Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn ————————————————- What is hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)? Hemolytic disease of the newborn is also called erythroblastosis fetalis. This condition occurs when there is….
Cardiovascular disease Introduction Heart disease is No. 1 killer disease worldwide. It causes 12 million deaths annually. Thanks to the rising health awareness and government programmes this number significantly reduce during last 30 years. Coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease Cardiovascular diseases are diseases of the heart (cardiac muscle?? ) or blood vessels (vasculature).
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) means all the diseases of the heart and circulation (blood vessels disease) including coronary heart disease (angina and heart attack) and stroke, as well as coronary and periphery blood vessels disease (problems with circulation). Diseases from this group are the biggest killer in Europe and USA, but developing and non-develop countries too. The final and most tragic consequence of different types of heart disease is heart attack with tragic consequences. Heart diseases are caused by atherosclerosis, a disease of arterial blood vessels resulted from atheroma i. . plaques accumulated (forming; sticking) on artery walls which makes the blood vessels nonelastic and narrowed and leads to decreased blood flow. For the atherosclerosis doctors very often use alternative name chronic cardiovascular disease. The opposite group acute heart disease made group of diseases which are dangerous for patients lives. Acute heart diseases include conditions or illnesses which usually have a rapid onset of symptoms and may resolve within days with or without treatment.
A condition or illness that is sudden or severe. On the other hand a condition or illness that arises slowly over days or weeks and may or may not resolve with treatment made a group of chronic heart disease. Both of them are caused by atheroma and the most known are next: a) Acute heart disease Heart attack is caused by lack of O2 in heart muscle cells. Very often it is caused by rupture of “hard plaques” patches which result in blood clots and partially or completely block blood flow and cause a heart attack.
When a fiber cap becomes thin, these “hard plaques” can suddenly rupture, spilling their contents, resulting in blood clots that partially or completely block blood flow and cause a heart attack http://www. authorstream. com/Presentation/nitin-35423-heart-diseases-science-technology-ppt-powerpoint/ Cholesterol glossary. http://www. mybwmc. org/library/28/000225 Stroke Stroke is death of brain cells caused by obstructed blood flow to parts of the brain. Since the level of LDL cholesterol is main cause of narrowed of blood vessels, it is necessary control it. If not treated properly, high LDL cholesterol can cause a stroke.
Cholesterol glossary. http://www. mybwmc. org/library/28/000225 b) Coronary heart disease Heart disease (coronary heart disease), When the plaque build up in th conorary arteries heart does not get sufficient blood, the condition is called coronary artery disease or coronary heart disease. Atherosclerosis is a disease of arterial blood vessels in which plaques form on artery walls. This is a consequence of different substances circulating in the bloodstream (inflammatory cells, proteins, cholesterol and calcium) sticking inside the vessel walls. Plaque patches influence on narrowing blood flow in the artery. ttp://www. bodybuilding. com/fun/gastelu5. htm Peripheral artery disease (reduced blood flow in the limbs, usually the legs Coronary plaque Coronary plaque is a term which use in practice as a synonym for atheroma or atherosclerosis. Patches of atheroma are formed from substances that circulate in the bloodstream. They consist of lipid, or fat, cores covered by collagen fiber caps which are sticking to the inside of the vessel walls. Over time plaque or patch of atheroma increases making an artery narrower and the blood flow through the artery is reducing.
We can see the changes in blood vessels caused by plaque in the Figure 1. Figure 1 Artery with the patches of atheroma – plaque Preventing Cardiovascular Diseases. Patient. co. uk. emis < www. patient. co. uk/health/Preventing-Cardiovascular-Diseases. htm> (March 13, 2013) http://medicineworld. org/blogs/heart/blog/permalinks/Jan-2006/coronary-plaque-detection-by-molecular-imaging. html> (March 13, 2013) Mature plaques typically consist of two main components: soft, lipid-rich atheromatous “gruel” and hard, collagen-rich sclerotic tissue.
Lipid-rich and soft plaques are more dangerous than collagen-rich and hard plaques because they are more unstable and rupture-prone and highly thrombogenic after disruption. Researchers have found that many people who have heart attacks do not have arteries narrowed by plaque. Many heart attacks are now known to be caused by soft or vulnerable plaques, located on an inflamed part of an artery. This plaque can burst, leading to the formation of a blood clot that can cause a heart attack. The 2009 issue of “The American Journal Pathology” edited explanation of those relations discovered by Olga Ovchinnikova and er colleagues. They found that inflammation results in the formation of soft (vulnerable) plaque which is filled with different cell types that promote blood clotting. This leads to a reduction of mature collagen, resulting in thinner caps that are more likely to rupture, even in the cases when total level of plaque isn’t extremely high. The authors advocate different viewpoints about relations between the plaque level and structure, i. e. its influence on heart attack. The first group claims that described types of blockages cause only about 30 percent of heart attacks.
On the other hand, some sources state that more than two-thirds of acute coronary events result from rupture of coronary plaques. However problems that plaque creates are extremely dangerous for people’s life and it is very important to prevent and monitor its appearance and changes. Graphs of vulnerable plaque and rupture of plaque which causes a heart attack is presented below. Figure 2 Vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. Vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. A. Atherosclerosis in a chronic disease that leads to plaque rupture and vascular occlusion. B.
Cross-section of a lethal coronary plaque rupture. Adapted from Heistad D. Unstable coronary-artery plaques. N Engl J Med. 2003. Atherosclerosis Modeling In-vitro. http://www. remedi. uzh. ch/research/disease. html Figure 3 Plaque Rupture and Heart attack http://hon. nucleusinc. com/generateexhibit. php? ID=30468&A=1027 Factors influencing plaque growth and stability Based on everything mentioned above and medical experience the conclusion about relations between heart attack and other cardiovascular disease and the level of plaque increasing are found.
The higher the level of plaque the higher risk of heart disease will be. The level of plaque will increase as the result of high level of cholesterol, type LDL, so called “bad cholesterol” in blood. When the level of LDL is normal, blood can pass in and out of the blood vessels without problems, but if it significantly increase particles of the blood will accumulate and sooner or later provoke trigger (cause) heart attack. Other very important factors influencing plaque level increasing are high blood pressure and cigarette smoking.
Both factors accelerate the plaque formation changing (damaging) artery walls and even more, helping cholesterol forming. Medical experience proved that plaque composition and vulnerability (hard or soft plaque) is more responsible for the conversion of a stable disease to a life-threatening condition than the plaque size. Except the plaque vulnerability the risk of plaque disruption is are consequence of rupture triggers (extrinsic forces). Soft plaque – lipid-rich one is more dangerous because of its instability and higher probability for rupture.
Even (IAKO) Although “hard plaque” that one having higher level of calcium influence on the blood vessels walls and their “hardness” experience show that heart attacks are mostly caused by soft plaque disruption. ??? Figure 4 Plaque rupture and its consequences in the form of heart diseases http://www. nature. com/nrg/journal/v7/n3/fig_tab/nrg1805_F2. html Risk factors of coronary heart disease Risk factors influencing cardiovascular disease we can group based on their stability into the three groups: a) Modifiable risk factors
In this group hypertension is the most dangerous risk factor for heart attacks, but even more for stroke. It is forming as the result of abnormal blood lipid levels which means high total cholesterol, high levels of triglycerides and high levels of low-density lipoprotein or low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Smoking, physical inactivity, Type 2 diabetes, and a diet full with saturated fats are risk factors strongly influencing the heart disease. All of them are treatable and patients (individuals) belonging into the different types of risk customers’ groups should avoid practice them. b) Non-modifiable risk factors
The factors from this group mostly are constant, like the case in gender or family history. Others are changing when time is passing, like age and lifestyle and personal habits. Older people have more chance to get heart attack and the man, especially those having “bad medical history”. Ration between man and woman are changing when women past the menopause. After that the level of risk is similar as the men’s one. As I’ve presented there is direct correlation between cardiovascular disease and condition and health of blood vessels, more precisely of developing atheroma, means level and structure of plaque in vessels.
On the other development of plaque and its level is directly influenced by level of cholesterol and some other elements which are connected with individual person and his/her life and genetic predispositions. As with the other diseases everybody has some risk of developing atheroma, but some risk factors increase the risk level for several categories. Those risk factors include: fn 12 •Fixed risk factors – factors that person cannot change: oA strong family history which means close relatives who developed heart disease or a stroke before they were 55 (for males) or 65 (for female). Severe baldness in men at the top of the head. oAn early menopause in women. oAge. Older people have more risk to develop atheroma. oEthnic group. Medical data show that people from different ethnic group have different risk for heart diseases. •Treatable or partly treatable risk factors include different health problems caused basically by the same causes as the: oHypertension (high blood pressure). oHigh cholesterol blood level. oHigh triglyceride (fat) blood level. oDiabetes. oKidney diseases causing diminished kidney function. All factors from this group have to be controlled and monitor.
Any kind of their complication probably will trigger more serious problems such as heart attack or stroke. •Lifestyle risk factors that can be prevented or changed. Actually these factors PRETHODE precede to those belonging to the second group. Except the genetic factors way of life and daily habits are the more responsible for different kind of heart diseases. Those factors are: oSmoking (Smoking cigarette increase blood pressure, decrease HDL; damages arteries and blood cells and increases heart attacks. Passive smoking is also a risk factor for cardiovascular disease ) oLack of physical activity. Obesity (People who are overweight (10-30% more than their normal body weight) have 2 to 6 times the risk of developing heart disease. ) oAn unhealthy diet and eating too much salt. oExcess alcohol. Looking on those three groups one can easily conclude that people with “bad predisposition” having high fixed risk factors have to think about their lifestyle risk factors even more, in order to try to decrease the second group of factors (treatable or partly treatable risk factors). On the other hand some of risks are more dangerous than the others; for example smoking increases risk for heart disease more than obesity.
And of course combination of two or more risk factors increases significantly the level of risks; older man (or woman) who smokes, without physical activity and with bad eating habits has more chance to get some of previously explained disease than the one who have “just one of bad habits”. The more risk factors someone has the greater is the likelihood that he/she will develop cardiovascular disease, unless taking action to modify his/her risk factors and working to prevent them compromising his/her heart health.
That doesn’t mean that people with “good genes” can be irresponsible and ZANEMARITI risk factors from other groups. With or without genetic predisposition modern life significantly increases a risk of heart disease for everybody. Hormones impact on lipids and other risk factors??? Different numbers of man and women died from heart attack initiated a lot of research about hormones’ influence on the risk factor and heart disease development. Number of men died from the heart attack outnumbered the number of women in pre-menopause period, but in the post-menopause data show completely opposite situation.
A percentage of women in post-menopause having heart disease and dying from heart attack increase dramatically and now outnumbered the men. ??? The main reasons for those changes are connected to the level of hormones and their influence on level and structure of cholesterol and consequently on risk factors and heart disease. As mentioned before total cholesterol actually is made of two different types of cholesterol: LDL – low density lipoprotein (LDL), so called bad cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL).
High levels of LDL cholesterol lead to atherosclerosis increasing the risk of heart attack and ischemic stroke. HDL cholesterol reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease as it carries cholesterol away from the blood stream. http://www. walgreens. com/marketing/library/careguides/careguide. jsp? docid=000225=28=High%20Cholesterol Estrogen, a female hormone, raises HDL cholesterol levels, partially explaining the lower risk of cardiovascular disease seen in premenopausal women.
But after menopause (natural or surgical) when a level of estrogen significantly decreases total cholesterol rises, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol rises, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol does not change or decreases slightly. This is the reason why negative hormones’ effect after menopause increasing more than proportionally. Some authors argue that even influence of estrogen on LDL and HDL level is proved it is yet unclear whether increase in risk is caused, at least partially, by increased level of androgen (the other of hormones belong to steroid as estrogen too), which is characteristics of menopause too.
This sexual dimorphism means a lower incidence in atherosclerotic diseases in premenopausal women, which subsequently rises in postmenopausal women to eventually equal that of men. These observations point towards estrogen and progesterone playing a lifetime protective role against CAD in women. As exogenous estrogen and estrogen plus progesterone preparations produce significant reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and significant increases in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, this should in theory lower the risk of CAD.
UKLOPITI U ONO GORE Among estrogen’s positive effects on the heart are: •Reducing the LDL (“bad”) cholesterol in the blood. •Increasing the HDL (“good”) cholesterol in the blood. •Helping to keep blood vessels open. •Lowering blood pressure at night. •Reducing blood viscosity (how sticky the blood is), a property that may cause blood clots which could result in a heart attack or stroke. Estrogen’s effects on clotting are complicated, however, since there also is an increased risk for thromboembolism (a blood clot that blocks a vessel) in women taking estrogen. Possibly enhancing fibrinolysis, which is the body’s natural process for breaking down blood clots. Read more: http://ehealthmd. com/content/what-are-benefits-hrt#ixzz2NbWR3MxY http://ehealthmd. com/content/what-are-benefits-hrt#axzz2NbW1GJJN Nutrition guidelines As presented before three different groups of risk factor exist. Some of them people can change but the other are fixed, non-changeable because they caused by genetic heritage (??? ) influences. Controllable factors are connected to the lifestyle of person.
Lifestyle changes can prevent or slow the development of coronary plaque and heart disease. In order to prevent a disease development one have to keep track of his/her blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Choosing a heart-healthy diet is vital in controlling weight, which helps keep blood pressure and cholesterol levels down. Foods high in cholesterol and saturated fat should be avoided, and quitting smoking is imperative. Regular exercise and an increased overall activity level contribute to heart health and help reduce stress.
The risk of cardiovascular disease is possible to reduce following recommendation for lifestyle changing: Cessation of smoking and avoidance of second-hand smoke. Nutrition should ensure a healthy diet wiht total diet no more than 8% of saturated + trans fatty acids of total energy intake. All people, especially ones with high risk factors should lower alcohol consumption As the prevention physical activities are recommended – at least 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day or three days week (i. e. 150 mins/week minimum). ????
Currently practiced measures to prevent cardiovascular disease include: •A low-fat, high-fiber diet including whole grains and plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables (at least five portions a day) •Tobacco cessation and avoidance of second-hand smoke; •Limit alcohol consumption to the recommended daily limits; consumption of 1-2 standard alcoholic drinks per day may reduce risk by 30% However excessive alcohol intake increases the risk of cardiovascular disease.  •Lower blood pressures, if elevated, through the use of antihypertensive medications; •Decrease body fat (BMI) if overweight or obese; Increase daily activity to 30 minutes of vigorous exercise per day at least five times per week; •Decrease psychosocial stress.  Stress however plays a relatively minor role in hypertension.  Specific relaxation therapies are not supported by the evidence.  Routine counselling of adults to advise them to improve their diet and increase their physical activity has not been found to significantly alter behaviour, and thus is not recommended.  http://www. news-medical. net/health/What-is-Cardiovascular-Disease. aspx http://www. barnesandnoble. om/w/prevent-halt-and-reverse-heart-disease-joseph-piscatella/1100260037 Primary and secondary prevention of heart disease It is necessary start with prevention from heart disease as early as possible. Changes in the number of people killed by heart attack in developed countries show that prevention and awareness about this group of disease help to http://circ. ahajournals. org/content/123/20/2274/F2. expansion. html health plans must continue to drive cardiovascular care further along the continuum toward primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD).
CVD risk factors should be managed not only after a coronary event has occurred, but also before the onset of such and event. Ideally, health lifestyles should be promoted with all patients so that risk factors for CVD never develop. In this way, CVD care can be moved from the inpatient setting to the outpatient setting. Sidney C. Smith Jr, MD. Focus on Cardiovascular Disease; A Word About the Quality of Care in Cardiovascular Disease. Director, Center for Cardiovascular Science and Medicine University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. http://www. qualityprofiles. rg/leadership_series/cardiovascular_disease/cardiovascular_introduction. asp Key priorities for implementation Primary prevention of CVD •For the primary prevention of CVD in primary care, a systematic strategy should be used to identify people aged 40–74 who are likely to be at high risk •People should be prioritised on the basis of an estimate of their CVD risk before a full formal risk assessment. Their CVD risk should be estimated using CVD risk factors already recorded in primary care electronic medical records •Risk equations should be used to assess CVD risk People should be offered information about their absolute risk of CVD and about the absolute benefits and harms of an intervention over a 10-year period. This information should be in a form that: opresents individualised risk and benefit scenarios opresents the absolute risk of events numerically ouses appropriate diagrams and text (See www. npci. org. uk) •Before offering lipid modification therapy for primary prevention, all other modifiable CVD risk factors should be considered and their management optimised if possible.
Baseline blood tests and clinical assessment should be performed, and comorbidities and secondary causes of dyslipidaemia should be treated. Assessment should include: osmoking status oalcohol consumption oblood pressure (see ‘Hypertension’, NICE clinical guideline 34) obody mass index or other measure of obesity (see ‘Obesity’, NICE clinical guideline 43) ofasting total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides (if fasting levels are not already available) ofasting blood glucose orenal function oliver function (transaminases) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) if dyslipidaemia is present •Statin therapy is recommended as part of the management strategy for the primary prevention of CVD for adults who have a 20% or greater 10-year risk of developing CVD. This level of risk should be estimated using an appropriate risk calculator, or by clinical assessment for people for whom an appropriate risk calculator is not available or appropriate (for example, older people, people with diabetes or people in high-risk ethnic groups) •Treatment for the primary prevention of CVD should be initiated with simvastatin 40 mg.
If there are potential drug interactions, or simvastatin 40 mg is contraindicated, a lower dose or alternative preparation such as pravastatin may be chosen. Secondary prevention of CVD •For secondary prevention, lipid modification therapy should be offered and should not be delayed by management of modifiable risk factors. Blood tests and clinical assessment should be performed, and comorbidities and secondary causes of dyslipidaemia should be treated.
Assessment should include: osmoking status oalcohol consumption oblood pressure (see ‘Hypertension’, NICE clinical guideline 34) obody mass index or other measure of obesity (see ‘Obesity’, NICE clinical guideline 43) ofasting total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides (if fasting levels are not already available) ofasting blood glucose orenal function oliver function (transaminases) othyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) if dyslipidaemia is present. Statin therapy is recommended for adults with clinical evidence of CVD •People with acute coronary syndrome should be treated with a higher intensity statin. Any decision to offer a higher intensity statin should take into account the patient’s informed preference, comorbidities, multiple drug therapy, and the benefits and risks of treatment •Treatment for the secondary prevention of CVD should be initiated with simvastatin 40 mg. If there are potential drug interactions, or simvastatin 40 mg is contraindicated, a lower dose or alternative preparation such as pravastatin ay be chosen •In people taking statins for secondary prevention, consider increasing to simvastatin 80 mg or a drug of similar efficacy and acquisition cost if a total cholesterol of less than 4 mmol/litre or an LDL cholesterol of less than 2 mmol/litre is not attained. Any decision to offer a higher intensity statin should take into account informed preference, comorbidities, multiple drug therapy, and the benefit and risks of treatment http://www. eguidelines. co. uk/eguidelinesmain/guidelines/summaries/cardiovascular/nice_lipid_modification. php
How to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease The risk of cardiovascular disease is possible to reduce following recommendation for lifestyle changing: Cessation of smoking and avoidance of second-hand smoke. Nutrition should ensure a healthy diet wiht total diet no more than 8% of saturated + trans fatty acids of total energy intake. All people, especially ones with high risk factors should lower alcohol consumption As the prevention physical activities are recommended – at least 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day or three days week (i. . 150 mins/week minimum). Cessation of smoking The aim of this measure is complete cessation of smoking and avoidance of second-hand smoke. Patient and their families need to stop smoking. Those who are unable to quit may need professional help in form of counselling, behavioral therapy and even pharmacological therapy. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is the first line choice of medication. Nutrition The aim of this measure is to ensure a healthy diet. Total diet should have no more than 8% (of total energy intake) of saturated + trans fatty acids.
All patients are advised to take approximately 1g Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and more than 2g Alpha Linolenic Acid (ALA) daily. Diet should have vegetables, fruits and legumes, grain-based foods, moderate amounts of lean meats, poultry, fish and reduced fat dairy products. EPA and DHA can be obtained from oily fish and marine n-3 (fish oil) capsule supplements. Alcohol consumption All patients should be advised to lower alcohol consumption. Men should drink no more than 2 standard drinks per day and women no more than 1 standard drink per day. Physical activity
The aim of this measure is to raise physical activity and exercise to the recommended goal of at least 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity on most, if not all, days of the week (i. e. 150 mins/week minimum). Maintaining a healthy body weight The aim should be to achieve a waist measure of less than or equal to 94 cm in men and less than or equal to 80 cm in women. The body mass index (BMI) should be maintained at 18. 5–24. 9 kg/m2 Lowering blood cholesterol The aim of therapy should be to maintain blood cholesterol at: •Low density lipoprotein (LDL) at – less than 2. mmol/L •HDL – more than 1. 0 mmol/L •Triglyceride (TG) less than 1. 5 mmol/L The blood cholesterol can be maintained with the use of pharmacotherapy. Statins are commonly used lipid lowering drugs. Those with diabetes and atherosclerosis need stringent blood cholesterol control as well. Other lipid lowering drugs include fibrates like gemfibrosil, clofibrates etc, Ezetimiber and niacin. Lowering blood pressure High blood pressure is one of the important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Those with coronary heart disease, diabetes, kidney disease or stroke need tight blood pressure control.
The aim should be a blood pressure of less than 130/80 mm of Hg. Diabetes and blood sugar control Those diagnosed with diabetes need stringent blood sugar control to prevent cardiovascular damage. HbA1c levels should be maintained at less than 7%. Other drugs to lower risk of cardiovascular disease Other drugs used to lower risk of cardiovascular diseases include: •Antiplatelet agents – this includes Aspirin and Clopidogrel. These drugs when given to patients with risk of heart attacks may prevent such attacks and events. •ACE inhibitors like Enalapril, Captopril, Lsinopril and