorization just for the fun of it. The individual may not damage or misuse the data; nonetheless, cyber trespass is a crime in most jurisdictions. Most of these cases are dismissed by law enforcers because no damage is done (Shinder & Cross, 18). Copyright infringement is another method of nonviolent cyber crime. This is unauthorized use of works covered by copyright law, in such a way that it violates the owner’s exclusive rights.
These rights include; the right to reproduce the work. For electronic media copyright infringement is also referred to as piracy. Piracy is mainly done for music and film works, where cyber criminals hack into entertainment websites and download original works. They then, create copies which they sell as their own (Shinder & Cross, 19). Cyber theft is the use of a computer and network to steal money, information or other valuables. It is one of the most popular cyber crimes; this is because stealing from a distance reduces the risk of getting caught.
Cyber theft includes embezzlement; an example is where an employee may use his/her legitimate access to a company’s computerized payroll system to change the data so as to move funds out of a company bank into his own account. A person may also gain unlawful access to an organization’s information and misappropriate funds. Another example of cyber theft is industrial espionage, where a person from outside the company uses the network to steal trade secrets and marketing strategies for competitors (Shinder & Cross, 19).
Plagiarism is another case cyber theft. Plagiarism is stealing of someone’s original writing and then passing it off as your own. Cyber fraud on the other hand is the variation of network data so as to obtain benefits. An example is when one hacks into the police database so as to remove arrest records. Destructive cyber crimes include: electronically vandalizing web pages, hacking into a system and deleting data, introducing worms, viruses or other malicious codes into a computer system or network (Shinder & Cross, 21).
Viruses, worms and malicious codes cause damages worth millions of dollars (Shinder & Cross, 23). Virus writers and hackers are highly active and continuously creating and modifying new viruses, making it difficult for antivirus software to detect them. Other nonviolent cyber crimes include: soliciting prostitution over the internet, gambling through the internet, internet drug sales and other contraband goods that are banned in some countries (Shinder & Cross, 24). An important question arises on how these crimes can be prevented.
Approaches to Counter Cybercriminals Use of antivirus and anti spyware software is one of the solutions which are currently in use. The antivirus software contains a program that attempt to identify and eliminate viruses, worms and other malicious codes. Backdoor programs and Trojans are restricted by the anti spy wares. Firewalls are also other effective ways of preventing unauthorized access to a computer network. Network firewalls may be software programs, hardware devices or a combination of both.
The firewall protects internal computer networks from outside access by malicious intruders (Shinder & Cross, 532). Cryptography is another very effective method of dealing with cyber crime. Cryptography is the science of encrypting and decrypting information. This is where, when one is sending information through the internet, software decrypts the information and encodes it. The information is sent in coded form which can only be decoded by the recipient who has the decoding software. This is a very effective method that crackers find hard to hack (Shinder & Cross, 512).
Awareness can also be raised on the issue of cyber crime. Youths are increasingly getting drawn into cyber crime because most of them are not aware of its legal consequences. This can be done through informative advertisements on the internet which will attempt to inform them on the dangers of cyber crime. People should also be encouraged to report cyber criminals to authorities through links on the web, so as to use the internet as a weapon against cyber crime perpetrators (Shinder & Cross, 551).
Cyber ethics and laws are being formulated to combat cyber crime. It is the responsibility of service providers to provide high level of security to their clients so as to keep them safe from malicious programs. Laws have been passed over the years which have attempted to curb the problem of cyber crime. One of the most effective laws which were passed in the USA is the USA Patriot Act which increases penalties and allows the prosecution of individuals who intend to cause damage. It was pushed through the U.
S Senate after the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001. This law gives authority over monitoring personal communications and private information (Shinder & Cross, 10). In August 2007 President Bush, signed into law Patriot II Act. This act gives authority to the government to: conduct domestic wiretaps without a court order for 15 days after an attack on the country or congressional authorization, access citizen credit reports with a subpoena and criminalize use of encryption software that was used in planning of a felony.
This act was put in place to address the shortcomings of the law that don’t deal with modern technology (Shinder & Cross, 10). In USA it is a federal crime to advertise or knowingly receive child pornography. The child Pornography Prevention Act (CPPA) expanded the definition of child pornography to any visual depiction of sexually explicit behavior in which the production involved the use of a minor engaging in sexually explicit conduct. This has made it illegal to distribute and access child pornography on the internet (Shinder & Cross, 16).
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has also developed a cyber program to deal with cyber threats. Over the years, the FBI has developed a Cyber Division whose main goal is to address cyber crime. It has employed the use of highly specialiazed personnel made up of agents and analyst who are able to identify cyber crimes. They have also employed the use of state-of-the-art-technology and resources to deal with this menace. Partnerships have also been developed with the Department of Defense and Homeland Security which enable them to share information on cyber crime.
The Cyber Crime Treaty: Preferred Approach It has become clear that a well-developed network of international cooperation is required to fight cyber crime, due to its ever changing nature. I think an international Cyber crime treaty is the best solution. Many countries have united their anti- cybercrime efforts through a proposed treaty known as the “Convention on Cyber crime”. Australia, Canada, Japan, USA and 43 member nations in the Council of Europe were involved in the drafting process.
The Cyber crime Treaty is an internationally accepted law, which has made it easier to get help and evidence from other countries to prosecute foreign nationals within the country (Shinder & Cross, 548). The treaty has three features, whose target is to set basic cyber law standards for all nations. First, it requires all nations to outlaw unauthorized usage of protected computer; the usage of a computer to commit fraud, computer infringement (piracy), distribution of child pornography or terrorism.
Secondly, it is a requirement to standardize procedures used to capture and retrieve information online. There is also need to capture the origin and time of all traffic on all networks. Thirdly, national governments are required to cooperate and share electronic evidence across boarders. This is the most effective means by which cyber criminals can be deterred as they won’t find refuge in any country (Shinder & Cross, 548). Conclusion Even though cyber crime is getting the recognition it deserves, it is not going to be curbed easily.
It is actually more likely that perpetrators will continue upgrading and developing so as to stay ahead of the long arms of the law. It therefore becomes very important for governments and organizations to keep consulting and coming up with more advanced and updated methods of detecting and dealing with cyber crime, in order to curb this ever growing menace. Works Cited: Computer Crime Research Center. Legislation. Web: August 17, 2010 from, http://www. crime- research. org/legislation/ Shinder Debra L. & Cross Michael. Scene of the cybercrime. Burlington, MA: Syngress Publishing, Inc, 2008

Cybercrime & Computer Crime Research Center

Atlantic Computers: a bundle of pricing options

Atlantic Computers: a bundle of pricing options.
Atlantic Computers: a bundle of pricing options

1.                  Business of Telecommunications and Computer

The innovation of a room-size computer named ENIAC (Electronic Numeral Integrator and Computer) becomes a milestone in computer history as they initiate the further development of business in computer and telecommunication. Several decades later, the introduction of “0” and “1” stream in the digital technology also marks the development of computer technology with improved reliability and security. 
In the early 1990s, James Martin in his crimson book, Telecommunications and the Computers, coined the ideas of integration of computer and telecommunication technology that become the basis for future communication. This may happen since telecommunication represents the development of infrastructure or hardware in communications; meanwhile the second term (computers) describes application and contents that enrich the delivery of services over the telecommunication infrastructure.
To continuously obtain benefits from the advancement of telecommunication and computers technologies, developers and manufacturers are racing to design, develop, manufacture, and sell the latest technologies that simplify the way users operate them. In this situation, the role of consultants that give advise for building the superior network system become important. Fortunately, nowadays, these days, the role of consultant become value added that computer retailers provide for their customers.
Concerning the issue, this paper will discuss about a computer retailer named Atlantic Computers in offering the bundle of pricing options to their customers. Bundle services become one marketing gimmick that enable a seller to offer multiple products with benefits discounted priced from the customers point of view.

2.      Pricing Strategies: Bundling Services
Pricing is one marketing mix that determines the suitable offering to customers so that their products are considered affordable by customers without sacrificing the quality of products.
According to a pricing strategy, there are several critical steps in creating a winning pricing strategy; they are as following:
Defining the marketing strategy
Making the marketing mix decisions
Estimating the demand curve
Calculating costs
Understanding environmental factors
Setting price objectives and
Determine pricing policies (‘Pricing Strategy’, 2007).

Figure 1    Atlantic Computers Web SIte

3.      Bundling Program for Atlantic Computers
Atlantic Computers (http://www.atlanticcomputers.com/) is an IT-related company that offers integrated services for their customers in selecting and implementing the simple to sophisticated network. In general, the company has one general group of services: internet services with strong and supporting sales and services.
Developing bundling program for a company that has multiple service or related service is much easier since the one product can be the complementary for others. However, in the case of Atlantic Computers the bundling program would be the selling of one main product with additional discount if the customers add additional features.

3.1.  Internet Services
This main service of Atlantic Computer is the internet services in which the company sell not merely the hardware but also offer integrated services by offering several options and additional services to customers to accomplish the customers’ objectives in computer system. Another service included in this main product of Atlantic Computers is the customized built-in web site and a do-it yourself template that dedicated to experienced customers.

3.2.            Sales and Services
This service from Atlantic Computer represent the company’s product in the provision of hardware and software solutions that dedicated for any level of users (experience and novice) including the dedicated server and dedicated email server.

3.3.            Bundling Internet Services
In order to attract customer in buying the Atlantic Computers products and services, one key feature is to offer the internet services with additional services that enrich the customers’ needs. For example, if a single customer buys the web site design from Atlantic Computers for $1,000; they will have free web template. In addition, if the customers request for full services  for only $2,000 they will have free one-stop-shopping that make the customer’s e-commerce site works such as the development of shopping cart features and BBS.

Reference:

Ferguson, Roger W. “Information Technology in Banking and Supervision.” Financial Services Conference. St. Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri. Retrieved March 3, 2009 from http://www.federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/speeches/2000/20001020.htm
Pricing Strategy. (2007). NetMBA. Retrieved March 1, 2009 from http://entrepreneurs.about.com/od/salesmarketing/a/pricingstrategy.htm

Atlantic Computers: a bundle of pricing options

Impact of Computer on Our Society

Impact of Computer on Our Society.
Ilorin Being a paper presented at the closing ceremony of the 1st computer training and issuance of certificate by Ascetic Computer Centre on the 15th September 2007 Introduction At this closing ceremony of the 1st computer training and issuance of certificate by Ascetic Computer Centre, let us lift our eyes toward the challenges that await us in the years to come.
It is our great good fortune, as organisers, that time and chance have put us not only at the edge of a chapter in the lives of these graduands, but on the edge of a bright new prospect in their affairs —a moment that will define their course, and their character, for many years to come. Guided by the ancient vision of a promised future, let us set our sights upon a set of graduands of new promise. However, our march to this new future seemed less certain than it did yesterday. We must vow to set a clear course to renew our generation.
We should thank the organisers for their vision towards the creation of new Nigerians who will appreciate problems, exhilarated by challenges, and strengthened by achievements, Nigerians with better employment opportunities, who will be job creators. Computer is gaining vast popularity globally in recent years. Its use, which extended information-processing capabilities, are influencing organizations of all types and sizes bringing about changes in institutional goals, relations and operations.

A large percentage of the activities in any institution or organisation comprise the processing of communicating information in the production and distribution processes. In the developing countries, computers are becoming part of everyday activities because of the kind of information they generate and their speed of delivery (Award 1988). 1 What is a Computer A computer is an electronic device, which accepts and processes data by following a set of instructions (PROGRAM) to produce an accurate and efficient result (INFORMATION). Since the ultimate aim of computer is to produce information, the art if computing is often referred o as information processing. The values of the computer lie solely on its high speed (due to its electronic nature), ability to store large amount of data, the unfailing accuracy and precision. These account for its supremacy over manual computation. The computer industry began in the late forties with a very small initial investment, and has been increasing both in strength and importance. When one looks back with analytical mind, we can conclude that computer technology keeps on advancing with remarkable increase in speed, accuracy and reliability.
Computing in whatever field, science, business, and industry is reaching directly or indirectly into various aspects of our society thereby, without loss of generality has shrunk the world into such a compactness that no part can afford to lack behind or live in isolation. The advent of electronic computer was hailed by the world as a great revolution, like any industrial revolution, it promised to free man from simple routine jobs of repetitive nature by providing computing power. The first to have exploited this facility was the search for scientific enquiries.
This was not unconnected with the fact that the designers of these systems were scientists themselves. Several problems have been eluding satisfactory solutions, though numerical methods of solutions exist but involved a very huge accomplished. Not only did computer make reliable solutions possible it equally opened new application methods or areas. To quote but a few are the optimization techniques of Operations Research (OR), the awe-stricken field of space research, the molecular restructuring in Biochemistry etc. It would have been tedious inexhaustible, incomplete and inaccurate to list all the possible applications of computer. There is no limit tot he uses and applications of computer; hence there is hardly a branch of science that can resist computer invasion.
After science was business. Because of the natural conservatism, oppressive and exploitative nature of this class coupled with their cautions approach to things, did not deem the computing machine fit until its worth and capabilities had been proved. What came to be recognized and embraced by this class was the importance of computer for decision aking and data processing, for these reasons, elaborate mathematical tools like Operations Research (OR), Critical Path Method (CPM), and Program Evaluation and Review Techniques (PERT) which were developed in the early fifties attained respectable height in the eyes of this class. Common examples of data processing are payroll, accounting, inventory management, banking, airline seat reservation etc. These required a lot of input and output and relatively little computing. Hence the costs of computing in such areas tend to be closely bound by inputting the data and outputting the results.
Some applications like airlines seat reservation, banking business and inventory control, call for real-time systems, which are dedicated to a particular application. They furnish “immediate” responses to input signals. For examples, it is easier today for one to know his statement of account in a bank the moment signals for such requests are sent to the computer. Similarly debited or credited accounts are updated almost immediately for further transactions. The Need for Computer Most of our national projects could better be accomplished with the use of computers.
Consider the registration of voters for election, common entrance examination into Nigeria Secondary Schools and conducting head counts (census) to mention only a few. These involve a huge volume of data, and would naturally be unwise if accomplished manually as it would be tiring, inaccurate and full of errors. 3 Going through the history/evolution of computers, the search for a realistic head count by the United States census bureau in 1890 led to the development of an electro-mechanical machine that helped greatly during the census by cutting down the man-hour required for the processing of the census data.
The accuracy of computer cannot be over-emphasized and it conforms to the objective of using the computer. A cashier in a departmental store would definitely find life boring if all calculations, issuance of receipts and giving of change would be done manually for each customer after each transaction. But with the aid of an adding machine the job is done accurately and he feels relieved. Going from the adding machine to the computer itself, the ability of the computer to perform repetitive tasks makes things easier.
Once the computer is programmed using the adequate software the whole job is done with ease. The need for computer in our banking system cannot be underrated because of the huge amount of transactions and the accuracy desired. Similarly in the data processing environment where the bulk of the job is either sorting, merging files, updating information, searching for a particular key in a pile of data etc. , all these the computer does with ease and accurately too. In a developing economy like ours, the speed of the computer is again one of the distinguishing factors that make it inevitable.
From the saying that “Time is Money”, speed is equally synonymous to time, and since computers work as a phenomenal speed coupled with its ability to access records or information directly from remote locations, efforts should be directed towards introducing computer into every facets of human endeavour. Computer and Unemployment The extent to which the computer has come to permeate all levels of our society is immeasurable. In fact, it does not matter, what you plan to do for a living, you will encounter the computer.
Its impact is analogous to that of the automobile and television. Things could be quite different with computers, but it has become part 4 of our society. The automobile is largely responsible for the air pollution and congestion of our cities today. The television has been accused of literally “rotting our minds”. Technology is usually a bit of mixed blessing and the computer is no exception. There is a popular slogan and fear that computer causes unemployment. From a professional point of view, it is untrue.
The problem therefore is the ability to distinguish between unemployment and job displacement. Hence with a thorough distinction between the two, computer should be seen as a saviour from slavery. Before considering the question of displacement and unemployment, it might be necessary once again to define computer. Computer as earlier defined, is an electronic device or machine, which accepts data, following some sets of logical instructions to produce the needed results. Therefore we have to ask ourselves, can this so-called computer operate without the full assistance of human being?
Can we just go to the computer for a complaint and have our problems solved without having to call on some pre-written programs meant for specific assignments, and written by programmers of course? The answer to these questions is NO. It is true that behind every successful man there is a woman, also behind the successful operations of computers there is a brain (the man). Computer on its own is just an empty box or a junk, and can in no way do any intelligent job, but with programs written the jobs are done.
Therefore if a computer is given a job with the logical step to follow, it can do it better, faster and more accurately than human beings and these are some of the advantages. Consider the developed countries like Japan, USA, UK etc. , where their industries are filled with Robots. The word Robot means labour. Robots are no human beings but rather are machines that can be programmed to carry out complex and tedious task without getting bored or tired. Robots are blind, deaf and have no sense of touch. Therefore jobs that are hazardous, tedious, that could be left undone are done by these Robots.
Considering an assembly plant where the 5 only thing a man does in such a plant is just to take the assembled goods out of the plant to give chance for the Robots to start assembling another. What a miracle it is to know that if a Robot breaks down in the course of its duty, almost immediately a fellow Robot (Doctor Robot) will attend to it to put it back to work. Think of the most dangerous tasks, which for the love of our dear lives we cannot do, these Robots do them. Ample examples are, blast furnace, disaster area (caused by poisonous gas) marshy areas etc. of course Robots do these jobs not thinking of any relations or parents and in fact, at a faster speed enhancing productivity. How does computer displace people and who are those displaced? As earlier mentioned, computer can only do a routine job and cannot think in any form. Now come to think of some well-structured organizations, UAC, SCOA and Leventis etc. , there are skilled personnel and unskilled workers/clerks. The daily job of these unskilled workers are mere routine jobs like accounting procedures, oading and assembling goods which can be taken over by computers that will do it better, faster and in fact, more reliable thereby enhancing greater productivity. These labourers so displaced by computer can be taken to such areas as sales since more articles are produced. These workers should go out soliciting for markets. While the managers, engineers and technician can not be displaced because they as skilled in their job, they do real thinking. Therefore to supplement these greater efficiency and productivity of the computer, these skilled workers should be kept in an airconditioned office, and in fact, think of things yet to happen.
No wonder the United States of American sees nothing left on earth again and hence proceeded to exploit the outer space. With these productive forces in operation, the prices of goods and the workers conditions of service would be improved. 6 Recently, these big time companies embarked on agriculture. These unskilled workers could be better utilized there, and more of them is needed for such jobs. In Africa, there are popular terms like laziness, redundancy, unproductively, etc. These are happening because there are no challenges to face.
What we do mostly are routine jobs which could be boring thereby creating unhappiness and in such a situation we become less productive. The routine jobs should be given to computers while a conducive atmosphere be created for the skilled workers to think of ways of making the continent self reliant. Computer and Job Creation Let us consider a particular case study of an information system, the effect of computer and how it helps creating jobs. An information system means the collection and processing of data to yield useful information for decision making.
To collect data, enumerators are needed to actually go to the field for data collection, typist are needed too and other people employed in the course of recording the data and finally statisticians computer operators use the computer for processing the data to give useful results (information). Again think of the case of our consultancy services. Any company going into such ventures like agricultural business needs a consultant having in his service Agricultural scientists, soil scientists and host of other professionals in allied discipline to perform the feasibility studies.
They give useful information to customers are regards the type of crops to plant, the planting seasons, the fertilizers to apply and when, the type of pests attracted by such plants etc. , all these lead to greater productivity and this is one of the things the attention of our professionals should be directed to. Come to think of the perennial problems of Cancer, AIDS and some other deadly diseases, which we have no solutions to. Our scientist and medical personnel should use most of their time addressing their minds through intensive research towards providing a remedy to such ills of the society while the computer is left to do their routine jobs for them. History has it that the early jobs where computers were employed were in accounting, payroll, ledger etc. , all of which had fixed procedures or routine hence it was easier to computerize these systems to enhance productivity and save workers from boredom. However, it must be recognized that computer requires lesser number of personnel, it can produce more and it is not likely to go on maternity leave, nor go on strikes, nor demand overtime or old age pension etc.
Also the use of computer creates more jobs such as consultancy, developing and selling of software and hardware while the displaced workers could be trained as salesmen to market the goods or taken to such areas like agriculture where they can serve humanity. Therefore computer will lead to re-arrangement in the organizational set up and this will lead to greater productivity. Conclusions Computer offer innumerable benefits in enriching the quality and quantity of goods and services in any organisation.
Despite the prevalent nature of computer in virtually every aspect of human endeavours, it has not been widely integrated into the production and distribution processes in Nigeria. Its integration will not only revolutionize the economy, it will engender the development of individual’ innate scientific inquiry mind and their critical thinking abilities. COMPUTER PROVIDES LONGER LIFE, REDUCES WORKING HOURS AND GREATER REMUNERATION IN RETURN.
REFERENCES Ayo, C, K. (1994). Computer literacy: Operations and appreciation. Egbe: Alanukitan Press Walton, D. (1984). Blob (Computer Program): Applied system knowledge (ASK). London: Unwin Ltd 8

Impact of Computer on Our Society

SPSS Computer Project

SPSS Computer Project.
Blue Marketing research is conducting an experiment with the patients of the Midwest University Medical Hospital. The goal of this experiment is to find out if the residents of Midwest University Medical Hospital are happy with their service, and to judge whether or not the current state of customer service is affecting the amount of residents that reside at the hospital. The experiment will consist of a survey questionnaire administered to a random assortment of patients within the hospital.
The patients will be questioned about the overall quality of the hospital, the intention to return and see the same doctor, the intention to recommend friends and family, the intention to compliment management, the intention to complain about service, the intention to seek other health care services, and the intention to not use any provider. The respondents were asked to rate the likelihood of each future behavior based on a 1-7 scale, 1 being “would not”, 7 being “definitely would”. A summary of the data collected is show below.
https://phdessay.com/windows-7-check-your-understanding/

From this summary of data we are able to make recommendations for the hospital to improve quality and service. Summary of Findings Overall quality is rated as poor. Most people intend to return to the same doctor. Most people intend to recommend this hospital to family and friends and few will complain to them. Many people intend to complain to management, but few to hospital management. Very few intend to complain to local medical society. Very few intend to seek similar care elsewhere. Few intend not to use any provider. About half discussed their visit, afterwards. Most aspects of perceived service were about neutral.
There was an outlier in the perceived service section: the customers were clearly unhappy with the operating hours. Difference between male and female responses After collecting all of the surveys, we have found that both men and women rate the overall quality about the same. Both men and women are likely to return, and recommend family and friends. We found that women are more likely to compliment management, men complain to hospital management, and men were more likely to complain to hospital management. Women are more likely to seek help elsewhere, and men are more likely to use to healthcare at all.
Both genders thought that the facilities were appealing, and women thought that the equipment was up to date more than men. Women felt that the employees were better dressed, more than men. Women rated the in keeping with service better than men, along with promise and do it. More women thought that the provider was sympathetic, and men were more likely to believe that the hospital was dependable. Men were happier with the time in which services were held compared to the time they were promised, and women were happier with the way records were kept.
Men were more likely to be satisfied with when the service was provided, were also more likely to expect prompt service, and also were more likely to believe that employees were helpful. Men were more likely to select that employees were too busy, both groups believed that they could trust employee’s, and both groups felt safe. More women thought that employees were polite, and that they had organizational support. More women believed that they had individual attention compared to men, and also believed that employee’s knew their needs.
Women thought that the doctors had their best interest at heart compared to women, and women thought that the operating hours were acceptable, while men did not. Recommendations The data from this study shows several opportunities for improvement in the quality of the service they provide. The overall quality of the hospital was rated very low. This is a major opportunity for improvement. This is a broad general view of the hospital by the patients this should improve as all of the smaller issues get improved.
Intent to complain to management- There is room for improvement in almost all of the perceived service areas. The appealing facilities question was about neutral. Improving the appearance of the facility and making sure it is constantly clan would improvement customer perceptions of the quality of the hospital. Maybe it’s time to do some renovations. The respondents were about neutral to equipment being up to date. This isn’t that bad, but it would still be good to have newer equipment and would raise this section.

SPSS Computer Project