Categories
Ancient Greece

Dbq on Ancient Greece

Dbq on Ancient Greece.
DBQ: Ancient Greek Civilization There were many great ancient civilizations that set the foundation for modern western culture to develop; yet none influenced our modern-day civilization more than the Greeks. The ancient Greeks were revolutionaries in many fields, such as science, philosophy, governmental structure, and warfare tactics. Without Greek influence, the world today would lack some of its greatest pieces of art, philosophy, and human values. The ancient Greeks revolutionized human thought and philosophy, changed mankind’s values toward human life, and introduced art and culture that exemplifies human creativity of the era.
Greeks revolutionized human thought and philosophy. They were the first civilization to embrace the idea that humans can reason, and self-examination is important for mankind if man wishes to better understand himself and his world. For instance, one of Greece’s most famous philosophers, Socrates, stated: “The unexamined life is not worth living,” (Document 1). Socrates is one of the most renowned philosophers in all of ancient Greece. His statement is revolutionary because it demonstrates how mankind must examine his own life to make it meaningful, a new theory in the world.
Previously, man accepted the notion that you were born in your place and must accept whatever your ruler and/or priest tells you believe, but Socrates believed that man must examine himself to truly better their own lives. Another revolutionary thought of the Greeks was made in the fields of mathematics. For example a Greek mathematician named Euclid developed the theorem: “If you straight lines cut one another, the vertical, or opposite, angles shall be equal,” (Document 5). Euclid is a prime example of how Greeks advanced in the mathematical world, pushing human thought to new limits.

The Greeks were very influential on our modern concepts of mathematics, laying the foundation for advances in all scientific fields. Even though the Greeks set the foundation for modern sciences and philosophy, their most important contribution in this area is undoubtedly their appreciation and respect for human reason. Greeks took great pride in their ability to reason. For instance, another famous Greek philosopher, Aristotle, stated: “Since human reason is the most godlike part of human ature, a life guided by human reason is superior to any other… For man, this is the life of reason, since the faculty of reason is distinguished characteristics of human beings,” (Document 2). Aristotle believed the most important characteristic of human nature is the ability to reason. The Greeks were the first use logic to solve their problems. They used their logic to understand the natural world and question authority, using logic to make decisions best for themselves and their polis. The Greeks revolutionized human thought, setting the foundation for possible advancement in our western civilization.

Dbq on Ancient Greece

Calculate the Price

Approximately 250 words

Total price (USD) $: 10.99

Categories
Ancient Greece

What role did tribalism and racism play in ancient Greece?

What role did tribalism and racism play in ancient Greece?.

Abstract
A broad analysis of the evidence and impact of the concepts of tribalism and racism within Greece of antiquity, concentrating on the Classical and Hellenistic periods. Assessing the archaeological and literary evidence alongside the prevailing historical bias for these concepts. It is argued that Greece, although not a tribe but a state under Elman Sevice’s definition shows some strains of tribalism. Racism or proto-racism, is defined by differing criteria to the modern connotation and seems to have been geographically rather than biologically biased.
Introduction

The period associated with ancient Greece ps around 1400 years from the archaic period with the traditional date for the first historic Olympic games in 776BC to the end of antiquity around 600AD.It is sensible to focus on the Classical and Hellenistic periods beginning with the Battle of Thermopylae in 480BC and ending with the end of the Fourth Macedonian War in 148BC.
The modern concepts of racism and tribalism are non necessarily one that would be comprehended in the ancient world. Racism in the modern sense of the word arose in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries alongside concepts of nationalism and the ‘noble savage’.
To add a broader cultural context, the Mycenaean palace civilization which collapsed in the twelfth century BC and the archaeological evidence supporting this collapse indicates a phase of depopulation and decline in the region. (Champion et al 1989: 244) At the beginning of the eighth century BC an archaeologically visible cultural complex emerged, distinct from the Halstatt iron age culture predominant in northern Europe. Broadly homogenous and distinctive, this cultural complex was established by the sixth century BC encompassing most of the Mediterranean coastal regions and included the Phoenicians, the Etruscans and Celt-Iberians as well as the Greeks. (ibid) and includes the corpus of work by Prof. Manolis Andronikos which establishes that the Macedonians had a Greek material culture. The attitudes of colonial Greeks in places like Massilia (Marseille) towards Hellenic ethnic identity differs from that of the Greeks who were living in polis (city-states).
As an example of this geographical difference, and what that meant to ancient Greek society , there is a marked contrast between Pericles’ citizenship law of 451/450BC and Ptolemy I’s ‘Diagramma’ explaining the legal implications of inter-marriage between Greeks and non-Greeks in Cyrene in the fourth century BC. Pericles’ law relates to Athens and stipulates that only individuals who had two Athenian parents could be considered Athenian citizens. From Ptolemy we learn that in Cyrene children of a Greek father and a Libyan mother were considered citizens. Aristotle in his Politics (VI, 2 1319 b 2) remarks that the democratic members had changed the orthodox practice and “flooded the citizen body with these half-castes” (nothoi pros metros) betraying the conservatism of ‘mainland’ Greece, but in particular Athens.
Discussing trading colonies it is significant that the only echelon of society within Greek polis involved in banking and business in the modern connotation were xenoi or outsiders. In Aristotle’s words:
“…money orientated life is not of the knightly kind” (Nicomanchean Ethics I. iv 1095b15-22)
As there was a material cultural continuity across the Mediterranean world at the time, the concept of ethnic difference or racism cannot be easily tracked archaeologically but through literary sources. Considering the bias of such sources Baldry says:
“One can all too easily overestimate the importance of beliefs expressed by a small intellectual minority, while forgetting that the majority found it difficult to see beyond the horizon of the polis;…”(Baldry, H.C., 1965 176-77)
Within this academic community there was a breadth of opinion. Conservative Aristotle equates ethnic identity with slavery in his Politics saying:
“Wherefore the Hellenes (Greeks) do not like to call Hellenes slaves, but confine the term to barbarians. Yet in using this language, they really mean the natural slave…Hellenes regard themselves as noble everywhere, and not only in their own country, but they deem the barbarians noble only when at home, thereby implying that there are two sorts of nobility and freedom, the one absoloute, the other relative” (Aristotle Politics 1255a-1255b)
“…the lower sort are by nature slaves, and it is better for them as for all inferiors (sc barbarians) that they should be under the rule of a master. For he who can be, and therefore it, another’s, and he who particupates in rational principle enough to apprehend, but not to have, such a principle, is a slave by nature” (Aristotle’s Politics 1254b)
This hints at concepts of the ‘noble savage’ which emerged during the enlightenment of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in tandem with nationalism and racism. It has been suggested that the ideologies of the ancient Greeks could be defined as proto-racism (Bakaukas 2005: 5)
The zenith of the Greek polis was the sixth to the fourth centuries BC. The period of the Persian Wars and the dominance of Athens and Sparta as political entities, underlining the perceived divisions between those who defined themselves as Hellenic and those deemed barbarian. Paridoxically there was concurrently growth in the concept of the unity of all mankind. Homer defines men as aydeentes (speaking beings), and this concept can also be seen in Plato’s Protagoras with the pronounced distinction between man and inarticulate animals. There is also a choral fragment from the fifth century BC from the Alexander of Euripides and the philosophy of sophists, in particular Antiphon. Other proponents were Thucydides, and the medical writers of the Hippocratic Corpus ( “…the same symptoms have the same meaning everywhere”). Nevertheless, as has already been alluded to, Greek proto-racism was not biologically based as the common modern interpretation.
Tribalism could be placed within the theoretical framework of the American anthropologist Elman Service. He postulated a four-fold classification system of societal evolution (Band, Tribe, Chiefdom and State) with associated types of site and settlement patterns. Greece in Service’s definition is not a tribe but a State. Tribalism implies shared cultural or ethnic identity used to exclude non-members. Therefore it could be described as a cohesive force and racism a devisive one.
A good example of the impact of both concepts is the Greek attitudes towards Macedonia and Alexander the Great. Greek states generally considered Macedonians barbarians, but, since the fifth century BC they had been permitted to compete in the Olympian Games, ostensibly because they were believed to descend from the legendary Heralces. Linguistically they spoke Greek (Bakaukas, M. 2005: 9). Alexander’s mother, Olympia was another ‘barbarian’ (daughter of Neoptolemus of Epirus (ibid)) another Hellenised individual who met Philip of Macedon during celebrations of the Greek Mysteries of Samothrace. Alexander was a pupil of Aristotle and Plutarch relates that the teacher was criticised for advising Alexander to treat Greeks as friends and barbarians as enemies. Alexander did not pay any heed to this advice:
“All mortals from now on shall live like one people, united and peacefully working towards a common prosperity. You should regard the whole world as your country – a country where the best govern – with common laws and no racial distinctions” (The ‘Oath’ of Alexander the Great – Speech at Opis (Assyria) in 324BC)
The most obvious comparison between Greek city states for race and tribal considerations is between Athens and Sparta. Both considered each other Hellenic but Athens was a democracy and Sparta an oligarchy. The Peloponnesian War (431 – 404BC) is the pinnacle of their rivalry and as Thucydides comments, before the War and after the Persian Wars (499 – 449BC) much of Greece was known as the Athenian Empire.
Conclusion
In conclusion, tribalism and racism are modern constructs which existed in ancient Greece but were formed according to the prevalent cultural, political and social contexts. Archaeological evidence has provided a quantitive benchmark that the material culture was homogenous throughout the Mediterranean world. The ‘tribe’ of Greeks were united in their urban state structure and common ideals of democracy and civilization but the significance of ‘purity’ in racial terms was malleable, tending to be more flexible the further from the nexus of Greek civilisation.
BIBLIOGRAPGHY
Bakaukas, Michael. 2005. Tribalism and Racism amongst the Ancient Greeks: A Weberian Perspective. Anistoriton Journal, vol. 9, March 2005, section E0501 Available through: http://www.anistor.co.hol.gr [Accessed 10th August 2012] Baldry, H.C., 1961 The Idea of the Unity of Mankind in Greek Thought Cambridge University Press
Borza, E.N., and Palagia, O., The Chronology of the Macedonian Royal Tombs at Vergina Available through: http://uoa.academia.edu/OlgaPalagia/Papers/872753/The_chronology_of_the_Macedonian_royal_tombs_at_Vergina [Accessed 11th August 2012] Champion, C., Gamble, C., Shennan, S., Whittle, A. 1984 Prehistoric Europe Ninth printing 1997. Academic Press Ltd, London.
Renfrew, C., and Bahn, P., 1996 (Second Edition) Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice Thames and Hudson, London
Trigger, Bruce G. 1989. A History of Archaeological Thought Cambridge University Press.

What role did tribalism and racism play in ancient Greece?

Calculate the Price

Approximately 250 words

Total price (USD) $: 10.99

Categories
Ancient Greece

Comparison of Modern Women and of Ancient Greece

Comparison of Modern Women and of Ancient Greece.
Greece were a little more than virtual slaves, themselves. From the day of their birth, up to their deaths, females were constantly controlled by a master, normally the father than overtaken by her husband. Girls approximately the age of 1 5 were chosen an appropriate suitor by their fathers, usually a man already more than twice her age (p. 75). Most men spent little time at home; therefore, the wives dominated home life through her skills of sewing, cooking, spinning, weaving, and preserving the slaves of the family household.
On average there were plenty of slaves to help with the dally chores, only the most destitute homes was the lady responsible for these duties alone. Therefore, wives In some aspect were more privileged than women in our present society, where the domestic labor Is generally completed single-handedly. Women had specific boundaries in society and the events that took place there. Women didn’t have the privilege of voting, and were allowed no entitlement into public office. Although women were forbidden in political positions, they were Greek citizens and could not be violated or sold into slavery (p. 4). They were prohibited from watching the Olympic Games as they contained fragments of nudity, and were only permitted to participate in chariot racing. (Graham) Public roles that women were encouraged to take role in were funerals, weddings, and religious celebrations where they could socialize outside of the home. “A wife’s main duty, apart from managing the household, was to provide a male heir n order to maintain the family’s hold over its property,” The Western Experience.
Since men dictated all property in classical Greece, it was a necessity to produce boys in addition to girls. It is difficult to depict the ancient feminine lives of the Greeks exactly, as we have no recorded verification documented directly by them. A number of Greek gods and written Greek epics portray women as leaders, and are sharply admired by men. Sources.

Comparison of Modern Women and of Ancient Greece

Calculate the Price

Approximately 250 words

Total price (USD) $: 10.99

Categories
Ancient Greece

Comparing and Contrasting Ancient Greece and Rome

Comparing and Contrasting Ancient Greece and Rome.
Ancient Greece and Rome 2 Abstract Ancient Greece and Rome are two of the most influential civilizations known in history. This paper will focus on comparing and contrasting both the differences and similarities of both these great civilizations. Some of the major topics that’ll be covered throughout this paper will include the following: Forms of government, the roles of women in both civilizations, and military life.
Ancient Greece and Rome 3 Intro Looking back in ancient times, both the Greek and Roman empires were extremely influential to many modern day cultures and societies. Everything from government, to religion, and to ones overall perspectives and philosophy on life in general is still widely respected and studied by many around the world. This is exactly why these two great civilizations were chosen for this particular assignment. While both empires were extremely similar to each other, there are also many important differences between the two as well.
The central focus of this paper will involve identifying just how similar they were in nature, as well as how different they were also. The following important topics were chosen to be evaluated: Forms of government, the roles of women in both civilizations, and military life. Government in both Greece and Rome Ancient Greece and Rome were two of the greatest civilizations known to man, and it wouldn’t make any sense to analyze both empires without taking a close look into their governmental structures.

The Greeks incorporated many forms of government throughout its civilization such as monarchies, oligarchies, tyrannies, and eventually converting to a democracy. The Greeks were the first to develop a government run by the people, although not all citizens were included in its democracy. Only free male adult citizens were allowed to participate while women and slaves were excluded (Ancient Greek Government). In contrast to the Greeks many forms of government, the Romans would adopt the Greeks ideology of democracy but later formed what is known as a republic. This form of
Ancient Greece and Rome 4 government would prove to be extremely effective for the Romans, as they would stick to it throughout the course of their empire. They organized it into three categories: legislative, executive, and judicial branches; each area was to perform a specific purpose. This was monumental on behalf of the Romans because it laid the foundation of running a highly organized form of government, one that many future generations would come to emulate. Another contrast to the Greeks was that every citizen under the Roman government had some sort of rights.
This can be seen through how both civilizations treated women in general (The Roman Empire, 2011). Roles of Women in Greece Although both these great civilizations were so much alike, the roles given to women is one area where there were some differences. The best possible way to describe women is Greece was below that of second-class citizenship. They were treated as servants of their husbands and were given no rights whatsoever. Usually women were married off at a very young age to men much older than them; once married they were considered property of their husbands and didn’t hold any authority within their own household.
This power was typically given to the mother of their husband. If that wasn’t bad enough, before a woman was married she was under full control of her father, which is sad. Women weren’t even allowed to attend public events such as the popular Olympic games. Not only were they considered servants of their husbands, but they were looked upon as having one primary function, and that was to give birth (Kishlansky, Geary, & O’ Brien, 2008). Women in Sparta Ancient Greece and Rome 5
The behavior that women endured was typical in most city-states throughout the entire Greek empire; Sparta was the only exception. Spartan women weren’t as restricted as those in other states and enjoyed freedom and responsibilities that many women could only dream of. Although they weren’t as free as modern women are today, nor were they awarded all the rights granted to that of Spartan men such as the right to vote, choose their own husbands, or be elected to public office. Event still life was pretty good for them overall. Sparta’s law required that all female infants and children be given the same care and food as their brothers” (Schrader, 2011. P. 1). Unlike Greek women, they were allowed to attend public events, become educated, inherit and transfer wealth, control the economic situations of their marriage, and were also able to speak out about certain political issues (Schrader, 2011). Women of Rome In comparing and contrasting the women of Rome to those in Greece, it was important to first point out how Sparta differed from the rest of the empire, simply because it provides a better understanding of the overall picture.
Although Roman women weren’t kept under such restrictions as most Greek women, they were still under the control of men in what was a male-dominated society just as Greece. Another striking similarity was that Roman women were under control of their fathers and when they got married, the father would transfer that control over to their husbands. Unlike Greek women who had no rights within their own households, Roman women did to some extent. “Wives did exercise real tough informal authority within the family. Part of that authority came form Ancient Greece and Rome 6 heir role in the moral education of their children and the direction of the household” (Kishlansky, Geary, & O’ Brien, 2008, p. 119). Military Life in Ancient Greece In order to maintain and protect the citizens of any great civilization, having a powerful military is nearly a necessity. Even in modern times with the United States being the richest, most powerful country on earth, they’ve clearly invested a lot of time and money in developing the most powerful military to protect its citizens as well. The Greeks realized just how vital it was to build an advanced military structured around courage and bravery.
This was primarily due to the bold leadership of Alexander the Great, who expanded the Greek empire by the use of military force. “Ancient Greeks invented the use of technology in warfare. The first such invention was the Phalanx which was used against the Persians. The Athenians produced very fast triremes. The Greeks in Sicily developed the first advanced catapults” (Lahanas, 2001, p. 1). A few other important items invented by the Greek army were spears and pikes, swords, and the hoplite shield which was probably the most important of all.
The phalanx was vital because it allowed the Greeks to defeat enemy forces much larger than theirs; the Spartans were credited with developing such an affective military strategy. It involved heavy infantry troops standing together in a compact rectangular formation with weapons such as pikes, spears, sarissas, and other a few other weapons (Sam, 2011). Most of the military’s leadership in Greece at the time came from Sparta, a state that “produced one of Ancient Greece and Rome 7 he most iconic armies in ancient history and was renowned for its soldiers’ skill, discipline, professionalism and bravery” (Sam, 2011, p. 1). Military Life in Ancient Rome “The Romans very fast acquired the Greek military technology and developed the most organized military system the world has ever seen” (Lahanas, 2001, p. 1). Obviously with the Romans implementing and eventually surpassing the military technology of the Greeks means that they were extremely similar in nature. The phalanx was one of the military strategies the Romans quickly adopted from the Greeks early on within their military.
However, as time went on the Romans would eventually shy away from this strategy because it wasn’t as affective for them as it was for the Greeks. The early Roman Army also adopted their attire from the Greeks as well, looking extremely similar in appearance. The weapons used by the Romans were identical in nature also: items such as a “helmet, hoplite, round shield, greaves, and breast plate, all of bronze, and carrying a spear and sword” (The Roman Army, 2008, p. 1). With all the similarities, one difference came about when the Romans abandoned the phalanx as mentioned earlier.
In doing so, they developed a more effective fighting strategy known as the legion. The legion allowed the Romans to be more versatile on the battlefield. It involved being organized into three groups: “the hastati in front, the principes in the second row, and the rorarii and accensi in the rear” (The Roman Army, 2008, p. 1). Each of these groups served a specific function during the course of a battle, and the strategy proved to be so effective that the Romans would keep it this way Ancient Greece and Rome 8 throughout their existence—only making a few minor changes as time progressed.
So after analyzing both the Greek and Roman army, one can conclude that they are extremely similar other than the fact that the legions allowed the Romans to become more advanced and develop a more powerful military than the Greeks. Conclusion Both the Greek and Roman empires laid the foundation for government, military values, and even religious views that many nations adopted within their own modern societies. The monumental influences of ancient Greece and Rome on today’s society are particularly why they were chosen to be analyzed.
Although they were nearly identical in nature, the minor differences between the two are what made them both unique. The Greeks were the originators and the Romans adopted much of the Greeks culture and perfected it. This is precisely why both civilizations are widely studied, respected, and emulated by many great nations worldwide. Ancient Greece and Rome 9 References Kishlansky, M. , Geary, P. , & Brien, O. P. (2008). Civilization in the West. New York: Pearson Education. Lahanas, M. (2001). Ancient Greek Military Technology. Retrieved September 15th 2011, from http://www. mlahanas. e/Greeks/WarTech. htm Sam, A. (2011). Military and Weapons in Ancient Sparta. Retrieved September 15th 2011, from http://www. ehow. com/info_8171167_military-weapons-ancient-sparta. html Schrader, P. H. (2011). The Spartans: Warrior Philosophies of the Ancient World. Retrieved September 14th 2011, from http://elysiumgates. com/~helena/Women. html The Roman Army. (n. d). Retrieved on September 18, 2011, from http://www. roman-empire. net/army/army. html Ancient Greek Government. (n. d). Retrieved on September 16th 2011, from http://www. aurorahistoryboutique. com/Ancient-Greek-Government. cfm

Comparing and Contrasting Ancient Greece and Rome

Calculate the Price

Approximately 250 words

Total price (USD) $: 10.99

Categories
Ancient Greece

Humanities-Ancient Greece

Humanities-Ancient Greece.
Ancient Greece and Roman civilization comparison The first Olympic games were held in Olympia, Greece. These games were part of the “Panhellenic Festival, instituted in 776 B. C. E in honor of the Greek gods”. The Olympic games occur in an every “four-year periods beginning with the first games in 776 B. C. E. ” The Greeks had many sports such as, “200-yard sprint, footrace, wrestling, long jump, and boxing. ” Greek athletes competed nude. However, women were not allowed to compete in the Olympic games. The Greeks believed that a “true sport was that which gave athletes an opportunity to rival the divinity of the gods. In contrast to Greece, the Romans had a “variety of brutal blood sports. ” Gladiator fights were “introduced in Rome in 264 B. C. E. ” These games would symbolize the power of the emperors. In Rome, these events were held in the Coliseum. Gladiators fought wild animals. “Most Gladiators were criminals, prisoners of war, or slaves. ” They were trained in schools and were forced to take part in the events. The Olympic games and Gladiator fights are different because in Greece it was mostly sport festivals, while in Rome it was representation to honor the emperors.
Greek architecture monuments were designed to serve the living. One of the many type of Greek architectural structures is the Parthenon. It is a temple dedicated to Athena, the goddess of war. Built in glittering Pentelic marble. The Parthenon represents the “apex of a long history of post-and-lintel temple building among the Greeks. ” The functions of the Parthenon, was to “display statues of the gods, for the rulers to go and sacrifice and worship in as a recognition of the protection provided by the gods. In contrast, Roman architecture reflected the practical needs of the empire. The Romans are considered one of the greatest architects of ancient times. Also the Romans made good use of the “aqueducts, arches, vaults and domes. ” For example, the Pantheon is “a temple dedicated to the seven planetary deities. ” Its exterior is covered with a “veneer of white marble and bronze. ” The Pantheon has many features such as, “a portico with eight Corinthian columns originally elevated by a flight of stairs that now lie buried beneath the city street. Greek and Roman architecture are similar because Roman architecture was based on the knowledge of the Greeks. Although there’s a difference because Greeks used single row columns for actual structural support, while the Romans were progressing technologically and using rows of concrete columns for luxury purposes. The arts in Greek were based on Humanism, Realism, and Idealism. The Greeks used the abstract geometric methods in their paintings. For example, Greek artists painted their “ceramic wares with angular figures and complex geometric patterns arranged to enhance the shape of the vessel. Greeks painted mythology, literature, and everyday life in “waters jars, wine jugs, storage vessels, drinking cups and bowls. ” In contrast, the Roman art was based in Pictorial Realism paintings. The Romans decorated their “meeting halls, baths, and country villas that were inspired by Greek murals. ” Roman art was illustrated in mosaics. This is a technique by which “small pieces of stone or glass are embedded into wet cement surfaces or plaster surfaces. ” Also Romans illustrated landscapes to show affection to their pleasure of nature.
It’s clear that Greek art and Roman art are different because both civilizations used different techniques for their art and showed different interested in what they were trying to portray in their paintings. Roman art was based in Realism while Greek art was more Idealistic. Greek literature was based in the Classical Style in Poetry. This is a combination of the “arts prevailed in most forms of religious ritual and in public and private entertainment. ” For example, Hellenic literature was filled with passion and tenderness written in lyric poetry. In contrast, Roman literature reveals a masterful use of Latin literature.

Romans use literature for the purposes of “entertainment, instruction, and record keeping. ” A Roman notable style of literature is the Roman Epic Poetry style. For example, “Rome’s foremost poet-publicist, Virgil wrote the semi legendary epic that immortalized Rome’s destiny as world ruler. ” Virgil’s poems were not an oral tradition but a literacy epic. His work became the “monumental impact of Latin language. ” Greek literature and Roman Literature are similar because they both include comedies, poetry and epics. Also Greek literature dealt with myths while Roman Literature was based on triumphs.

Humanities-Ancient Greece

Calculate the Price

Approximately 250 words

Total price (USD) $: 10.99